English History 1450 – 1459

Henry VI

 

This timeline gives a chronological listing of the main events in English history for the years 1450 – 1459

The monarch for this period was Henry VI 

 

 

1450 (15th April)
Battle of Formigny
This was a major battle fought between the French and English and was a victory for the French.
1450 (2nd May)
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, Henry’s chief minister, was accused and found guilty of treason. However, he was pardoned by the King and sent into exile but he was murdered on his way to his ship.

Suffolk’s death meant there were only two descendants of the plantagenet line and both wanted positions in the country. The Duke of Somerset was, like the King, of Lancastrian descent. His rival and heir presumptive to the throne was Richard Duke of York.

1450 (late May)
Cade’s Rising
Disgruntled Kentishmen rallied behind Jack Cade and marched to London in protest against the government of the country.
1450 (18th June)
Cade’s Rising
The rebels clashed with royal forces at Sevenoaks.
1450 (29th June)
Cade’s Rising
Rebels murdered William Ayscough, Bishop of Salisbury, who had risen to be one of the most powerful men in the country.
1450 (4th July)
Cade’s Rising
The Kentishmen led by Jack Cade reached London and presented a formal complaint.
1450 (8th July)
Cade’s Rising
A battle broke out on London Bridge between Cade’s men and officials of London. The rebels sustained heavy casualties
1450 (9th July)
Cade’s Rising
The King issued a pardon to all of Cade’s men that withdrew from the capital immediately. The pardon did not apply to Cade and he fled south.
1450 (12th July)
Cade’s Rising
Jack Cade was captured near Lewes. However, he was badly wounded and died before he could be tried.
1450 (12th August)
Cherbourg surrendered to the French, a move that gave the French control of all of Normandy.
1451 (30th June)
Bordeaux surrendered to the French.
1451 (21st August)
Bayonne surrendered to the French, a move that gave the French control of Gascony.
1452 (1st March)
Richard Duke of York raised arms against the King but surrendered 2 days later. He was pardoned by the King.
1452 (26th May)
John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury died.
1452 (21st July)
John Kemp became Archbishop of Canterbury.
1452 (22nd October)
A son, Richard, was born to Richard of York and Cecily Neville at Fotheringay Castle. He would later become King Richard III.
1452 (22nd October)
John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury re-captured Bordeaux allowing England to regain control of Gascony.
1453 (17th July)
Battle of Castillon
This battle was fought between the French and English and was a victory for the French. The English commander, Talbot, was killed. The battle marked the end of the Hundred Years’ War.
1453 (August)
Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was unfit to rule. Richard Duke of York as heir presumptive felt he should replace Henry on the throne.
1453 (13th October)
A son, Edward, was born to Henry and Margaret of Anjou at the Palace of Westminster. He was created Duke of Cornwall.
1453 (19th October)
The French recaptured Bordeaux. England was left with just Calais in France.
1454 (15th March)
Henry’s son, Edward, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1454 (22nd March)
John Kemp, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.
1454 (23rd April)
Thomas Bourchier became Archbishop of Canterbury.
1454 (December)
Henry VI regained his mental capacity.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses began
First Battle of St Albans
The forces of Richard Duke of York, supported by Richard Neville, Duke of Salisbury and Warwick defeated and killed the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland.King Henry VI was captured.
1455 (19th November)
Richard Duke of York became regent of England.
1456 (25th February)
Richard Duke of York was dismissed as regent.
1457 (1st January)
Osmund of Salisbury, who died in 1099, was made a saint.
1457 (28th January)
A son, Henry, was born to Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. He would later become Henry VII.
1457 (28th August)
French raiders lay waste to Sandwich, Kent.
1459 (23rd September)
Battle of Blore Heath
A Neville force supporting Richard Duke of York fought off a Lancastrian attack that was supported by the Percy family.
1459 (12th – 13th October)
Rout of Ludlow
Threatened by Margaret of Anjou and her supporters, Richard of York, Warwick and the Nevilles mustered their supporters at Ludlow but when the main Lancastrian army appeared their men deserted. York fled to Ireland and Warwick fled to France.

1440 – 1449 <<   >> 1460 – 1469

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2017). English History 1450 – 1459. Available: http://www.totallytimelines.com/english-history-1450-1459. Last accessed October 21st, 2017

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