Julius Caesar 100 BCE – 44 BCE

Julius Caesar

 

This timeline details the life of Julius Caesar from birth 100 BCE to his assassination in 44 BCE

Please note: we have chosen to use the new format BCE (before common era) rather than the old BC (before Christ)

 

EARLY YEARS
100 BCE (July 12th or 13th)
Born in Rome. He was of the Julii family
85 BCE (date unknown)
Became head of the family after his father died. Allied with his uncle Gaius Marius against Sulla
84 BCE (date unknown)
Appointed High Priest of Jupiter by Gaius Marius
84 BCE (date unknown)
Married Cornelia Cinna, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinnilla.
83 BCE (date unknown)
Daughter Julia was born
82 BCE (December)
Stripped of High Priesthood by Sulla, an enemy of the Julii family, who had become Dictator of Rome following victory at the Battle of the Colline Gate (1st November)
81 BCE (early in year)
Forced into hiding for refusing to divorce his wife. Was pardoned later that year.
81 BCE (from early in year)
Served in the Roman army in Turkey
80 BCE (date unknown)
Was awarded the Civic Crown for bravery during the siege of Mytilene
78 BCE (Spring)
Returned to Rome following Sulla’s death
77 BCE (during the year)
Became a lawyer for two years and gained a name for the way he attacked and defended in court
75 BCE (February)
Captured by pirates and held to ransom while en route to Rhodes to learn the skills of public speaking. He was released after a month.
75 BCE (March or later)
Gathered a fleet and sought out and executed the pirates that had captured him earlier
74 BCE (for two years)
Raised his own army and took part in the Third Mithridatic War
POLITICAL LADDER
72 BCE (for the year)
Served as military tribune
70 BCE (date unknown)
Spoke in favour of a move to grant an amnesty to those who had fought in recent revolutions against Rome
69 BCE (for the year)
Served as quaestor (low ranking magistrate with financial responsibilities) in Spain
67 BCE (date unknown)
Married Pompeia, grand daughter of Sulla
67 BCE (date unknown)
Spoke in favour of a move to clear the Mediterranean of pirates.
66 BCE (for the year)
Served as surveyor for the Appian Way
66 BCE (date unknown)
Spoke in favour of a move to restructure the Eastern Mediterranean
65 BCE (for the year)
Served as aedile – responsibility for temples, buildings and the Games. He staged lavish Games using money loaned from Crassus
63 BCE (date unknown)
Elected Pontifex Maximus – largely due to bribes
62 BCE (date unknown)
Marriage to Pompeia ended in divorce
62 BCE (for the year)
Served as Praetor
61 BCE (for the year)
Served as Governor of Spain
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
60 BCE (December)
Formed an unofficial alliance (first triumvirate) with Pompey and Crassus. In return for support Caesar would support measures that would benefit them. Cicero was offered a part of the alliance but declined
59 BCE (for the year)
Served as Consul
59 BCE (early)
Passed a measure that required all debates in the Senate to be recorded
59 BCE (early)
Introduced an Agrarian Bill favoured by Pompey that would redistribute wasteland in Italy to Pompey’s soldiers and homeless poor people.
59 BCE (early)
Arrested Cato for speaking against his Agrarian Bill
59 BCE (May)
Pompey married Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia
59 BCE (After May)
Married Calpurnia Pisonis
58 BCE (For a four year term)
Governor of Roman Gaul – He set about planning to conquer all of Gaul and his subsequent conquest is known as the Gallic Wars
58 BCE (June)
Defeated Swiss at Battle of Arar
58 BCE (July)
Conquers the Swiss after a decisive victory at the Battle of Bibracte
58 BCE (September)
Defeated the Suebi at Battle of Vosges
57 BCE (May)
Defeated Belgians at Battle of Axona
57 BCE (July)
Defeated Nervii tribes at Battle of Sabis
57 BCE (during)
Their was unrest in Rome due to several poor harvests resulting in a grain shortage. Many people blamed Caesar’s Agrarian Law. Also relations between Caesar’s allies Pompey and Crassus were becoming increasingly strained.
56 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar faced mounting opposition especially from Clodius, Cicero, Cato, and Bibulus
56 BCE (April)
Luca Conference reaffirmed the First Triumvirate and extended his Governorship of Gaul.
55 BCE (summer)
Began a German campaign pushing Roman territory beyond the Rhine for the first time
55 BCE (late August)
Made an expedition to Britain, landed on the beach at Deal but was unable to progress further inland
54 BCE (July)
Made a second expedition to Britain. He made some gains but then withdrew to return to Rome for winter
54 BCE (September)
His daughter, Julia, died in childbirth
53 BCE (June)
Crassus was killed at the Battle of Carrhae.
53 BCE (June)
Made a raiding expedition across the Rhine and into Germany
53 BCE (after June)
With Crassus dead and the marriage tie between Caesar and Pompey broken, the Triumvirate fell apart
52 BCE (March)
Siege of Avaricum (Gallic War)
52 BCE (April)
Siege of Gergovia (Gallic War
52 BCE (Summer)
Siege of Alesia (Gallic War)
52 BCE (September)
Battle of Alesia – Gauls defeated
CIVIL WAR AND RULER OF ROME
51 BCE (During)
Ordered to return to Rome unarmed by Pompey (now leader of the Senate) because his term as governor or Gaul had ended and he had to face re-election
50 BCE (During)
Caesar requested permission from the Senate to stand for re-election while remaining in Gaul. He was reluctant to return to Rome without magistrate status fearing that he would be attacked. The Senate refused permission and demanded his return.
49 BCE (January)
Crossed the Rubicon river with his thirteenth legion and marched on Rome. The act is taken as a move of aggression taking Rome to Civil War
49 BCE (February)
Pompey and other senators leave Rome and head to Greece. Unfortunately they forgot to take the treasury with them.
49 BCE (March – August)
Defeated forces in Spain that were loyal to Pompey
49 BCE (April – September)
Lay siege to Massilia (Marseille) which was loyal to Pompey. The city fell in September
48 BCE (for the year)
Served as Consul of Rome
48 BCE (10th July)
Battle of Dyrrhachium against Pompey in Macedonia. Caesar forced to retreat to avoid being defeated
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus. Decisive victory over Pompey who fled to Egypt
48 BCE (October)
Pursued Pompey to Egypt. Upon arrival was presented with Pompey’s head. Pompey had been assassinated late September on the orders of Ptolemy XIII who hoped this action would win the support of Caesar in his Civil War against his sister Cleopatra.
48 BCE (October)
Caesar was horrified at the murder of Pompey and demanded a return of money Egypt owed to Rome. He took the city of Alexandria in Egypt for his headquarters. He also decided to back Cleopatra rather than her brother
48 BCE (late Autumn)
Cleopatra joined Caesar in Alexandria and they became lovers. Ptolemy lay siege to Alexandria.
47 BCE (Spring)
The siege of Alexandria was lifted when a large force under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived in Egypt from the North Eastern region of the Empire
47 BCE (Spring)
Battle of the Nile. Julius Caesar was victorious against the forces of Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy drowned in the Nile.
47 BCE (date unknown)
Cleopatra may have given birth to his son who was named Caesarion
46 BCE (for ten years)
Appointed Dictator of Rome for ten years
46 BCE (April)
Battle of Thapsus. Julius Caesar defeated Pompey loyalists under Metellus Scipio
45 BCE (January)
Introduced the Julian Calendar which set the year at 365.25 days divided into 12 months. It remained in effect until the 16th century.
45 BCE (date unknown)
Announced that his nephew Octavian would be his heir
45 BCE (17th March)
Battle of Munda. Forces loyal to Pompey’s sons were defeated and the elder son killed.
44 BCE (February)
Appointed Dictator of Rome for life
ASSASSINATED
44 BCE (15th March)
Stabbed 23 times by a group of disgruntled senators.
44BCE (20th March)
Funeral in Rome

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015). Julius Caesar Timeline. Available: http://www.totallytimelines.com/julius-caesar-100-bce-44-bce/ Last Accessed June 24th, 2017