Alexandra Feodorovna Timeline 1872-1918

Alexandra Feodorovna Info

Alexandra Feodorovna TimelineBorn – 6th June 1872
Died – 17th July 1918
Royal House – Romanov
Father -Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse (1837 – 1892)
Mother – Princess Alice of Britain (1843 – 1928)
SpouseTsar Nicholas II of Russia (1868 – 1918)
ChildrenOlga (1895 – 1918), Tatiana (1897 – 1918), Maria (1899 – 1918), Anastasia (1901 – 1918), Alexei (1904 – 1918)

See also – Tsarist Russia 1855 – 1922
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna Timeline

1872 (6th June)
Alexandra Feodorovna was born Alix of Hess to Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse and Princess Alice of the UK at the New Palace in Darmstadt. She was the couple’s sixth child – Victoria, Elizabeth, Irene, Ernest and Friedrich had been born earlier.
1872 (1st July)
Alix was christened Alix Viktoria Helene Luise Beatrix. Her family gave her the nickname Sunny.
1873 (May)
Alix’s brother, Friedrich was a haemophiliac and died after a bad fall.
1874 (24th May)
A daughter, Marie, was born to Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse and Princess Alice of UK.
1878 (November)
There was an outbreak of diphtheria and Alix, her father and her siblings became ill. They were nursed by their mother who then caught the disease.
1878 (16th November)
Alix’s sister, Marie, died from diphtheria.
1878 (14th December)
Alix’s mother, Princess Alice, died from diphtheria.
1879 (during)
After her mother’s death, Alix became close to her grandmother, Queen Victoria of Britain. Victoria oversaw Alix’s education and Alix and her siblings were invited to visit Britain during the holidays.
1884 (15th June)
Alix of Hesse met Nikolai of Russia when she attended the wedding of her elder sister, Elisabeth to Sergei, Grand Duke of Russia.
1887 (during)
Alix and her family visited Britain for the celebrations to mark Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee.
1889 (during)
Queen Victoria invited Alix and her grandson Prince Albert Victor, second in line to the British throne, to Balmoral. She hoped to make a match between them. Alix, however, was unimpressed with the Prince and turned him down.
1891 (during)
Queen Victoria tried to make a match between Alix and Maximilian of Baden. Alix rejected him..
1889 (during)
Alix spent six weeks in Russia and she and Nikolai met again. Nikolai fell in love with her but his father had strong anti-German views and would not allow the couple to marry.
1892 (13th March)
Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse died of a heart attack. Alix was deeply saddened by the death of her father.
1892 (13th March)
Louis IV Grand Duke of Hesse died of a heart attack. Alix was deeply saddened by the death of her father.
1894 (April)
Nikolai of Russia proposed to Alix when they met at the wedding of Alix’s elder brother, Ernest to Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Although she was attracted to Nikolai, Alix rejected him because she did not want to convert to the Russian Orthodox faith. When he learned of Alix’s rejection, the Kaiser of Germany told Alix that she had a duty to accept the proposal and convert.
1894 (20th April)
Alix of Hess and Nikolai of Russia became engaged. Queen Victoria was concerned about Alix going to Russia since she viewed the country as unstable.
1894 (1st November)
Nikolai became Tsar Nicholas II after his father, Alexander III, died of kidney failure.
1894 (2nd November)
Alix of Hesse converted to Russian Orthodoxy and took the name Alexandra Feodorovna.
1894 (19th November)
A funeral service was held for Nicholas’s father, Alexander.
1894 (26th November)
Alexandra Feodorovna married Tsar Nicholas II in the Grand Church of the Winter Palace, St Petersburg.
1895 (Autumn)
Nicholas and Alexandra made a tour of Europe visiting, the Emperor and Empress of Austria-Hungary, Nicholas’s cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, Nicholas’s Danish grandparents and Alexandra’s grandmother, Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
1895 (15th November)
A daughter, Olga, was born to Nicholas II and Alexandra.
1896 (around)
Alexandra was shocked by the scandalous nature of the Russian court and refused to invite those involved in scandals to court. Her condemnation of the behaviour of many Russian nobles made her unpopular. Alix was also a firm believer in the ‘divine right of kings’ and as such did not see the need to appease the people.
1896 (26th May)
Alexandra and Nicholas were crowned Tsar and Tsarina of Russia in Uspensky Cathedral, Moscow.
1896 (27th May)
A coronation celebration was held in Khodynka Field outside Moscow. About 100,000 people attended the celebration, but when it was rumoured that there would not be enough food for everyone, the people stampeded and around 1,400 people were trampled to death.
1897 (10th June)
A daughter, Tatiana, was born to Nicholas II and Alexandra.
1899 (26th June)
A third daughter, Maria, was born to Nicholas II and Alexandra. They were disappointed that the child was not a boy.
1901 (during)
A worldwide depression led to increased social and industrial unrest.
1901 (18th June)
Another daughter, Anastasia, was born to Nicholas II and Alexandra. They were bitterly disappointed that the child was not a boy.
1901 (Autumn)
The harvest was poor again. The hungry people became rebellious.
1903 (during)
The ‘holy man’, Grigori Rasputin arrived in St Petersburg.
1904 (during)
Prices of essential goods had risen so much that workers were effectively 20% worse off than they had been the previous year.
1904 (12th August)
A son, Alexei, was born to Nicholas II and Alexandra. They were overjoyed that the child was a boy. It was soon discovered that he had haemophilia, a disease that affects the ability of blood to clot, for which there was no cure. The disease was kept a secret from the outside world.
1904 (October)
Tsar Nicholas II ordered the Baltic Fleet to sail to the East. Due to the British alliance with Japan the Russian fleet was not given permission to use the Suez Canal and so had to the longer route around South Africa.
1904 (December)
Port Arthur fell to the Japanese.
1904 (December)
Workers at the Putilov Iron Works came out on strike after four members of Father Georgy Gapon’s Assembly of Russian Workers were dismissed.
1905 (16th January)
13,000 workers at Putilov were on strike.
1905 (19th January)
Father Gapon made the decision to organise a march to the Winter Palace to present a petition, signed by 150,000 people asking for fairer treatment, to the Tsar. He sent a copy of the petition and notice of the march to the Minister of the Interior.
1905 (21st January)
110,000 workers in St Petersburg were on strike.
1905 (21st January)
Nicholas II left St Petersburg and went to Tsarskoye Selo. Troops were deployed around the Winter Palace. It was hoped that with the Tsar absent the workers would abandon the proposed march.
1905 (22nd January)
Bloody Sunday
Father Georgy Gapon led his peaceful march of workers and their families carrying religious images and singing patriotic songs, to the Winter Palace. However, when they reached their destination they were met by a line of armed Cossacks who opened fire on the demonstrators. More than 200 demonstrators were killed and more than 500 injured. Father Gapon escaped and left Russia. The event, known as Bloody Sunday sparked a series of revolts known as the 1905 Revolution.
1905 (23rd January)
Although Nicholas II had not been in St Petersburg and had not given the order to fire on the people, he was blamed for the tragedy and people lost faith in him. Workers all over Russia came out on strike. The Minister of the Interior, Sviatopolk-Mirsky resigned.
1905 (17th February)
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, Nicholas II’s uncle, was assassinated by Ivan Kalyayev a member of the Combat wing of the Socialist Revolutionary Party
1905 (27th – 28th May)
Battle of Tsushima
The Russian Baltic fleet that had finally reached the east was defeated by Japanese.
1905 (27th June)
Potemkin Mutiny
Sailors aboard the Potemkin mutinied after refusing to obey the Captain’s order to execute sailors protesting against being served rotten meat. They threw the Captain and officers overboard then sailed to Odessa where they stirred up the people. When the police and Cossacks violently broke up protests the sailors fled to Romania.
1905 (5th September)
Treaty of Portsmouth
This treaty brought the Russo-Japanese war to an end. Under the terms of the peace negotiation Russia lost Port Arthur to the Japanese.
1905 (6th October)
There were strikes by workers across Russia and a strike by the railway workers paralysed the rail network.
1905 (10th October)
General strikes in Moscow brought the city to a standstill.
1905 (22nd October)
Sergei Witte told Nicholas II that he should either give the people more freedom or use the military to put down opposition to his rule.
1905 (30th October)
October Manifesto
Nicholas II reluctantly agreed to this programme of reforms including no imprisonment without trial, freedom of speech and freedom to form trade unions.
1905 (November)
The St Petersburg Soviet led by Trotsky rejected the October Manifesto as the Tsar still remained the autocratic ruler of Russia.
1905 (1st November)
Rasputin was introduced to the Royal family he told the Tsarina that he had the power to heal the heir Alexis, who was haemophiliac.
1905 (8th November)
Vladimir Lenin returned to St Petersburg from exile in Finland.
1905 (December)
Soldiers returning from the Russo-Japanese war were used to put down all traces of unrest and revolution. Trotsky and all members of the St Petersburg Soviet were arrested. Nicholas once more assumed an autocratic rule with little regard for the October Manifesto.
1906 (23rd April)
Fundamental Law
This law was introduced. It declared Nicholas supreme autocrat. The Duma could not make laws without his approval, and he was to have the final say in the appointment of ministers and other officials.
1907 (Spring)
The Tsarevitch Alexei was taken ill due to his haemophilia. Rasputin was summoned and he managed to stop Alexei’s bleeding.
1908 (May)
Nicholas and Alexandra hosted Britain’s King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra on their Royal yacht in the Baltic.
1909 (August)
Nicholas, Alexandra and the Russian royal family made a visit to England where they attended Cowes Week on the Isle of Wight.
1910 (during)
Minister Stolypin conducted an investigation into the affairs of Rasputin and presented it to Nicholas. After Nicholas took no action, Stolypin ordered Rasputin to leave St Petersburg. Alexandra was furious but Nicholas refused to order his return.
1911 (18th September)
Pytor Stolypin was assassinated in the Kiev Opera House where he was accompanying the Tsar and his daughters Olga and Tatiana to a performance.
1912 (4th April)
Lena Goldfields massacre
A group of miners from the Lena Goldfields in Siberia were went on strike after the management took no action on a complaint about the quality of horsemeat the miners were given to eat. The Bolsheviks co-ordinated a wave of support strike action and many thousand workers marched to present a petition in support of the miner’s claims. However, the authorities ordered troops to fire on the protesters causing 500 to lose their lives. The massacre caused an outrage and a wave of sympathy strikes.
1912 (5th September)
Alexei jumped into a boat and injured himself on an oarlock. A large haematoma appeared but began to reduce in size after a week.
1912 (2nd October)
Alexei was riding in a carriage with his family. The carriage jolted rupturing the haematoma in his thigh. His conditioned worsened rapidly and he soon became unconscious.
1912 (10th October)
Although Alexei was beginning to recover, Alexandra secretly sent a message to Rasputin asking him to come to help Alexei recover. Rasputin replied by letter that Alexei would not die.
1912 (19th October)
Alexei had recovered considerably. Alexandra was convinced it was due to Rasputin.
1913 (during)
The Octobrists, the largest party in the Duma, ordered an investigation into the affairs of Rasputin. They were concerned about the influence Rasputin had with the Tsarina.
1913 (21st February)
A service was held at Kazan Cathedral followed by a reception at the Winter Palace to celebrate the three-hundredth year anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.
1913 (May)
The Russian royal family made a tour of the Russian Empire as part of the three-hundredth year anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.
1914 (February)
Triple Entente
This treaty of mutual support allied Russia with Britain and France.
1914 (25th July)
Tsar Nicholas II put the Russian army on standby. A move that was interpreted by Germany and Austria as tantamount to a declaration of war. Germany requested that Russia stop mobilising.
1914 (28th June)
The heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, member of the Black Hand a Serbian Nationalist group, in Sarajevo.
1914 (28th July)
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in retaliation for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
1914 (29th July)
Nicholas sent a message to Kaiser Wilhelm calling on him to use the Hague Conference to settle the Austro-Serbian dispute rather than declaring support for Austria. He received no reply.
1914 (30th July)
Nicholas II ordered a general mobilisation of Russian troops.
1914 (1st August)
Germany declared war on Russia. With Russia at war with Germany, Alexandra, who was German, became even more unpopular.
1914 (6th August)
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia
1914 (1st September)
Saint Petersburg was renamed Petrograd (Peter’s City). The move was made to remove the German word ‘burg’ from the city.
1914 (December)
Soldiers in the Russian army were not well equipped and there were not enough weapons or ammunition for every soldier. Medical provision was poor and many wounded soldiers died through lack of care.
1915 (22nd February)
1915 (June)
The All Russian Union of Zemstvo and Cities (Zemgor) was established. Chaired by Prince Lvov its aim was to help the government in the war effort, but it was largely ignored by Nicholas.
1915 (July)
Nicholas II’s cousin, Christian X of Denmark, offered to act as a mediator between Russia and Germany to try to find a peaceful solution and end the war. Nicholas turned down the offer saying that it would be disloyal to abandon Russia’s allies, Britain and France.
1915 (August)
Some members of the Fourth Duma organised themselves into a Progressive Bloc and called for the Tsar to change his government ministers for those with the confidence of the public.
1915 (6th September)
Tsar Nicholas II took personal charge of the army, possibly on the advice of Rasputin and dismissed the Duma. Nicholas did not have sufficient military experience to turn the war to Russia’s favour and his action put him in a position where he was wholly responsible for the continuing defeats Russia faced. While he was at the front, he left Alexandra in control of the country.
1915 (September)
Rasputin was blamed for a series of ministerial changes made by Alexandra while Nicholas was at the front. People were becoming increasingly suspicious of the extent of Rasputin’s influence on the Tsarina.
1916 (November)
Food prices were now four times higher than in 1914. Workers began to strike for higher pay.
1916 (30th December)
Rasputin was assassinated by a group of nobles including Prince Felix Yusupov and Dmitri Pavoovich. They poisoned Rasputin’s food and when that failed they shot him. His body was dumped in the Little Nevka river. Alexandra was very distressed by his death.
1917 (January)
The army had no faith in Nicholas as their leader. Army officials agreed to support the Duma if it took control of the country.
1917 (22nd January)
150,000 workers took to the streets of Petrograd on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday to protest at the desperate situation many were in – lack of food, poor living conditions and Russia’s continued participation in a war that was going from bad to worse.
1917 (24th January)
The opening of the Duma was postponed to 7th February.
1917 (23rd February)
Cold weather, anti-war feeling and food shortages led to people rioting and breaking shop windows to loot food. Anti-Tsar feeling was at its highest and people chanted ‘Down with the Tsar’. Troops were sent onto the streets to remove the protestors by force. Although some complied killing around 40 protestors many sympathised with the masses, refused to fire on them and joined the protests instead.
1917 (7th March)
Tsar Nicholas II decided he needed to return to Petrograd. However, his train was diverted by railway workers.
1917 (7th March)
The Kronstadt sailors mutinied and put pressure on the Petrograd Soviet to allow army regiments to elect committees which in turn would be able to send representatives to the Petrograd Soviet.
1917 (8th March)
Workers on the streets of Petrograd were joined by women celebrating International Women’s Day and protesting against food rationing.
1917 (9th March)
200,000 protestors were on the streets of Petrograd calling for the Tsar to be replaced.
1917 (10th March)
Petrograd was at a standstill as more than 250,000 people were on strike.
1917 (10th March)
Nicholas II ordered that troops fire on the crowds to disperse them but many refused and joined the protestors.
1917 (11th March)
Nicholas suspended the Duma.
1917 (11th March)
The Petrograd garrison mutinied.
1917 (11th March)
Nicholas was urged by minister Rodzianko to take urgent action to control the situation. Nicholas believed the minister was over-exaggerating and ignored the message.
1917 (12th March)
Members of the Duma decided to form a Provisional Committee.
1917 (14th March)
The Chief of Staff, Mikhail Alexeev, put pressure on Nicholas II to resign both as head of the army and also as Tsar.
1917 (15th March)
Nicholas II reluctantly abdicated as Tsar. He named his younger brother Mikhail as the new Tsar, a position he refused. The Royal family were placed under virtual house arrest in the Alexander Palace.
1917 (16th March)
First Provisional government formed
Following the abdication of the Tsar, a provisional government led by Prince Lvov, a member of the Kadet party, was formed.
1917 (March)
Nicholas requested that the new foreign minister, Pavel Milyukov, contact the United Kingdom to request that the Russian royal family be allowed to go into exile in Britain.
1917 (19th March)
The British government agreed to grant asylum to the Russian royal family. However, many in Britain did not approve, particularly as the Tsarina was German and Britain was at war with Germany.
1917 (late March)
Fearful that accepting the Russian royal family into Britain would lead to protests against the British monarchy, King George V wrote to the British Prime Minister stating that accepting the Romanovs would adversely affect the popularity of the monarchy in Britain and could lead to their overthrow. Lloyd George withdrew the offer of asylum.
1917 (3rd April)
Lenin returned to Russia.
1917 (August)
The Romanov family were moved to Tobolsk in Western Siberia. They were housed in Kuklin House in relative comfort.
1917 (25th October)
October Revolution
Armed Bolshevik supporters entered the Winter Palace and arrested members of the Provisional Government.
1917 (26th October)
October Revolution
A congress of Soviets was held which appointed the first Soviet government and appointed Lenin as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars. Joseph Stalin was made Commissar for Nationalities and given an office close to Lenin’s. Leon Trotsky was made People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs.
1917 (7th November)
Russian Civil War
Although Lenin had taken control of the country there were still many opponents that sought to overturn the new regime. These were known as whites. The fighting between the whites and the red army was often violent.
1918 (1st March)
The Bolshevik government was less lenient with the Royal family and began imposing greater restrictions on them. Ten of their servants were dismissed and their food allowance was reduced to that of a soldier’s rations.
1918 (3rd March)
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty ended Russian involvement in World War One. The signing of the treaty ended the left Socialist Revolutionary’s support of Lenin.
1918 (April)
With the White Army advancing and fearing a possible foreign invasion in support of the Romanovs, Lenin moved the capital of Russia to Moscow. Nicholas, Alexandra and Maria were moved to the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg where they were closely guarded by a detachment commanded by Yakov Yurovsky. Alexei was ill with haemophilia and could not be moved so he, Olga, Tatiana and Anastasia remained in Tobolsk.
1918 (May)
Alexei had recovered and he and his sisters were moved to join their parents at Yekaterinburg. Here, even greater restrictions were placed on the family. The windows were blacked out and they were forbidden to speak any language apart from Russian. They were accompanied by guards at all times.
1918 (17th July)
All members of the Romanov family were woken and told to dress and then taken to the cellar. They were informed that they were to be moved for their safety as the White Army was approaching Yekaterinburg. Guards then entered the room, told them they were to be executed and began firing. Nicholas II was killed first followed by his wife and Tatiana and then the others. So many rounds were fired that the room was filled with smoke. Those that showed any signs of life were bayonetted or clubbed. The bodies were buried in shallow graves in nearby woods.
 

 

Published Jul 11 2022 @ 3:40 pm – Updated – Jul 11, 2022 @ 3:44 pm

Harvard Reference for Alexandra Feodorovna Timeline:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2022). Alexandra Feodorovna Timeline 1872 – 1918. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/nicholas-ii-tsar-of-russia-1868-1918. Last accessed July 11th, 2022