1889 (20th April)
Adolf Hitler was born to Alois and Klara Hitler in the border town of Braunau-am-inn, Austria. His father was a border clerk and his mother was a housekeeper. He was the couple’s fourth child, his elder siblings, Gustav, Ida and Otto had died before his birth.
Adolf’s brother, Edmund was born in Passau.
Adolf and his family moved to a farm in Lambach, Austria.
Adolf attended school but he was not academic and did not do well in any subjects except in PE and Art. His father was not happy with his school progress and used strong punishment which made Adolf resentful.
1896 (21st January)
Adolf’s sister, Paula, was born in Lambach.
Adolf and his family moved to the town of Lambach, Austria after the farm failed.
Adolf joined the church choir in Lambach.
Adolf and his family moved to Leonding, Austria.
1900 (2nd February)
Adolf’s brother Edmund died of the measles. Adolf was very upset by his younger brother’s death.
The conflict between Adolf and his father increased after Adolf declared that he had no intention of following in his father’s footsteps and becoming a border clerk. Adolf had decided he wanted to become an artist. His father had refused to entertain the idea and sent Hitler to a technical school.
1903 (January 3rd)
Adolf Hitler’s father, Alois, collapsed and died.
Due to his very poor performance at school, Hitler’s mother, Klara, allowed him to transfer to a school in Steyr. Hitler did nuch better at this new school.
Hitler left school having passed his final exam. He had made no plans for a career and spent his time wandering the streets in Linz, reading or sketching. He disliked being ruled by the Hapsburgs and developed an interest in Germany and the German race.
Adolf Hitler visited Vienna for the first time and fell in love with the city.
Adolf Hitler moved to Vienna and sat the entrance exam to the Vienna Academy of Art. He had not imagined that he would fail the exam and when he was turned down by the Academy he decided to resit the exam in the following year.
1907 (December 21st)
Hitler’s mother, Klara, died from breast cancer.
Adolf returned to Vienna but with a lack of funds was living a hand-to-mouth existence doing casual work and selling watercolour paintings. He shared a room with his only friend August Kubizek. He became interested in politics and was heavily influenced by the general feeling of anti-Semetism. When he was rejected by the Academy for the second time he became deeply resentful.
Adolf’s friend had been called for military service and while he was gone Adolf moved into a shelter. He did not leave a forwarding address and never saw his friend again.
Adolf Hitler’s financial situation improved when money was released to him from his father’s estate. He moved to Munich in Bavaria, Germany.
1914 (5th February)
Hitler attended a medical in Salzburg as he had been called up to serve in the Austro-Hungarian army. He failed the medical and returned to Munich.
After the outbreak of World War One
, Adolf Hitler joined 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment and was posted to the Western Front where he served as a dispatch runner.
1914 (October – November)
Adolf Hitler fought in the First Battle of Ypres on the Western Front.
1916 (July – October)
Adolf Hitler fought in the Battle of the Somme on the Western Front.
1916 (7th October)
Adolf Hitler was wounded when a shell fragment struck him in the leg. He was taken to Hospital in Beelitz to recover.
While recuperating from his leg injury, Adolf Hitler visited Berlin. He was shocked by the anti-war feeling in the city which he believed was due to a Jewish conspiracy.
Adolf Hitler rejoined his unit and returned to the front.
1917 (April – May)
Adolf Hitler fought in the Battle of Arras on the Western Front.
1917 (July – November)
Adolf Hitler fought in the Battle of Passchendaele on the Western Front.
1918 (4th August)
Adolf Hitler was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery.
1918 (15th October)
Hitler was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack. He was taken to hospital in Pasewalk.
Adolf Hitler was still recovering from the gas attack when he heard the news that Germany had surrendered and that Kaiser Wilhelm had abdicated. He was full of disbelief that Germany had surrendered and called those that had signed the armistice the ‘November Criminals’.
1919 (28th June)
Treaty of Versailles
This treaty determined that Germany should accept blame for causing the war, limit their army to 100,000, cede land to other countries and pay reparations for damage caused. The new German government’s ratification of the treaty led to an increase in nationalist feeling in Germany.
Adolf Hitler had remained in the German army where he was working as an informer, finding those that supported Marxism and reporting their names to the authorities.
1919 (September 12th)
As part of his work, Adolf Hitler was asked to investigate the German Workers’ Party. He attended the meeting in plain clothes. He was so angered by one of the speakers that he spoke against him. Hitler’s speech impressed Anton Drexler, founder of the party and he asked Hitler to become a member of the party and to return to speak again.
1919 (16th October)
Adolf Hitler made his first speech to the German Workers’ Party. It was immediately clear that he had a gift for persuasive public speaking.
1920 (24th February)
Adolf Hitler spoke to a crowd of around 2,000 people and outlined the 25 Point Plan of the German Workers’ Party.
1920 (31st March)
Having been discharged from the army, Hitler made the German Worker’s Party his full time occupation.
Adolf Hitler suggested that the German Workers’ Party change its name to the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP). The name was shortened to the Nazi Party. Hitler also suggested that the party use the swastika as its emblem.
Adolf Hitler spoke to over 6,000 people at a party rally in Munich.
The German government received the bill for reparations payments due to the allies as determined by the Treaty of Versailles.
Adolf Hitler was in Berlin raising funds for the party when he learned that other leading members of the party wanted to merge with the German Socialist Party. Hitler was furious and returned to Munich.
1921 (11th July)
Adolf Hitler resigned his membership of the Nazi Party. The Party leaders knew that without Hitler the Party would fail and asked him to return. Adolf agreed on condition that he be made leader of the Party.
1921 (26th July)
Adolf Hitler became leader of the Nazi Party.
The effect of the German government trying to make reparations payments to the allies was to see the German mark fall sharply in value.
The French government had refused a request by the German government to delay payment of reparations and sent their troops into the German industrial region, the Ruhr.
The German currency had continued to fall in value and this had caused hyperinflation, a rapid rise in the prices of goods, where the currency was virtually worthless and a loaf of bread cost a wheelbarrow full of money.
Adolf Hitler was just one of a rising number of activists and ordinary people who were full of disbelief when the German government tried to resume paying reparations. Hitler at the head of the Nazi Party planned to begin a takeover of the German Weimar government. They planned to begin by taking the Bavarian government.
1923 (8th November)
Munich Beer Hall Putsch
Adolf Hitler directed his party’s troops, known as the SA or brown shirts, to surround the Munich Beer Hall where the leaders of the Bavarian government were holding a meeting. Adolf Hitler then stepped inside, stood on a table and fired a shot into the air. The leaders of the Bavarian government were taken into a side room. Hitler spoke to those remaining in the hall telling them that the German Revolution was underway. Hitler was then called outside to resolve a situation and the Bavarian government men left the hall and reported Hitler to the authorities.
Around 3,000 Nazis led by Hitler, Herman Goring and General Ludendorff marched towards Munich. In Munich they found a police barricade waiting for them. Shots were fired and people dispersed. Hitler hid in a friend’s house.
1923 (12th November)
Adolf Hitler was arrested for his part in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch and charged with treason.
1924 (1st April)
Adolf Hitler’s case was tried in court. He was found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg prison.
The Nazi Party gained 32 seats in the German election.
The Nazi Party only won 14 seats in the German election.
1924 (20th December)
Hitler was released from prison.
1925 (4th January)
Following the Munich Putsch, the Nazi Party had been banned in Bavaria. Hitler held a meeting with the Prime Minister of Bavaria and promised that he would not take power by force but would seek election. The minister then agreed to lift the ban.
1925 (27th February)
After making a passionate and inflammatory speech against the establishment, Adolf Hitler was banned from public speaking in Bavaria.
1925 (7th April)
Adolf Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship.
1925 (18th July)
Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf, which he had written while in prison, was published.
Hitler sent party member Joseph Goebbels to Berlin to publicise the party and try to gain support. He had some success until Nazi stormtroopers beat up a pastor who had heckled Goebbels. As a result the party was banned in Berlin.
The Berlin authorities lifted the ban on the Nazi Party. Hitler gave a rousing speech to about 5,000 supporters.
1928 (20th May)
The Nazi Party gained 12 seats in the national elections.
Adolf Hitler rented a house at Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian mountains. He invited his step-sister Angela to become his housekeeper. She arrived with her two daughters, Friedl and Geli. Hitler soon began a relationship with Geli aged 20 years.
1929 (24th October)
Wall Street Crash
The fall of the stock market in the United States led to America calling in loans made to Germany businesses. This had a massive impact on Germany and several banks collapsed, people lost their money and their jobs.
Hitler took advantage of the economic downturn caused by the Wall Street Crash and toured the country making rousing political speeches.
Adolf Hitler had become increasingly possessive over Geli Rabaul and asked her to move into his Munich apartment.
1930 (14th September)
The Nazi Party gained 107 seats in the German elections.
Adolf Hitler made sure that Geli Raubal was chaperoned by Nazi officials at all times. This made her life increasingly difficult and the pair had many arguments.
Adolf Hitler began flirting with a young 17 year old named Eva Braun.
1931 (8th September)
Adolf Hitler denied Geli Raubal permission to go to Vienna and insisted that she remain in the apartment while he was away. A heated argument followed and after Hitler left Geli committed suicide. Her suicide was a devastating blow to Hitler who became very depressed.
Adolf Hitler met President Paul von Hindenburg for the first time. The elderly President was not especially impressed by Hitler.
1932 (13th March)
Adolf Hitler had ran against Paul von Hindenburg for the position of President of Germany. Hindenburg won but did not have a clear majority.
1932 (10th April)
The presidential election was re-run although Hitler gained more votes, Hindenburg secured an absolute majority.
1932 (mid April)
The Chancellor of Germany, Heinrich Bruening, banned Hitler’s armed forces, the SA and the SS.
1932 (8th May)
Adolf Hitler held a meeting with Kurt von Schleicher. Schleicher promised Hitler that if he would support him in a conservative nationalist government he would lift the ban on the SA and SS.
1932 (29th May)
Kurt von Schleicher was instrumental in forcing the resignation of Chancellor Heinrich Bruening. He also persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Franz von Papen as the new Chancellor.
1932 (15th June)
The ban on the SA and SS was lifted. The Nazi stormtroopers picked fights with Communists and Jews.
1932 (31st July)
The Nazi Party gained 230 seats in the German election. Although they were the largest party they did not have a majority.
1932 (5th August)
As head of the largest party in the Reichstag, Hitler threatened to withdraw his support of Schleicher unless he was made Chancellor and the Nazi Party were given at least 3 cabinet posts.
Hitler’s girlfriend, Eva Braun, attempted suicide by shooting herself in the chest. It is believed that she did this to get more attention from Adolf Hitler.
1932 (13th August)
Chancellor von Papen and Schleicher met with Hitler and said that the best they could offer him was the position of Vice Chancellor. Hitler was furious and threatened to unleash violence on the streets of Germany. Hitler eventually backed down.
1932 (12th September)
Hermann Goring tabled a vote of no confidence agains the Chancellor von Papen. However, rather than face the vote, von Papen called a new election.
1932 (6th November)
Nazi Party lost seats winning 196 seats in the German election and formed a coalition government with the German National People’s Party.
1932 (17th November)
Chancellor von Papen resigned his post. Adolf Hitler immediately asked Paul Hindenburg to appoint him as the new Chancellor but Hindenburg refused.
1932 (2nd December)
Kurt von Schleicher was appointed Chancellor of Germany. However, he found it difficult to hold the government together.
1933 (22nd January)
Adolf Hitler attended a meeting with Joachim von Ribbentrop, von Papen, Joseph Goring and Hindenburg’s son, Oskar. The Nazis soon convinced Oskar that they had to be given government positions .
1933 (28th January)
Chancellor Schleicher asked Hindenburg to dissolve parliament and call new elections. Hindenburg refused and Schleicher resigned.
1933 (30th January)
Paul Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany. Hitler immediately pressed Hindenburg to allow new elections to be held in March.
1933 (22nd February)
Herman Goring set up a new police force comprised of members of the SA and the SS. The new force raided the Communist headquarters and seized the membership list.
1933 (27th February)
The Reichstag Fire
The German parliament building (Reichstag) was set on fire. A Dutch Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe was found inside the building and was considered responsible for starting the fire. Historians are divided as to whether van der Lubbe was responsible or whether the fire was started by members of the Nazi Party.
1933 (28th February)
The Reichstag Fire Decree
Hitler went to see Paul Hindenburg and warned him of the risk to the country from Communism. He persuaded Hindenburg to grant this decree that would give Hitler the power to make laws independently of parliament. It was meant to be a temporary measure but was never rescinded.
1933 (6th March)
The Nazi Party won 288 seats in the election. This was still not enough to form a majority government so they again formed a coalition government with the German National People’s Party.
1933 (23rd March)
The Enabling Act
This Act gave Hitler the power to make laws and approve treaties independently of parliament. In effect it gave Hitler dictatorial powers.
1933 (1st April)
Joseph Goebbels ordered a one-day boycott of all Jewish shops. Members of the SA guarded the doorways of Jewish shops to make sure the boycott was obeyed.
1933 (2nd May)
All trade unions were forced to disband. Leaders of trade unions were arrested and many sent to concentration camps.
1933 (10th May)
Hitler ordered that all books that were ‘un-German’ should be publicly burnt.
1933 (14th July)
Hitler declared that the Nazi party was the only legal political party in Germany.
Adolf Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations and refused to send delegates to the World Disarmament Conference.
1934 (30th June)
Night of the Long Knives
Hitler had long been concerned about the power held by members of the Stormtroopers and decided to purge the SA leadership. He called them all to a meeting where Ernst Rohm, other leaders and prominent members were executed by shooting.
1934 (2nd August)
The President of Germany, Paul Hindenburg, died. Hitler declared that the office of President was no longer necessary and that he would combine the post of President and Chancellor to become Fuhrer of Germany.
Hitler declared that, in contravention of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the German army would be increased to 600,000 men. The navy would also be expanded and an airforce, the Luftwaffe, would be set up.
1935 (15th September)
The Nuremberg Laws
These set of laws determined qualities necessary to be a German citizen. The conditions meant that Jews were no longer citizens of Germany.
1936 (7th March)
Re-occupation of the Rhineland
In violation of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler sent troops to re-occupy the demilitarised Rhineland.
Adolf Hitler sent troops to support General Franco during the Spanish Civil War.
Adolf Hitler ordered Goring to put in place measures that would ready Germany for war within four years.
1936 (1st August)
Germany hosted the Summer Olympic Games
and Adolf Hitler presided over the event. The German team only contained athletes that had an Aryan heritage. This was condemned by the Olympic Committee and stated to be a violation of the Olympic code.
1936 (25th October)
A mutual assistance alliance was agreed between Germany and Italy
1936 (25th November)
This was an anti-Communist pact signed by Germany and Japan.
1937 (5th November)
Adolf Hitler informed his military leaders that Germany would gain Lebensraum (living space) by taking it from other countries by force if necessary.
Hitler contrived to have his two most senior army commanders removed and made himself Commander of the German armed forces.
1938 (12th March)
Anschluss with Austria
Having bullied the Austrian Chancellor and incited Nazis in Austria to harass the Austrian authorities, Hitler sent his troops into Austria and declared that Austria was joined to Germany (Anschluss).
1938 (28th March)
Hitler instructed Nazis in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to harass the government demanding concessions.
1938 (29th September)
British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, flew to Munich. He, Edouard Daladier of France and Italian Mussolini met Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden. Chamberlain agreed to back Hitler’s demand for the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia providing this was the last of his territorial ambitions. Hitler readily agreed to no further expansion beyond the Sudetenland and signed the Agreement.
1938 (1st October)
German troops marched into the Sudetenland and took control of the region.
1938 (9th November)
Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass)
On Hitler’s orders Jewish shops and synagogues across German and Austria were raided, set alight and destroyed. The night was named for the glass that covered the streets after shop windows had been smashed. Thousands of Jewish men were rounded up and taken to concentration camps.
1939 (15th March)
Adolf Hitler invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia in direct contravention of the Munich Agreement.
1939 (31st March)
The British government made a guarantee to the government of Poland that if Hitler invaded Poland they would come to her aid. The French government added their backing.
1939 (23rd August)
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Germany and Russia agreed a non-aggression pact which meant that Hitler would not have to fight a war on two fronts. In return Hitler promised Stalin could reclaim land lost after World War One.
1939 (1st September)
World War Two
began when Adolf Hitler sent around 1.5 million soldiers into Poland. Using the Blitzkrieg (lightning war) tactic of making a rapid attack the soldiers destroyed everything in their path. The Polish army tried to resist but the German force was too great.
1939 (3rd September)
Britain and France declared war on Germany.
1939 (27th September)
Poland was no longer able to withstand the German attack and surrendered to the Germans.
1940 (9th April)
Hitler invaded and occupied Denmark.
1940 (9th April)
Hitler invaded Norway. The Norwegian army held out against the German army for a month before surrendering.
1940 (10th May)
Hitler invaded and occupied Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
1940 (10th May)
Hitler invaded France. The French army and the British Expeditionary Force tried to resist the German advance but had to retreat.
1940 (20th May)
The British and French had been pushed back to Dunkirk and had to be rescued from the beaches.
1940 (10th June)
As the German army advanced, the French government fled Paris.
1940 (14th June)
France surrendered to Hitler.
1940 (mid June)
Hitler reached out to Great Britain offering peace terms. He suggested that Britain retain control of the British Empire but had to acknowledge Adolf Hitler as leader of Nazi Europe. The new British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill flatly refused to negotiate with Hitler.
1940 (10th July)
Battle of Britain
Hitler sent his Luftwaffe air force to eliminate the Royal Air Force. The Luftwaffe initially targeted ports, airfields and industrial plants hoping to bring Britain to a standstill.
1940 (7th September)
Frustrated by the British continuing to hold out against Hitler’s air attacks, Hitler sought to weaken the spirit of the British people by ordering nightly bombing raids on London. The raids continued for 57 consecutive nights. The British responded by bombing German cities.
1940 (27th September)
This alliance of mutual assistance was signed by Japan, Italy and Germany.
1940 (31st October)
Battle of Britain
Adolf Hitler realised that the British Royal Air Force could not be defeated and called off the Battle of Britain. The Blitz, (nightly air raids) on key cities continued.
Adolf Hitler sent German troops to North Africa to support the Italian army against the British.
1941 (6th April)
Hitler invaded and occupied Greece and Yugoslavia.
1941 (22nd June)
In direct contravention of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Hitler sent more than 3 million German troops into Russia taking the Russians by surprise.
1941 (early August)
Nazi soldiers had advanced into Russia and were poised to take Moscow but, against the advice of his Generals, Hitler ordered them to focus on taking Leningrad and Kiev first. This allowed the Russians to bolster their forces in Moscow.
Operation Barbarossa – Battle for Moscow
Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to advance on Moscow, but the city held out and the German army suffered huge losses.
1941 (11th December)
Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor by his Japanese allies, Adolf Hitler declared war against the United States of America.
1942 (7th January)
Operation Barbarossa – Battle for Moscow
German troops had lost the Battle for Moscow. Hitler was furious and blamed his field commanders and generals.
1942 (20th January)
The Wannsee Conference
This conference was organised by Reinhard Heydrich to find a solution to the problem of the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied countries. The conference approved a ‘Final Solution’ of extermination of the Jewish population (Holocaust
1942 (11th November)
2nd Battle of El Alamein
Hitler’s German army were defeated by the Allies.
1943 (2nd February)
Battle of Stalingrad
This six-month battle for control of the Russian city of Stalingrad ended with the defeat of the German army.
Adolf Hitler’s health began to worsen. He suffered form headaches, insomnia and bowel problems.
1943 (25th July)
Hitler’s Italian ally, Benito Mussolini, was arrested in Italy. He was replaced by Pietro Badoglio who surrendered to the Allies.
1944 (6th June)
Operation Overlord – D-Day
Western Allied armies invaded Normandy in northern France and began to push the Germans back.
1944 (20th July)
Operation Valkyrie (July Bomb Plot)
This plot to assassinate Hitler
had been organised by Claus von Stauffenberg. A bomb was planted under a table in the Wolf’s Lair where Hitler was addressing a number of Generals. The bomb exploded as planned but Hitler was not among the fatalities. He escaped the blast with ruptured eardrums and splinter injuries to his legs. Stauffenberg was among the nearly 5,000 people executed on Hitler’s orders for their part in the plot.
Hitler survived a heart attack
1944 (16th December)
Hitler knew that he could not defeat Russia and so decided to try to stop the Allied advance from the west. After some success the offensive failed.
The Allies and Russians were advancing through Germany towards Berlin. Adolf Hitler was unable to believe that he may be defeated.
1945 (22nd April)
Hitler was informed that the Russian army had reached Berlin. He declined offers to try to smuggle him out.
1945 (23rd April)
Hitler learned that Herman Goring had taken control of the government of Germany. He was furious and ordered Goring’s arrest.
1945 (28th April)
Hitler learned that Heinrich Himmler had made contact with the Allies regarding a German surrender. Hitler ordered Himmler’s arrest.
1945 (28th April)
Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun. The ceremony was carried out in his bunker in Berlin.
1945 (29th April)
Hitler learned that Mussolini had been executed.
1945 (30th April)
Adolf Hitler learned that the Russian Army was in the vicinity of his bunker. To avoid capture he gave Eva Braun a cyanide capsule and then shot himself in the head. Their bodies were burned.