1889 (20th April)
Adolf Hitler was born to Alois and Klara Hitler in the border town of Braunau-am-inn, Austria. His father was a border clerk and his mother was a housekeeper. He was the couple’s fourth child, his elder siblings, Gustav, Ida and Otto had died before his birth.
Adolf’s brother, Edmund was born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Passau.
The Hitler family moved to a farm in Lambach, Austria.
Adolf began his education at the local school, but he was not academic and the only subjects he did well in were PE and Art. His father was not happy with his school progress and used strong punishment which made young Adolf resentful.
1896 (21st January)
Adolf’s sister, Paula, was born in Lambach.
The Hitler family moved to the town of Lambach, Austria after the farm failed.
Adolf joined the church choir in Lambach.
The Hitler family moved to Leonding, Austria.
1900 (2nd February)
Adolf’s brother Edmund died of the measles. Adolf was very upset by his younger brother’s death.
The conflict between Adolf and his father increased after Adolf declared that he wanted to become an artist. His father, who wanted him to become a border clerk, was furious and would not entertain the idea. He enrolled Adolf in a technical school.
1903 (January 3rd)
Adolf Hitler’s father collapsed and died.
Adolf continued to do badly at school. His mother allowed him to transfer to a school in Steyr where he was happier and did much better.
Hitler left school having passed his final exam. He had made no plans for a career and spent his time wandering the streets in Linz, reading or sketching. He developed a strong dislike for the rule of the Hapsburgs and became fascinated by Germany and the German race.
Adolf Hitler visited Vienna for the first time and fell in love with the city.
Hitler moved to Vienna and sat the entrance exam to the Vienna Academy of Art. He was really shocked when he failed the exam and was turned down by the Academy. Undeterred, he decided to resit the exam in the following year.
1907 (December 21st)
Hitler’s mother, Klara, died from breast cancer.
Adolf returned to Vienna where he shared a room with his only friend, August Kubizek. He had little money and lived a hand-to-mouth existence doing casual work and selling watercolour paintings. He became interested in politics and was heavily influenced by the general feeling of anti-Semitism in Vienna. When he was rejected by the Academy for the second time he became deeply resentful. Hitler admired the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, particularly his speeches which were fiery.
Adolf’s friend August had been called for military service. While he was away Adolf moved out of their shared accommodation and into a shelter. He did not leave a forwarding address and never saw his friend again.
Adolf Hitler’s financial situation improved when money was released to him from his father’s estate. He moved to Munich in Bavaria, Germany.
1914 (5th February)
Adolf Hitler had been called up to serve in the Austro-Hungarian army. He travelled to Salzburg for the medical examination which was part of the process. However, he failed the medical, was rejected by the army and returned to Munich. The reason for his failing the physical examination has been the cause of much speculation.
World War One
After the outbreak of World War One
, Adolf Hitler joined the German 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment and was posted to the Western Front where he served as a dispatch runner.
1914 (October – November)
First Battle of Ypres
Hitler is known to have fought in this Western Front battle.
1916 (July – October)
Battle of the Somme
Adolf Hitler is known to have fought in this Western Front battle.
1916 (7th October)
Adolf Hitler was wounded when a shell fragment struck him in the leg. He was taken to Hospital in Beelitz to recover.
While recuperating from his leg injury, Adolf Hitler visited Berlin. He was shocked by the anti-war feeling in the city and became convinced it was due to a Jewish conspiracy.
Having fully recovered from his leg injury, Adolf Hitler rejoined his unit and returned to the front line.
1917 (April – May)
Battle of Arras
Adolf Hitler is known to have fought in this Western Front battle.
1917 (July – November)
Battle of Passchendaele
Hitler is known to have fought in this Western Front battle.
1918 (4th August)
Adolf Hitler was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery.
1918 (15th October)
Hitler was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack. He was taken to hospital in Pasewalk.
While recovering from the gas attack, Hitler heard the news that Germany had surrendered and that Kaiser Wilhelm had abdicated. He could not believe that Germany had surrendered and called those that had signed the armistice the ‘November Criminals’.
1919 (28th June)
Treaty of Versailles
This peace treaty determined that Germany should accept blame for causing the war, limit their army to 100,000, cede land to other countries and pay reparations for damage caused. The new German government’s ratification of the treaty led to an increase in nationalist feeling in Germany.
After the war, Hitler remained in the German army and worked as an informer. His job was to discover Communists and report them to the authorities.
1919 (September 12th)
Adolf Hitler was given the task of investigating the German Workers’ Party. He attended one of their meetings in plain clothes and was so annoyed by one of the speakers that he got up and spoke against him. Anton Drexler, founder of the party, was so impressed that he asked Hitler to become a member of the party.
1919 (16th October)
Having joined the German Worker’s Party, Adolf Hitler made his first speech. It was immediately clear that he had a gift for persuasive public speaking.
1920 (24th February)
Hitler spoke to a crowd of around 2,000 people and outlined the 25 Point Plan of the German Workers’ Party.
1920 (31st March)
Adolf Hitler was discharged from the army and began to work for the German Worker’s Party full time.
The name of the Party was changed to the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) as it was felt that it would appeal to more people. It was popularly called the Nazi Party. Hitler suggested that the party use the swastika as its emblem.
Adolf Hitler spoke to over 6,000 people at a party rally in Munich.
The German government received the bill for reparations payments due to the allies as determined by the Treaty of Versailles. There was shock and anger that it was set at 132 billion gold marks (£6.6 billion, $7.5 billion). This increased nationalism and anger towards those that had set such a high amount.
While in Berlin raising funds for the party, Adolf Hitler learned that other leading members of the party wanted to merge with the German Socialist Party. He was furious and returned to Munich to deal with the situation.
1921 (11th July)
Adolf Hitler resigned his membership of the Nazi Party. The Party leaders knew that without Hitler the Party would fail and asked him to return. Adolf agreed on condition that he be made leader of the Party.
1921 (29th July)
Adolf Hitler was officially made leader of the Nazi Party.
The German government had began trying to make the reparations payments to the allies. However, the German economy was not strong enough and the payments were it worse. The German mark fell sharply against other currencies.
The German government had no choice but to request a delay in reparations payments but the French government refused to agree to this and instead sent their troops into the German industrial region, the Ruhr.
The German currency had continued to fall in value and this had caused hyperinflation, a rapid rise in the prices of goods, where the currency was virtually worthless. It was so bad that a loaf of bread cost a wheelbarrow full of money.
Adolf Hitler was just one of a rising number of activists and ordinary people who were full of disbelief when the German government tried to resume paying reparations. Hitler at the head of the Nazi Party planned a takeover of the German Weimar government. The first step was to take control of the Bavarian government.
1923 (8th November)
Munich Beer Hall Putsch
This was to be the first step towards taking control of the Bavarian government. Adolf Hitler directed his party’s troops, known as the SA or brown shirts, to surround the Munich Beer Hall where the leaders of the Bavarian government were holding a meeting. He then stepped inside, stood on a table and fired a shot into the air. The leaders of the Bavarian government were taken into a side room while Hitler spoke to those remaining in the hall telling them that the German Revolution was underway. When Hitler was called outside to resolve another situation, the government members left the hall. They reported Hitler to the authorities.
1923 (9th November)
Around 3,000 Nazis led by Hitler, Herman Goring and General Ludendorff marched towards Munich. When they reached the city, they found a police barricade waiting for them. Shots were fired and the marchers dispersed. Hitler hid in a friend’s house.
1923 (12th November)
Adolf Hitler was arrested for his part in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch and charged with treason.
1924 (1st April)
Adolf Hitler’s case was tried in court. He was found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg prison. While in prison he determined to try to gain power legitimately by standing for election. He wrote the book ‘Mein Kampf’ which set out his ideals.
The Nazi Party gained 32 seats in the German election.
New elections were held but the Nazi Party only won 14 seats in the German election.
1924 (20th December)
Hitler was released from prison having served just eight months.
1925 (4th January)
Following the Munich Putsch, the Nazi Party had been banned in Bavaria. Hitler held a meeting with the Prime Minister of Bavaria and promised that he would not take power by force but would seek election. The minister then agreed to lift the ban.
1925 (27th February)
After making a passionate and inflammatory speech against the establishment, Adolf Hitler was banned from public speaking in Bavaria.
1925 (7th April)
Adolf Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship.
1925 (18th July)
Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf, was published.
Hitler sent party member Joseph Goebbels to Berlin to publicise the party and try to gain support. He had some success until Nazi stormtroopers beat up a pastor who had heckled Goebbels. As a result the party was banned in Berlin.
The Berlin authorities lifted the ban on the Nazi Party and Hitler gave a rousing speech to about 5,000 supporters.
1928 (20th May)
The Nazi Party gained 12 seats in the national elections.
Adolf Hitler rented a house at Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian mountains. He invited his step-sister Angela to become his housekeeper. She arrived with her two daughters, Friedl and Geli. Hitler soon began a relationship with Geli who was aged 20 years.
1929 (24th October)
Wall Street Crash
The fall of the stock market in the United States led to America calling in loans made to Germany businesses. This had a massive impact on Germany and several banks collapsed, people lost their money and their jobs.
Hitler took advantage of the economic downturn caused by the Wall Street Crash and toured the country making rousing political speeches.
Adolf Hitler had become increasingly possessive over Geli Rabaul and asked her to move into his Munich apartment.
1930 (14th September)
The Nazi Party gained 107 seats in the German elections.
Adolf Hitler made sure that Geli Raubal was chaperoned by Nazi officials at all times. This made her life increasingly difficult and the pair had many arguments.
Adolf Hitler began flirting with a young 17 year old named Eva Braun.
1931 (8th September)
Adolf Hitler denied Geli Raubal permission to go to Vienna and insisted that she remain in the apartment while he was away. A heated argument followed and after Hitler left, Geli committed suicide. Her suicide was a devastating blow to Hitler who became very depressed.
Adolf Hitler met President Paul von Hindenburg for the first time. The elderly President was not especially impressed by Hitler.
1932 (13th March)
Adolf Hitler ran against Paul von Hindenburg for the position of President of Germany. Hindenburg won but did not have a clear majority.
1932 (10th April)
The presidential election was re-run and although Hitler gained more votes, Hindenburg secured an absolute majority.
1932 (mid April)
The Chancellor of Germany, Heinrich Bruening, banned the Nazi Party armed forces, the SA and the SS.
1932 (8th May)
Adolf Hitler held a meeting with Kurt von Schleicher who was very close to the President. Schleicher promised Hitler that if he would support him in a Conservative Nationalist government he would lift the ban on the SA and SS.
1932 (29th May)
Kurt von Schleicher was instrumental in forcing the resignation of Chancellor Heinrich Bruening. He also persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Franz von Papen as the new Chancellor.
1932 (15th June)
The ban on the SA and SS was lifted but the Nazi Stormtroopers continued to cause trouble, picking fights with Communists and Jews.
1932 (31st July)
The Nazi Party gained 230 seats in the German election. Although they were the largest party they did not have a majority.
1932 (5th August)
As head of the largest party in the Reichstag, Hitler threatened to withdraw his support of Schleicher unless he was made Chancellor and the Nazi Party were given at least 3 cabinet posts.
Hitler’s new girlfriend, Eva Braun, attempted suicide by shooting herself in the chest. It is believed that she did this to get more attention from Adolf Hitler.
1932 (13th August)
Chancellor von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher met with Hitler and said that the best they could offer him was the position of Vice Chancellor. Hitler was furious and threatened to unleash a wave of violence on the streets of Germany. When he realised he would not be made Chancellor, Hitler eventually backed down.
1932 (12th September)
Hermann Goring tabled a vote of no confidence against the Chancellor, Franz von Papen. However, rather than face the vote, von Papen called a new election.
1932 (6th November)
The Nazi Party won 196 seats in the German election, less than the previous election, and formed a coalition government with the German National People’s Party.
1932 (17th November)
Chancellor von Papen resigned his post. Adolf Hitler immediately asked Paul Hindenburg to appoint him as the new Chancellor but Hindenburg refused.
1932 (2nd December)
Kurt von Schleicher was appointed the new Chancellor of Germany. However, he found it difficult to hold the government together.
1933 (22nd January)
Adolf Hitler attended a meeting with Joachim von Ribbentrop, Franz von Papen, Joseph Goring and Hindenburg’s son, Oskar. The Nazis soon convinced Oskar that they had to be given positions in the government.
1933 (28th January)
Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher asked Hindenburg to dissolve parliament and call a new election. Hindenburg refused and Schleicher resigned.
1933 (30th January)
Paul Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany. Hitler immediately pressed Hindenburg to allow new elections to be held in March.
1933 (22nd February)
Herman Goring set up a new police force comprised of members of the SA and the SS. The new force raided the Communist headquarters and seized the membership list.
1933 (27th February)
The Reichstag Fire
The German parliament building (Reichstag) was set on fire. A Dutch Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe was found inside the building and was considered responsible for starting the fire. Historians are divided as to whether van der Lubbe was responsible or whether the fire was started by members of the Nazi Party.
1933 (28th February)
The Reichstag Fire Decree
Adolf Hitler went to see Paul Hindenburg and warned him that the fire showed the risk to the country from Communism. He persuaded Hindenburg to grant this temporary decree that would allow him to make laws independently of parliament. The decree was never rescinded.
1933 (6th March)
The Nazi Party won 288 seats in the election. This was still not enough to form a majority government so they again formed a coalition government with the German National People’s Party.
1933 (23rd March)
The Enabling Act
This Act was passed and gave Hitler and the Cabinet the power to make laws and approve treaties independently of parliament. In effect it gave Hitler dictatorial powers.
1933 (1st April)
Joseph Goebbels ordered a one-day boycott of all Jewish shops. Members of the SA guarded the doorways of Jewish shops to make sure the boycott was obeyed.
1933 (2nd May)
All trade unions were forced to disband. Leaders of trade unions were arrested and many sent to concentration camps.
1933 (10th May)
Hitler ordered all books that were ‘un-German’ should be publicly burnt.
1933 (14th July)
Adolf Hitler declared that the Nazi party was the only legal political party in Germany.
Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations and refused to send delegates to the World Disarmament Conference.
1934 (30th June)
Night of the Long Knives
Hitler had long been concerned about the power held by members of the Stormtroopers and decided to purge the SA leadership. He called them all to a meeting where Ernst Rohm, other leaders and prominent members were executed by shooting. Former Chancellor, Kurt von Schleicher, was also executed.
1934 (2nd August)
The President of Germany, Paul Hindenburg, died. Hitler declared that the office of President was no longer necessary and that he would combine the post of President and Chancellor to become Fuhrer of Germany.
Hitler declared that, in contravention of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the German army would be increased to 600,000 men. The navy would also be expanded and an airforce, the Luftwaffe, would be established.
1935 (15th September)
The Nuremberg Laws
This set of laws determined the qualities necessary to be called a German citizen. The conditions were such that Jews were no longer considered citizens of Germany.
1936 (7th March)
Re-occupation of the Rhineland
In violation of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler sent troops to re-occupy the demilitarised Rhineland.
Adolf Hitler sent troops to support General Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
Adolf Hitler ordered Goring to put in place measures that would ready Germany for war within four years.
1936 (1st August)
Germany hosted the Summer Olympic Games
and Adolf Hitler presided over the event. The German team only contained athletes that had an Aryan heritage. This was condemned by the Olympic Committee and stated to be a violation of the Olympic code.
1936 (25th October)
Rome Berlin Axis
A mutual assistance alliance was agreed between Germany and Italy.
1936 (25th November)
This was an anti-Communist pact signed by Germany and Japan.
1937 (5th November)
Adolf Hitler informed his military leaders that Germany would gain Lebensraum (living space) by taking it from other countries, by force if necessary.
1937 (20th December)
German General and World War One veteran, Eric Ludendorff, died.
Hitler contrived to have his two most senior army commanders, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg and General Werner von Fritsch involved in scandalous affairs. They were subsequently removed and Hitler made himself Commander of the German armed forces.
1938 (12th March)
Anschluss with Austria
Having bullied the Austrian Chancellor and incited Nazis in Austria to harass the Austrian authorities, Hitler sent his troops into Austria and declared that Austria was joined to Germany (Anschluss).
1938 (28th March)
Hitler instructed Nazis in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to harass the government and demand concessions.
1938 (29th September)
British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, flew to Munich. He, Edouard Daladier of France and Italian Mussolini met Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden. Chamberlain agreed to back Hitler’s demand for the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia providing this was the last of his territorial ambitions. Hitler readily agreed to no further expansion beyond the Sudetenland and signed the Agreement.
1938 (1st October)
German troops marched into the Sudetenland and took control of the region.
1938 (9th November)
Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass)
On Hitler’s orders Jewish shops and synagogues across German and Austria were raided, set alight and destroyed. The night was named for the glass that covered the streets after shop windows had been smashed. Thousands of Jewish men were rounded up and taken to concentration camps.
1939 (15th March)
Adolf Hitler invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia in direct contravention of the Munich Agreement. He was correctly convinced, that Britain and France would not go to war over his action.
1939 (31st March)
Realising that Hitler could not be trusted, the British government made a guarantee to the government of Poland that if Hitler invaded Poland they would come to her aid. The French government added their backing.
1939 (23rd August)
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Germany and Russia agreed a non-aggression pact. This strategic move meant that Hitler would not have to fight a war on two fronts. In return Hitler promised that Stalin could reclaim land lost after World War One.
1939 (1st September)
World War Two
This global conflict began when Adolf Hitler sent around 1.5 million soldiers into Poland. Using the Blitzkrieg (lightning war) tactic of making a rapid attack, the soldiers destroyed everything in their path. The Polish army tried to resist but the German force was too great.
1939 (3rd September)
As per the terms of the guarantee to Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
1939 (27th September)
Poland was no longer able to withstand the German attack and surrendered to the Germans.
1940 (9th April)
Hitler invaded and occupied Denmark.
1940 (9th April)
German troops invaded Norway. The Norwegian army held out against the German army for a month before surrendering.
1940 (10th May)
Hitler invaded and occupied Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
1940 (10th May)
Adolf Hitler invaded France. The French army and the British Expeditionary Force tried to resist the German advance but had to retreat.
1940 (20th May)
The British and French had been pushed back to Dunkirk and had to be rescued from the beaches.
1940 (10th June)
As the German army advanced, the French government fled Paris.
1940 (14th June)
France surrendered to Adolf Hitler.
1940 (mid June)
Hitler reached out to Great Britain offering peace terms. He suggested that Britain retain control of the British Empire but had to acknowledge Adolf Hitler as leader of Nazi Europe. The new British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill
flatly refused to negotiate with Hitler.
1940 (10th July)
Battle of Britain
Hitler sent his Luftwaffe air force to eliminate the Royal Air Force. The Luftwaffe initially targeted ports, airfields and industrial plants hoping to bring Britain to a standstill.
1940 (7th September)
Frustrated that the British had held out against his air attacks, Hitler sought to weaken the spirit of the British people by ordering nightly bombing raids on London. The raids continued for 57 consecutive nights. The British retaliated by bombing German cities.
1940 (27th September)
This alliance of mutual assistance was signed by Japan, Italy and Germany.
1940 (31st October)
Battle of Britain
Adolf Hitler realised that the British Royal Air Force could not be defeated and called off the Battle of Britain. The Blitz, (nightly air raids) on key cities continued.
Adolf Hitler sent German troops to North Africa to support the Italian army against the British.
1941 (6th April)
Hitler invaded and occupied Greece and Yugoslavia.
1941 (22nd June)
In direct contravention of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Hitler sent more than 3 million German troops into Russia. The move took the Russians by surprise.
1941 (early August)
Nazi soldiers had advanced into Russia and were poised to take Moscow but, against the advice of his Generals, Hitler ordered them to focus on taking Leningrad and Kiev first. This allowed the Russians to bolster their forces in Moscow.
Operation Barbarossa – Battle for Moscow
Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to advance on Moscow, but the city held out and the German army suffered huge losses.
1941 (11th December)
Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor
by his Japanese allies, Adolf Hitler declared war on the United States of America.
1942 (7th January)
Operation Barbarossa – Battle for Moscow
German troops were defeated and lost the Battle for Moscow. Hitler was furious and blamed his field commanders and generals.
1942 (20th January)
The Wannsee Conference
This conference was organised by Reinhard Heydrich to find a solution to the problem of the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied countries. The conference approved a ‘Final Solution’ of extermination of the Jewish population (Holocaust
1942 (11th November)
2nd Battle of El Alamein
Hitler’s German army led by Erwin Rommel were defeated by the Allies.
1943 (2nd February)
Battle of Stalingrad
This six-month battle for control of the Russian city of Stalingrad ended with the defeat of the German army.
Adolf Hitler’s health began to fail. He suffered form headaches, insomnia and bowel problems and began taking a concoction of drugs to alleviate symptoms.
1943 (25th July)
Hitler’s Italian ally, Benito Mussolini, was arrested in Italy. He was replaced by Pietro Badoglio who surrendered to the Allies.
1944 (6th June)
Operation Overlord – D-Day
A combined force of the Western Allied armies invaded Normandy in northern France and began to push the Germans back.
1944 (20th July)
Operation Valkyrie (July Bomb Plot)
This plot to assassinate Hitler
had been organised by Claus von Stauffenberg. A bomb was planted under a table in the Wolf’s Lair where Hitler was addressing a number of Generals. The bomb exploded as planned but Hitler was not among the fatalities. He escaped the blast with ruptured eardrums and splinter injuries to his legs. Stauffenberg was among the nearly 5,000 people executed on Hitler’s orders for their part in the plot.
Hitler survived a heart attack
1944 (16th December)
Hitler knew that he could not defeat Russia and so decided to try to concentrate his forces on stopping the Allied advance from the west. After some success the offensive failed.
The Allies were advancing from the west and the Russians from the East. They were marching through Germany towards Berlin. Adolf Hitler found it difficult to believe that he may be defeated.
1945 (22nd April)
Hitler was informed that the Russian army had reached the outskirts of Berlin. He declined offers to try to smuggle him out.
1945 (23rd April)
Hitler learned that Herman Goring had taken control of the government of Germany. He was furious and ordered Goring’s arrest.
1945 (28th April)
Hitler learned that Heinrich Himmler had made contact with the Allies regarding a German surrender. Hitler ordered Himmler’s arrest.
1945 (28th April)
Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun. The ceremony was carried out in his bunker in Berlin.
1945 (29th April)
Hitler learned that Mussolini had been executed in Italy.
1945 (30th April)
Adolf Hitler learned that the Russian Army was in the vicinity of his bunker. To avoid capture he gave Eva Braun a cyanide capsule and then shot himself in the head. Their bodies were burned.