raiding force was defeated by Alfred’s brother Aethelstan in a naval battle off Sandwich, Kent.
Alfred’s father, Aethelwulf, fought a Danish force at Acleah in Surrey and was victorious.
Alfred’s eldest brother, Aethelstan, died.
Alfred was taken to Rome where he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV. He may have been accompanied by his brother, Aethelred
. As a younger son Alfred may have been being prepared for a life in the Church.
Alfred’s sister Aethelswith married King Burgred
of Mercia sealing a peace between Mercia and Wessex.
Aethelwulf and Burgred of Mercia joined forces to defeat the Welsh led by Cyngen ap Cadell.
Alfred had returned to Wessex from Rome.
Alfred’s mother, Osburgh died.
Alfred travelled to Rome with his father and they spent a year in the city. Alfred witnessed the coronation of Pope Benedict III. Alfred’s brother Aethelbald
became regent of Wessex while his father was absent in Rome.
Alfred’s father Aethelwulf was betrothed to Judith
, daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks.
856 (1st October)
Alfred’s father Aethelwulf married Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks.
Alfred, his father Aethelwulf and his stepmother Judith returned to Wessex. It is unclear whether Aethelwulf shared rule with Aethelbald or whether he took back full control. It is likely that Aethelbald wanted to retain some control and probably was not pleased by his father’s new marriage.
858 (13th January)
Alfred’s father Aethelwulf died. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Aethelbald.
Alfred’s brother, Aethelbald, shocked church elders and ealdormen when he married his stepmother, Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks.
860 (20th December)
Alfred’s brother, Aethelbald died at Sherborne. He had no children and was succeeded as King of Wessex by his brother Aethelberht
Alfred’s brother, King Aethelberht died. He had not married and had no children so his brother Aethelred became King of Wessex.
Alfred’s brother, Aethelred, was crowned King Aethelred I
of Wessex at Kingston-upon-Thames.
866 (1st November)
The Great Heathen Army led by Ivar the Boneless left East Anglia and marched north. They attacked and took the city of York.
867 (21st March)
The Northumbrian rivals, Osberht
united and attacked Viking York. However, after breaching the city walls they were cut down in the narrow streets and Osberht and Aelle were both killed. Ivar the Boneless claimed victory over Northumbria and installed Egbert as a puppet King.
The Viking force invaded Mercia and captured Nottingham. Burgred of Mercia appealed for aid and Alfred accompanied Aethelred as they marched north. By the time they arrived Burgred, King of Mercia had paid the Vikings off because the Mercians had to get the year’s harvest in to feed people during winter.
Alfred’s brother, King Aethelred, married Wulfthryth
, possibly of Wiltshire.
A son Aethelhelm
, was born to Aethelred and Wulfthryth.
Alfred married Ealhswith
, daughter of a Mercian noble at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. Shortly after the wedding Alfred began to experience stomach cramps (possibly irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease). The illness would plague him for the rest of his life.
A son, Aethelwold
, was born to Alfred’s brother, Aethelred and his wife Wulfthryth.
The Viking force led by Ivar the Boneless sacked the monastery at Peterborough killing the monks and abbot.
Ivar the Boneless returned to East Anglia. King Edmund of East Anglia
decided to oppose the Vikings, was taken prisoner and horrifically murdered.
A daughter, Aethelflaed
, was born to Alfred and Ealhswith.
Ivar the Boneless led a force north to attack Scotland after that he went to Ireland and disappeared from records.
Those Vikings that remained in the south were now led by Halfdan and had been joined by a new Viking force led by Bagsecg. They began making raids into Wessex.
870 (28th December)
Halfdan and Bagsecg took Reading and fortified it with a dyke and palisade.
871 (4th January)
Battle of Reading
Alfred and his brother King Aethelred attempted to lay siege to Reading but the Saxons
were defeated by the Vikings.
871 (8th January)
Battle of Ashdown
Alfred and his brother King Aethelred led the army to a successful victory against the Vikings.
871 (22nd January)
Battle of Basing
Alfred and Aethelred suffered a defeat by the Vikings.
871 (22nd March)
Battle of Meretum
Alfred supported his brother, Aethelred, in this battle against the Vikings. The battle was inconclusive and both sides withdrew. Aethelred was badly injured in the battle.
871 (15th April)
Alfred became King when his brother Aethelred died. Aethelred’s two young sons, Aethelwold and Aethelhelm, were bypassed as they were considered too young to take the throne.
Alfred’s brother, Aethelred was buried at Wimborne.
871 (early Summer)
Battle of Wilton
The Saxons led by Alfred were defeated by the Vikings led by Halfdan.
After suffering a year of minor defeats by the Danes, Alfred was forced to buy them off. They promised to leave Wessex alone for five years.
An uprising in Northumbria overthrew the Viking puppet King Ecgbert. The Vikings quickly established a new base at Lindsey and quickly suppressed the Northumbrian revolt.
The northern Vikings invaded Mercia and captured Repton.
The Vikings continued to attack Mercia and King Burgred
was forced to leave the county. This allowed the Vikings to take control of Mercia and install Ceowulf as a puppet King.
A son, Edward
, was born to King Alfred and Ealhswith.
The Great Heathen Army split. Halfdan took his section north while Guthrum
took the remainder south.
A daughter, Aethelgifu, was born to Alfred and Ealhswith.
The Viking force led by Guthrum attacked Wessex and took Wareham (Dorset). Alfred lay siege to Wareham but around 120 Viking ships were seen off the coast meaning success was unlikely.
The Vikings led by Halfdan began dividing up Northumbria preparing to settle the land permanently.
Alfred was concerned that the Witan would lose faith in his ability to be King and tried to get Aethelred, Archbishop of Canterbury
on his side.
Alfred made a deal with Guthrum, leader of the Vikings and demanded hostages in return for peace. Guthrum agreed but did not keep the deal. He killed his Saxon hostages and moved to Exeter, leaving the Viking ships at Wareham.
A freak storm destroyed a large number of Guthrum’s ships moored off Wareham and many Vikings were drowned. This allowed Alfred to leave Wareham and march to Exeter where he forced Guthrum to surrender.
The Vikings led by Guthrum had moved to Gloucester and began dividing up Mercia preparing to settle the land permanently.
A daughter, Aelfthryth, was born to Alfred and Ealhswith.
Aethelred, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Pope complaining about Alfred’s practice of paying off the Vikings with money raised from the people and the Church. The Pope wrote to Alfred warning him of the consequences of impunging on the authority of the see of Canterbury.
The Vikings made further raids on Wessex taking land in Wiltshire and Hampshire.
Guthrum left Wessex.
878 (6th January)
Guthrum returned with a large force and marched on Chippenham where Alfred was resident. Most of the town’s inhabitants were killed but Alfred managed to escape. It is likely that this was the last straw for the Witan and that Alfred lost their support due to the fact that his attempts to pay off the Vikings had not worked. Alfred was forced to leave Wessex in fear for his life. He sought refuge in the Somerset marshes at Athelney.
The ‘Alfred and the Burnt Cakes’ legend stems from this period. The legend states that Alfred was taken in and given shelter by a woman who did not recognise him. She asked him to watch some cakes for her but he was so taken up with his thoughts about how to defeat the Vikings that the cakes were burnt.
The story may have some truth and Alfred and his family may well have been taken in by a peasant family who had no idea who he was.
Equally likely is that the story is an allegory for Alfred’s situation. He had been so absorbed in trying to pay off the Vikings that he had not fully realised the extent to which he had lost the support of the Witan. He may even have been overthrown by a coup.
Whatever the truth of the story, Alfred did not give up or exile himself. Instead he formulated a plan to regain his place as King and began rallying local militia. There is no surviving evidence as to who was ruler of Wessex during the time Alfred spent in Athelney.
Battle of Contisbury Hill
A large Viking force led by Ubba approached Contisbury Hill in North Devon. Earldorman Odda and his fyrd were inside the fort on top of the hill. Odda and his men surprised the Vikings by breaking out of the fort and attacking. The Vikings suffered heavy losses and Ubba was killed.
878 (after Easter)
Alfred adopted a tactic of using guerilla warfare to disrupt further progress by Guthrum. At the same time secret messengers were sent out to let the people know that Alfred was alive and safe and would return. Messengers also delivered a call for men to muster at Egbert’s stone on 4th May 878.
878 (4th May)
Alfred rode to Egbert’s stone where the main Wessex fyrds had mustered giving Alfred a force of around 4,000 men. Odda and the Devon fyrd were absent probably due to losses incurred during the Battle of Contisbury Hill.
878 (4th or 5th May)
Battle of Edington
Alfred defeated the Viking army and forced the leader, Guthrum, to accept baptism and peace terms.
878 (after 5th May)
Treaty of Wedmore
This was a peace treaty between Alfred and Guthrum. The Vikings agreed that they would retreat to the north where they would have their own independent kingdom. Guthrum agreed to be baptised and be King of the region which would be subject to his laws known as Danelaw.
As per the terms of the Treaty of Wedmore, the Viking leader Guthrum and around 30 chief Vikings were baptised.
Guthrum, who had been baptised Aethelstan, moved his people to Mercia where they settled.
Alfred was now firmly in control of Wessex and began building a number of fortified towns (burhs or burghs) to make any future Viking attack more difficult. The burghs were placed at junctions of existing trading routes to attract traders and also to encourage local people to become market gardeners and traders thus attracting a populace that would in turn provide manpower for the fyrd.
Wessex was soon covered with a network of public strongholds, several of which have a regular grid of streets that can still be seen today. Examples are Winchester, Chichester and Wareham.
Alfred also organised a local defence system as well as spending time and money building ships to match those of the Vikings.
Another band of Vikings arrived in England. They sailed up the Thames and Alfred was concerned that they would join with Guthrum and mount a new attack. However, after a short while they left England and sailed to France.
Guthrum moved his people to East Anglia where he ruled as King Aethelstan.
Alfred’s wife Ealhswith gave birth to a son, Aethelweard.
Ceowulf of Mercia, the Viking puppet King died. He was replaced by Ealdorman Aethelred
. Guthrum retained control of Eastern Mercia.
Alfred’s new navy won a naval battle against the Vikings destroying two Viking ships and forcing the surrender of two others.
A band of Vikings arrived and attacked Rochester in Kent. The town had been fortified by Alfred in 878 and was able to hold out until Alfred arrived with the army and defeated the Vikings.
Alfred first met the churchman, Asser of Wales, who would later write ‘The Life of Alfred’.
Alfred began putting in place measures to ensure his own son, Edward, succeeded him rather than his nephews Aethelhelm and Aethelwold. Alfred claimed to have the support of the Witan for his son to succeed him.
Alfred the Great captured London from the Vikings. However, as London was in the Kingdom of Mercia, Alfred, put the city in the control of Ealdorman Aethelred of Mercia.
Alfred constructed a harbour to the west of London Bridge.
Alfred married his daughter, Aethelflaed, to Aethelred, Ealdorman of Mercia. As part of the marriage agreement, Aethelred acknowledged Alfred as his Lord.
Alfred began to surround himself with learned men including Asser and John the Saxon.
Alfred’s son-in-law, Aethelred, Lord of Mercia, was taken ill. Alfred’s daughter Aethelflaed, Lady of Mercia, ruled Mercia while her husband was incapacitated.
Alfred’s sister Aethelswitha died while on pilgrimage to Rome.
Alfred founded Shaftesbury Abbey. He made his daughter, Aethelgifu, abbess.
Guthrum, who had ruled East Anglia as King Aethelstan, died. The peace he had agreed with Alfred was honoured by his successor.
Alfred established a permanent army setting up a system where only half the army was to be on service at any one time. Those not on service could be called on as reinforcements in times of need.
The Anglo Saxon Chronicle was begun.
A large Danish Viking contingent arrived in around 250 ships. They landed in Kent and a number of them took over a half completed fortified building in Appledore, southern Kent. At the same time another Viking force of 80 ships landed in northern Kent and made camp at Milton (Milton Regis). Alfred stationed his army midway between the two.
Alfred entered into negotiations with Haesten
, leader of the Viking force at Milton. A settlement was reached whereby Alfred gave Haesten money and treasures while Haesten gave Alfred hostages and swore an oath of peace.
Soon after swearing a peace oath Haesten took his army and laid waste to Benfleet in Essex.
Battle of Farnham
While Alfred had been busy trying to make peace with Haesten, the Appledore Vikings had raided towns in Hampshire and Berkshire. They were returning to Appledore with their booty but were cut off by Alfred’s son, Edward who recovered the stolen treasure and put them to flight. Edward then pursued the Vikings, caught up with them and held them under siege at Thorney (near Peterborough).
While Alfred and Edward had been occupied with the Vikings in Kent and Appledore, the East Anglia Vikings had sailed to Exeter and lay siege to the city. Alfred had intended to help his son defeat the Vikings at Thorney but had to divert and go to Exeter to relieve the siege to the city. When he reached Exeter, Alfred encircled the besiegers. Meanwhile, another group of Vikings marched west, probably to relieve the siege of Exeter, but they were met at Buttington by a large force led by the Ealdormen of Mercia, Somerset and Wiltshire who succeeded in putting them to flight. Soon afterwards the Vikings in Exeter withdrew to East Anglia.
The Vikings were forced, through hunger, to leave Thorney. They moved north to Chester but were placed under siege and forced to leave.
Bishop Asser wrote the ‘Life of King Alfred’.
The Vikings built a new fort about 20 miles north of London by the river Lea.
Alfred led an attack on the Viking fortress by the river Lea but was beaten back.
Alfred built two new fortresses by the river Lea which meant that the Viking force further up the river were unable to get their boats out to sea.
895 (late Autumn)
On learning of Alfred’s actions the Vikings abandoned their boats on the river Lea and marched overland to Bridgenorth on the river Severn where they built a new fort. Alfred marched to Bridgenorth and lay siege to the fort.
The Vikings gave up their raids on Wessex and Mercia and returned to East Anglia and Northumbria.
899 (26th October)