Ancient Rome 753 BCE – 476 CE

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Ancient Rome

This timeline gives a chronological listing of the main events in Ancient Rome 753 BCE – 410 CE

Please note: we have chosen to use BCE (Before Common Era) rather than BC (Before Christ) and CE (Common Era) rather than AD (Anno Domini)

 

 

ROMAN KINGDOM
753 BCE
The Legend of Romulus and Remus and the Founding of Rome is said to date from this time. Romulus became King of Rome.
715 – 673 BCE
Numa Pompilius became King of Rome. His reign was peaceful.
673 – 642 BCE
Tullius Hostilius became King of Rome. He defeated Alba Longa and made Alba Longa a vassal state of Rome. When the ruler of Alba Longa betrayed Rome Tulius had the city destroyed and moved the people to Rome.
c650 BCE
The Etruscans established towns and cities in Northern Italy and claimed the region as a part of the Etruscan Empire
642 – 616 BCE
Ancus Marcius became King of Rome. His father had been a friend of Numa Pompilius but Ancus Marcius was elected by an assembly of the people. He successfully prevented an invasion of Rome by the Latins and then declared war on them and took their lands. Many Latin people were relocated to Rome. He also built a bridge over the River Tiber.
616 – 579 BCE
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus became King of Rome. He was an Etruscan who had migrated to Rome with his wife. He successfully defended Rome against an invasion by the Sabine People who were supported by a number of Etruscan cities. After defeating the Sabine Tribe Tarquinius took those Etruscans who had fought with the Sabine Tribe as prisoner. Consequently, the Etruscan cities that had supported the Sabines declared war on Rome. Tarquinius was again victorious and enriched Rome with plunder from the defeated cities.

The Circus Maximus was built during this period and was used for chariot racing.

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was assassinated in 579 BCE by the sons of Ancus Marcius who felt that they should rule Rome.

579 – 534 BCE
Servius Tullius became King of Rome. He was married to the daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and was elected by the Senate rather than by the people of Rome. He held the first census then instigated a new social system where people belonged to different classes depending on their status, age and wealth.
Servius Tullius also enlarged the city of Rome encompassing all seven hills and built a wall round the entire city.
534 – 509 BCE
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus became King of Rome after being an accomplice in the murder of Servius Tullius who he wished to overthrow. He killed those senators that had been loyal to Tullius and reduced the size and authority of the Senate.
Although he made several conquests that enlarged the city of Rome he was very unpopular and after his son raped a Roman noblewoman (the rape of Lucretia) he was overthrown and exiled.
ROMAN REPUBLIC
509 BCE
The Roman Republic was established with Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus being the first two consuls. They uncovered a plot to remove themselves and reinstate Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and executed the conspirators.
508 BCE
The post of Pontifex Maximus (high priest) was created.
496 BCE
Battle of Lake Regillus
This battle saw a Roman victory over an invasion force of Latin people.
494 BCE
The First Plebeian Secession
The plebeian class rebelled against the Patricians complaining that they had no power, that the Senate was not concerned about their welfare nor about their mounting debts. To alleviate the situation two Tribunes of the Plebs were appointed and they were supported by two Plebeian Aediles. Both offices were to be filled by Plebeians.
471 BCE
The number of Tribunes of the Plebs was increased from two to five.
449 BCE
The Laws of the Twelve Tables
A set of laws, drawing on ancient customs were introduced. Divided into 12 tables the laws included:
from table II – Whoever is in need of evidence, he shall go on every third day to call out loud before the doorway of the witness
from table IV – A dreadfully deformed child shall be killed
from table V – A spendthrift is forbidden to exercise administration over his own goods
from table VI – If a man and woman live together continuously for a year, they are considered to be married
from table VIII – If any person has sung or composed against another person a song such as was causing slander or insult…. he shall be clubbed to death
from table VIII – Whoever is convicted of speaking false witness shall be flung from the Tarpeian Rock
from table XI – Marriage shall not take place between a Patrician and a Plebeian.
449 BCE
The Second Plebeian Secession
Following the introduction of the Laws of the Twelve Tables the Plebeians protested that the laws offered them no protection from capricious Patrician Magistrates.
445 BCE
The Lex Canuleia This law offered concession to the Plebeians by allowing the intermarriage of Patricians and Plebeians which had been forbidden by the Law of the Twelve Tables.
437 – 426 BCE
Roman Fidenaen War
This war was fought between Rome and the town of Fidenae saw Rome victorious. Fidenae became incorporated into Rome.
406 – 396 BCE
The Siege of Veii
The Romans led by dictator Marcus Furius Camilus lay siege to the Etruscan city of Veii. After a ten year siege the city eventually fell to the Romans.
390 BCE
Battle of the Allia
This battle between the Romans and a Gallic tribe (the Senones) fought at the confluence of the River Tiber and River Allia saw the Romans defeated. The defeat of the Romans allowed the Gallic tribe to sack the city of Rome.
366 BCE
Lucius Sextius became the first Plebeian Consul.
343 – 341 BCE
The First Samnite War
This war fought between Rome and the Samnites resulted in victory for the Romans and allowed the Romans to expand into Campania, Southern Italy.
340 – 338 BCE
The Latin War
The Latin League, which included the Samnites, fought Rome for independence, however they lost the war and they were disbanded and their territories incorporated into Rome.
339 BCE
Lex Publilia This law was passed. It stated that one Plebeian censor should be elected for each five year term.
326 BCE
The Circus Maximus was constructed
328 BCE
Second Samnite war
This war between Rome and the Samnites began after a Samnite raid on Fregellai
321 BCE
Second Samnite War – Battle of the Caudine Forks
Battle of the Caudine Forks – This was not really a battle. A Roman force were trapped by the Samnites without food or drink and were forced to surrender.
315 BCE
Second Samnite War – Battle of Lautulae
Battle of Latulae – This battle fought between Romans and Samnites near Terracina was won by the Samnites.
315 BCE
Following two defeats by the Samnites, the Romans began to rethink their military strategy.
311 BCE
Second Samnite War
The Etruscans lay siege to Sutri on the outskirts of Rome
310 BCE
Second Samnite War – Battle of Lake Vadimo
Battle of Lake Vadimo – The Etruscans were defeated by the Romans and suffered heavy losses.
308 BCE
Second Samnite War
The Umbri, Picentes and Marsi tribes joined the Samnites against Rome.
305 BCE
Second Samnite War – Battle of Bovianum
The Romans scored a decisive victory over the Samnites.
304 BCE
Second Samnite War
Battle of Bovianum – The war ended after a treaty of friendship was negotiated between Rome and the Samnites.
298 BCE
Third Samnite War
The Romans declared war on the Samnites who had invaded the territory of the Lucani people. The Lucani had appealed to Rome for an alliance in order to wage war on the Samnites. The forces of Rome captured the Samnite cities of Bojano and Castel di Sangro.
297 BCE
Third Samnite War – Battle of Tifernum
This battle was a decisive victory for the Romans over the Samnites at Citta di Castello.
295 BCE
Third Samnite War – Battle of Sentinum
This battle was a decisive victory for the Romans over the Samnites and their allies.
293 BCE
Third Samnite War – Battle of Aquilonia
This battle was a decisive victory for the Romans and saw most of the Samnite army destroyed.
293 BCE
A census was held in Rome. It showed that the total population was 300,000 people.
290 BCE
Third Samnite War
The Romans finally crushed all remaining Samnite forces bringing the war to an end.
280 BCE
Pyrrhic War
War broke out between Rome and a Greek coalition led by Pyrrhus of Epirus after Rome violated an exclusion zone treaty by going to the aid of the city of Thurii which Pyrrhus invaded with a force of 25,000.
280 BCE, July
Pyrrhic War – Battle of Heraclea
The Greeks attacked the Romans with a large army and a number of elephants. The Greeks were winning the battle when a stampede of elephants allowed the remaining Romans to retreat. The term ‘Pyrrhic victory’ (a victory where no advantage is gained) originates from this battle.
279 BCE
Pyrrhic War – Battle of Asculum
The Greeks led by Pyrrhus attacked the Romans. The result was another pyrrhic victory for the Greeks when the Carthaginians intervened for the Romans.
278 BCE
Pyrrhic War
Despite winning two battles Pyrrhus was concerned by the numbers of men he had lost. He decided to leave Rome and go to Sicily.
275 BCE
Pyrrhic War – Battle of Benventum
This battle was fought between the Greek forces of Pyrrhus and Rome. After suffering heavy losses Pyrrhus decided to abandon the war and return to Greece.
264 BCE
The first gladiatorial games were staged in Rome.
264 BCE
First Punic War – Battle of Messana
War broke out between Rome and Carthage. The Romans landed a force at Messana in Sicily and defeated the Carthaginian force there.
262 BCE
First Punic War
Battle of Agrigentum – The Romans lay siege to the Carthaginium city of Agrigentum. Although the Romans were attacked they succeeded in gaining control of Agrigentum.
261 BCE
The Romans built their first fleet of ships at Agrigentum.
256 BCE
First Punic War – Battle of Cape Ecnomus
The Romans decided to use their new fleet to attack the Carthaginians in north Africa. As they set sail they were intercepted by a Carthaginian fleet at Cape Ecnomus, Sicily. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and captured a number of their ships.
249 BCE
First Punic War
The Romans had succeeded in conquering Sicily but had been unsuccessful in fighting naval battles against the Carthaginians and had lost most of their ships.
247 BCE
First Punic War
The Carthaginians sent Hamicar Barca (Hannibal’s father) to Sicily to attack the Romans.
241 BCE
First Punic War – Battle of Aegates Islands
The Romans built a new fleet and defeated the Carthaginian fleet. The loss of the Carthaginian fleet left Hamicar Barca without support and he was forced to retreat ending the First Punic War.
240 BCE
Mercenary War
This war between mercenary armies and Carthage when Carthage was unable to pay the soldiers what they were due because it was virtually bankrupted by charges imposed by Rome. The mercenaries were joined by Libyan rebels.
237 BCE
Mercenary War
The war ended after Hamilcar Barca took command of Carthaginian troops and defeated the mercenaries and Libyan rebels.
229 BCE
First Illyrian War
This war began after Rome invaded the land belonging to the Ardiaei people in revenge for a number of pirate attacks on Italian merchant ships.
228 BCE
First Illyrian War
The war ended after the Ardiaei people gave some land to Rome.
225 BCE
Battle of Telamon
This battle fought between the Romans led by Consuls Gaius Atilius Regulus and Lucius Aemilius Papus and a number of Celtic tribes saw the Celts defeated and land in northern Italy ceded to Rome.
220 BCE
Second Illyrian War
Demetrius of Pharos, an ally of Rome, had married the mother of the infant King of the Illyrians, Pinna, making him Regent. He took a fleet of 50 ships on a raiding expedition. Although he did not raid any Roman land, the Senate felt that his action was contrary to his alliance with Rome. Demetrius fortified Dimallum and Pharos with troops but both fell to the Romans ending the war. Demetrius fled to Macedonia.
219 BCE
Second Punic War (Hannibal’s War)
The Carthaginian general, Hannibal, conquered the Roman city of Saguntum. In retaliation Rome declared War.
216 BCE (2nd August)
Second Punic War (Hannibal’s War) – Battle of Cannae
Hannibal defeated the Romans at Cannae. The Romans had fielded the largest army ever and were shocked at the defeat.
214 BCE
First Macedonian War
This war was fought between Philip of Macedonia and Rome. After the defeat of the Romans at the Battle of Cannae, Philip had negotiated an alliance with Carthage. He took a fleet to take Apollonia on the Illyrian Coast. However, worried about a possible Roman attack he retreated.
214 BCE
Second Punic War (Hannibal’s War) – Siege of Syracuse
The Romans lay siege to the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily.
212 BCE
Second Punic War (Hannibal’s War) – Siege of Syracuse
The city of Syracuse fell to the Romans after they stormed the city.
205 BCE
First Macedonian War – Treaty of Phoenice
This treaty ended the war. Macedonia gave up its alliance with Carthage and Rome allowed Philip of Macedonia to keep control of land gained in Illyria.
204 BCE
Second Punic War
The Romans, led by Consul Scipio Africanus landed a force at Utica, Carthage (Tunisia).
202 BCE (19th October)
Second Punic War – Battle of Zama
The Romans defeated the forces of Carthage ending the Second Punic War.
202 BCE
Second Macedonian War
War broke out between Rome and Philip of Macedonia again. Philip had begun a campaign to conquer land around the Aegean sea. This annoyed the Greeks who sent envoys to Rome to ask for help.
200 BCE
Second Macedonian War
The new Roman consul Publius Sulpicius Galba was given Macedonia as his province. Rome was determined to end Philip of Macedonia’s campaign of conquest.
198 BCE
Second Macedonian War
The Romans led by Flamininus defeated the Macedonians at the Aous River. The Romans offered Philip peace on condition that he gave up all his land in Greece. Philip rejected the terms.
197 BCE
Second Macedonian War – Battle of Cynoscephalae
The Romans scored a decisive victory over Philip of Macedonia at Thessaly. Philip was forced to agree to the Romans’ terms for peace and give up all his lands in Greece.
192 BCE
Roman-Seleucid War (War of Antiochos or Syrian War)
War broke out between Rome and the Seleucid Empire after the latter invaded Greece.
191 BCE
Roman-Seleucid War (War of Antiochos or Syrian War) – Battle of Thermopylae
The Romans led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio scored a decisive victory over the Seleucid Empire led by King Antiochus II. King Antiochus was forced to agree terms at Apamea. He had to leave Greece, disband his navy and pay a sum of money to Rome.
171 BCE
Third Macedonian War
War broke out between Rome and Macedonia again. Macedonia was now ruled by Philip V’s son, Perseus who was fiercely anti-Roman. Rome declared war on Macedonia.
168 BCE
Third Macedonian War – Battle of Pydna
This battle was a decisive victory for the Romans over the Macedonians. Perseus was captured and around 300,000 Macedonians were enslaved. Macedonia became a Roman province.
150 BCE
Fourth Macedonian War
War broke out between Rome and Macedonia again when a Macedonian named Adriscus claimed to be the son of King Perseus.
149 BCE
Third Punic War
Rome declared war on Carthage after Carthage decided to act independently of Rome. The Carthaginians did not want war against Rome and had to give in to Roman demands of giving up all weapons, sending 300 child hostages to Rome and moving away from Carthage. While the Carthaginians accepted the first two terms they would not give up Carthage to be burned by Rome. The Romans placed Carthage under siege.
148 BCE
Fourth Macedonian War – Second Battle of Pydna
The forces of Andriscus were defeated by the Romans led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus and the uprising against Rome collapsed.
146 BCE
Third Punic War
The city of Carthage finally fell to the Romans. Many Carthaginians had died from starvation during the siege. Those that remained were made slaves.
133 BCE
The Tribune of the Plebs, Tiberius Gracchus was beaten to death by a group of Senators who were unhappy at his proposed land reforms which would give land from the rich to the poor.
107 BCE
Gaius Marius was elected Consul. He established a standing army in Rome.
106 BCE (6th October)
Battle of Arausio
The Romans were defeated by an army of Cimbri and Teutons at Orange, Vaucluse.
102 BCE
Battle of Aquae Sextiae
The Romans defeated a force of Teutons and Ambrones.
101 BCE
Battle of Vercellae
The Romans defeated a force of Cimbri led by their King Boiorix who had invaded Italy. Boiorix was killed in the battle.
100 BCE
Marius was elected Consul for the sixth time.
91 BCE
Social War
This was a war between the Roman Republic and a number of cities in Italy that were allies of Rome. It began when those cities protested against Rome because they were not given Roman citizenship.
88 BCE
Social War
The war ended with victory to Rome. Some citizens of Italian cities that surrendered were offered Roman citizenship, but the Samnites and Lucanians who continued to be hostile to Rome were persecuted by Rome.
88 BCE
Sulla’s First Civil War
This war followed on from the Social War and was caused by rivalry between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius both of whom wanted command of the army sent to defeat Mithridates VI of Pontus. As consul, Sulla was granted command but Marius seized it from him.
88 BCE
Sulla’s First Civil War – Battle of the Esquiline Forum
Sulla led his army against the city of Rome and retook control. Marius fled to Africa.
87 BCE
First Mithridatic War
Sulla led the Roman army against Mithradates VI of Pontus, who led an army of Greeks in rebellion against the Roman republic.
87 BCE
Gaius Marius and his son, Gaius Marius, took advantage of Sulla’s absence fighting the First Mithridatic War and returned to Rome with an army. Marius’s troops killed supporters of Sulla and Marius took control of Rome. He declared Sulla’s laws invalid and exiled him.
86 BCE (13th January)
Gaius Marius died. Lucius Cornelius Cinna who had supported Marius was left in control of Rome.
85 BCE
First Mithridatic War
Sulla heard that Marius had returned to Rome. A peace was agreed betweem Rome and Mithradates whereby Pontus retained its existing borders.
83 BCE
Sulla’s Second Civil War
Sulla landed at Brundisium determined to take back control of Rome. He gained much support including that of Quintus Pius, Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey giving him an army of around 50,000 to march on Rome. Sulla defeated the forces of Gaius Marius the younger and took back control of Rome.
83 BCE
Second Mithridatic War
War broke out again between Rome and Mithridates of Pontus after the Roman general Lucius Murena invaded Pontus.
82 BCE
Sulla was declared Dictator of Rome.
81 BCE
Second Mithridatic War
The war ended with victory for Pontus. The Romans under Murena were forced to withdraw and Pontus retained its boundaries.
80 BCE
Sertorian War
Quintus Sertorius landed in Spain to secure support against the dictatorial rule of Sulla. Roman troops led by Metellus and Pompey were sent to deal with the aggressor.
73 BCE
Third Mithridatic War
War broke out again between Rome and Mithridates VI of Pontus.
73 BCE
Third Servile War (The War of Spartacus)
This was a revolt against Rome that began after around 70 slave gladiators escaped from a training school. Led by the slave Spartacus, they were joined by many people who were unhappy with the leadership of Rome and made numerous successful raids on Roman towns. Legions led by Crassus, Pompey and Lucullus were sent to defeat the rebels.
72 BCE
Sertorian War
The war ended when Sertorius was assassinated by Marcus Perperna who was then defeated by Pompey.
71 BCE
Third Servile War (The War of Spartacus)
The war ended when the slave army was defeated by the Roman army at Petelia. Spartacus was killed in the fighting./div>

66 BCE
Pompey defeated the Cilician pirates.
63 BCE
Third Mithridatic War
Mithridates was defeated by the Roman Army. Rather than face capture by the Romans, he ordered his servant to kill him.
63 BCE
Pompey conquered Jerusalem.
63 BCE
Marcus Tullius Cicero was elected Consul.
63 BCE
Catiline Conspiracy
Cicero uncovered a plot to assassinate him and overthrow the Roman Republic. The leader of the conspiracy was Lucius Sergius Catilina. The conspirators were discovered and executed.
60 BCE (December)
First Triumvirate
This was an unofficial alliance between Consul Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus. In return for support Caesar would support measures that would benefit the two other men. The agreement would take effect in 59BCE.
58 BCE
Gallic Wars
Julius Caesar was sent to Gaul as Proconsul. He determined to defeat the Gallic tribes and take Gaul under Roman control.
58 BCE
Gallic Wars
Julius Caesar defeated the Helvetii people.
58 BCE (September)
Gallic Wars
Julius Caesar defeated the Suebi people.
57 BCE (May)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Axona
Julius’s Roman force defeated the Belgae (Belgians) at Axona.
55 BCE (late August)
Julius made an expedition to Britain. He landed on the beach at Deal but was unable to progress further inland.
54 BCE (July)
Julius made a second expedition to Britain. He made some gains but then withdrew to return to Rome for winter.
53 BCE (June)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Carrhae
the Triumvir Crassus was killed during this battle.
52 BCE (during)
With the death of Crassus the division between Julius Caesar and Pompey Magnus had grown deeper. Factions developed in Rome with Clodius supporting Pompey and Milo supporting Caesar. Fights broke out frequently in Rome between the two factions. After Milo assassinated Clodius there was rioting and looting in the streets of Rome. Pompey was given special powers to deal with the violence.
52 BCE (September)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Alesia
This decisive battle saw the Romans victorious over Gaul which became a Roman province.
49 BCE (10th January)
Civil War between Caesar and Pompey began when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river and began to march on Rome. Pompey and his supporters fled to Greece.
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus
This decisive battle saw the forces of Pompey defeated by those of Julius Caesar. Marc Antony fought on Caesar’s left wing. Pompey fled to Egypt where he was assassinated as soon as he landed.
46 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome for ten years.
44 BCE (15th March)
Julius Caesar was assassinated by being stabbed to death by a number of senators who were unhappy with his rule. When Julius entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by the assassin senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Marcus Brutus.
44 BCE (after 15th March)
Marc Antony immediately took control of Rome. However, when Julius Caesar’s will was read it was discovered that he had adopted Octavian and made him heir. This led to conflict between Marc Antony and Octavian.
43 BCE (27th November)
Second Triumvirate
This was an agreement between Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus to kill the assassins of Julius Caesar, destroy the republic and take control of Rome.
42 BCE (3rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this first engagement of the battle, Brutus managed to overrun Octavian’s camp. However, Marc Antony had defeated the forces of Cassius and Cassius committed suicide rather than be captured.
42 BCE (23rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this second engagement Octavian and Marc Antony defeated Brutus. Brutus fled the battlefield and committed suicide rather than be captured.
42 BCE (November)
The members of the Second Triumvirate re-negotiated their territories. Octavian took control of Gaul, Hispania and Italy, Marc Antony took control of the Eastern provinces and Lepidus was left with Africa.
33 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed consul. He used his position to continue to denounce Marc Antony and accuse him of favouring Egypt and the east.
30 BCE (1st August)
Octavian defeated the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Alexandria, Egypt. Rather than face capture Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, Marc Antony by falling on his own sword, Cleopatra by poisonous asp or poison.
ROMAN EMPIRE
27 BCE (16th January)
Octavian was granted the name Augustus by the Roman Senate. His full name was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus but he is generally referred to as Augustus after this period. His period of rule as first Emperor of Rome is dated from this time.
19 BCE (during)
Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius, a position which gave him greater power than all other proconsuls. He was also made tribune for life.
16 BCE (during)
The Alpine region became a province of Rome.
2 BCE (5th February)
Augustus was proclaimed pater patriae ‘father of the country’.
4 CE (June)
Augustus summoned his stepson, Tiberius to Rome. Augustus then adopted Tiberius making him his heir.
14 CE (19th August)
Augustus died while visiting Nola. He may have been poisoned by his wife, Livia to preserve his dignity or it may have been that Augustus requested poison for a similar reason.
14 CE (September)
Tiberius succeeded Augustus as Emperor of Rome.
16 CE (during)
Battle of Idistaviso
This battle, fought against Germanic tribes was a victory for the Romans led by Germanicus.
17 CE (during)
Tiberius annexed Cappadocia (central Turkey) and Commagene (Armenai) for the Roman Empire.
37 CE (16th March)
Tiberius died. He named Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus to be his joint successors.
38 CE (during)
Tiberius Gemellus was murdered on Caligula’s orders leaving Caligula sole Emperor of Rome.
40 CE (during)
Caligula ordered the murder of Ptolemy, King of Mauretania. The murder led to a rebellion against Roman Rule.
41 CE (24th January)
Caligula was assassinated by Cassius Chaerea. He was succeeded by Claudius.
43 CE (during)
Roman Invastion of Britain
Plautius invaded Britain.
43 CE (during)
Claudius made Lycia (southern Turkey) part of the Roman Empire.
46 CE (during)
Claudius made Odrysia (Bulgaria) part of the Roman Empire.
49 CE (during)
Claudius married his niece, Agrippina. He adopted Agrippina’s son, Nero.
54 CE (during)
Claudius died after being poisoned by his wife, Agrippina. He was succeeded by Agrippina’s son, Nero.
58 CE (during)
Roman Parthian War
War broke out between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire over control of Armenia.
60 CE (during)
Roman Invasion of Britain
Boudica, Queen of the Iceni tribe, led a force against Roman rule.
61 CE (during)
Roman Invasion of Britain
Boudica’s army of Britons was defeated by the Roman army. Boudica poisoned herself rather than face capture.
63 CE (during)
Roman Parthian War
After 6 years of fighting the war ended with an agreement that the Kings of Armenia would be clients of Rome.
64 CE (18th July)
Great Fire of Rome
A fire began in Rome. It raged for 6 days before it was finally extinguished and caused a massive amount of damage to property in the city.
65 CE (19th April)
Pisonian Conspiracy
A plot to assassinate Nero and replace him with Gaius Calpurnius Piso was uncovered. The conspirators were executed or forced to commit suicide.
66 CE (during)
Great Revolt (First Jewish-Roman War)
The Jews of Judea revolted against Roman Rule.
68 CE (9th June)
Nero, who had become increasingly unpopular, was decared an enemy of the state by the Senate and ordered to the Forum. Rather than face a public execution, Nero ordered his secretary to kill him. He was succeeded by Galba.
69 CE 15th January)
Galba was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard led by Otho who became Emperor.
69 CE (16th April)
Otho’s forces were defeated at Calvatone by forces led by the commander of the Roman army, Vitellius. Otho committed suicide. He was succeeded by Vitellius.
69 CE (21st December)
Vitellius was executed by troops loyal to Vespasian. He was succeeded by Vespasian.
70 CE (September)
Great Revolt (First Jewish-Roman War) – Siege of Jerusalem
Roman forces led by Titus entered Jerusalem. The Jews fled the city.
71 CE (during)
Roman Invasion of Britain
Roman forces entered Scotland.
73 CE (16th April)
Great Revolt (First Jewish-Roman War) – Siege of Masada
The war ended after the Jews, forced to retreat to the fortress of Masada were placed under siege by the Roman army. Rather than face capture the 960 Jews committed suicide. Two women and their children who had not followed the suicide order but had hidden instead were found by the Romans when they entered the fortress.
79 CE (23rd June)
Vespasian died. He was succeeded by his son, Titus.
79 CE (24th August)
Mount Vesuvius erupted destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
80 CE (during)
A fire damaged much of Rome.
80 CE (March)
The Colosseum was completed.
81 CE (13th September)
Titus died. He was succeeded by his brother Domitian.
86 CE (during)
Domitian’s Dacian War
War broke out after the Dacian Kingdom (Romania) invaded Moesia (Serbia, Kosovo, Macedonia).
86 CE (during)
Domitian’s Dacian War
The Romans were defeated and a peace was agreed whereby Roman prisoners would be returned and Rome would pay 8 million sesterces annually to the Dacian Kingdom.
96 CE (18th September)
Domitian was assassinated. He was succeeded by Nerva.
98 CE (27th January)
Nerva died. He was succeeded by Trajan.
101 CE (during)
First Dacian War
Rome invaded Dacia (Romania).
101 CE (during)
First Dacian War – Battle of Tapae
The Romans defeated the Dacians.
102 CE (during)
First Dacian War
The war ended when the King of Dacia agreed loyalty to Rome.
105 CE (during)
Second Dacian War
War broke out again when the Dacian King broke the peace terms with Rome.
106 CE (during)
Second Dacian War – Battle of Sarmizegetusa
This battle was a decisive victory for the Romans and led to the annexation of Dacia. The Dacian King committed suicide rather than face capture.
106 CE (22nd March)
Nabatea (land to the north-east of the Red Sea), was annexed by Rome.
113 CE (during)
Trajan’s Column was erected.
114 CE (during)
Trajan made Armenia a province of Rome after deposing King Parthamasiris.
115 CE (during)
Kitos War
This war began when Jews in Cyrene, Libya, rebelled against Roman authority.
116 CE (during)
Mesopotamia and Assyria (part of Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Syria) were made provinces of Rome.
117 CE (during)
Kitos War
Roman forces took Lod, Israel and executed many of the inhabitants.
117 CE (8th August)
Trajan died. He was succeeded by his adoptive son, Hadrian.
118 CE (during)
Hadrian abandoned the provinces of Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia preferring to put energies into fortifications.
119 CE (during)
A rebellion against Roman rule in Britain was put down.
122 CE (during)
Hadrian visited Britain and orderd the construction of a wall along the northern border of England.
123 CE (during)
Hadrian visited Mauretania (northern Africa).
124 CE (during)
Hadrian visited Greece.
128 CE (during)
Construction of Hadrian’s Wall along the border of Brittania (England) and Caledonia (Scotland) was completed.
132 CE (during)
Bar Kokhba Revolt
Simon bar Kokhba led a revolt against Roman rule in Judea (Israel, Jordan).
135 CE (during)
Bar Kokhba Revolt
The revolt was finally put down by Rome. Judea and Syria were made into the Roman province of Syria Palaestina.
136 CE (during)
Hadrian, who had no children of his own, adopted Lucius Aelius as his successor.
138 CE (1st January)
Hadrian’s heir, Lucius Aelius died.
138 CE (25th February)
Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius as his heir.
138 CE (10th July)
Hadrian died. He was succeeded by Antoninus Pius.
141 CE (during)
Roman forces invaded Scotland.
142 CE (during)
Construction of the Antonine Wall in Scotland began. The Wall marked the northern extent of the Roman Empire.
154 CE (during)
Construction of the Antonine Wall in Scotland was completed.
161 CE (7th March)
Antoninus died. He was succeeded by Marcus and Lucius Versus as joint Emperors.
161 CE (late Summer)
Roman-Parthian War
War began after the King of Parthia invaded Armenia and deposed the Roman client King.
162 CE (Summer)
Roman-Parthian War
With the Roman army failing to end the war, Lucius Verus was sent to take personal charge of Roman forces.
163 CE (during)
Roman-Parthian War
Roman forces recovered Armenia.
163 CE (during)
Roman-Parthian War
The Partians took upper Mesopotamia after deposing the Roman client leader.
165 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
Germanic tribes that had invaded Raetia (part of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Liechtenstein) and Germanica Superior (part of France, Germany, Switzerland) were repulsed by the Roman army.
165 CE (during)
Antonine Plague
This disease, possibly measles or smallpox, spread througout the Roman Empire and took the lives of some 5 million people.
166 CE (during)
Roman-Parthian War
Roman forces recovered upper Mesopotamia. The statue of Apollo was stolen from the temple at Seleucia and brought to Rome.
167 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
Germanic tribes invaded Pannonia (part of Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia). After negotiations a truce was agreed.
167 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
Germanic tribes invaded Dacia (Romania) and killed the Roman governor.
168 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
The Roman army marched on Dacia. The Germanic tribes withdrew in the face of the approaching Roman army.
169 CE (during)
Lucius Verus died, possibly of Antonine Plague. Marcus Aurelius became sole ruler of Rome.
170 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War – Battle of Carnuntum
A large force of Germanic tribes attacked Roman provinces along the river Danube. The Roman army was no match for the tribes and was defeated at Carnuntum.
172 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
The Roman army marched on the Danube and began a campaign against the Germanic tribes.
175 CE (during)
First Marcomannic War
The Roman army finally achieved victory over the Germanic tribes.
177 CE (during)
Marcus Aurelius proclaimed his son and heir, Commodus, as co Emperor.
177 CE (during)
Second Marcomannic War
The Germanic tribes rebelled again. Roman troops were sent north to put down the uprising.
180 CE (17th March)
Marcus Aurelius died. He was succeeded by his son, and co-ruler, Commudus
180 CE (during)
Second Marcomannic War
The new emperor, Commodus, had little interest in continuing the war and negotiated a peace.</div

184 CE (during)
The Antonine Wall in Caledonia (Scotland) was abandoned in the face of attacks by the Scottish tribes.</div

192 CE (31st December)
Commodus was assassinated by strangulation. He was succeeded by Pertinax.
193 CE (28th March)
Pertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. He was succeeded by Didius Julianus.
193 CE (1st June)
Didius Julianus was executed on the order of the Senate. He was succeeded by Septimius Severus.
194 CE (during)
Battle of Issus
Septimius Severus defeated the forces of his challenger, Pescennius Niger.
197 CE (during)
Battle of Lugdunum
Septimius Severus defeated the forces of his challenger, Albinus.
198 CE (during)
Septimius Severus appointed his son, Caracalla as co-ruler.
208 CE (during)
Septimius Severus led an invasion into Caledonia (Scotland).
209 CE (during)
Septimius Severus appointed his younger son, Geta, co-ruler with himself and Caracalla.
211 CE (4th February)
Septimius Severus died. He was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta as co-rulers.
211 CE (after 4th February)
Caracalla ended the Roman Invasion of Caledonia (Scotland).
211 CE (26th February)
Co-ruler Geta was murdered on the order of his brother Caracalla who became sole ruler.
217 CE (8th April)
Caracalla was assassinated by a member of his bodyguard. He was succeeded by Macrinus.
218 CE (8th June)
Macrinus was executed by an army loyal to Caracalla’s cousin, Elagabalus.
222 CE (11th March)
Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian guard. He was succeeded by his cousin and adoptive son, Severus Alexander.
230 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars
War broke out when Shah Ardashir I invaded the Roman provinces of Mesopotamia and Syria.
232 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars
Severus Alexander successfully repelled the invasion of Mesopotamia and Syria by Shah Ardashir I.
235 CE (19th March)
Severus Alexander was assassinated by his generals. He was succeeded by Maximinus Thrax.
238 CE (22nd March)
Gordian I, governor of Africa was elected ruler of Rome. He appointed his son, Gordian II as co-ruler.
238 CE (April)
Pupienus and Balbinus were elected joint rulers by the Senate. However, they were not popular with the people.
238 CE (May)
The grandson of Gordian I, Gordian III was appointed emperor by the Senate.
238 CE (May)
Maximinus Severus was murdered by mutinous generals.
238 CE (29th July)
Pupienus and Balbinus were murdered by the Praetorian guard.
243 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars – Battle of Resaena
The Roman army led by Gordian III defeated a Persian force led by King Shapur I.
243 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars – Battle of Misiche
The Roman army led by Gordian III were defeated by a Persian force led by King Shapur I. Gordian III was either killed in the battle or assassinated by his officers shortly afterwards. He was succeeded by Philip the Arab who made peace with Persia.
249 CE (during)
Philip the Arab was killed at Verona during a battle with Decius. Decius was appointed emperor.
251 CE (during)
Decius appointed his son, Herennius Etruscus, co-ruler of Rome.
251 CE (July or August)
Battle of Abritus
The Roman army was defeated by Germanic force of Goths at Arbritus (Razgrad, Bulgaria). Decius and Herennius were both killed during the battle.
251 CE (August)
The army appointed Trebonianus Gallus as ruler of Rome. However, the Senate appointed Decius’s son, Hostilian as ruler of Rome. By way of compromise, Gallus adopted Hostilian.
251 CE (November)
Hostilian died of the plague.
251 CE (November)
Gallus appointed his son, Volusianus co-ruler of Rome.
253 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars – Battle of Barbalissos
The Roman army was defeated by a Persian force at Barbalissos, Mesopotamia.
253 CE (August)
Joint emperors Gallus and Volusianus were killed when their own soldiers mutinied against them in favour of Aemilianus.
253 CE (October)
Aemilianus was killed by his own soldiers in favour of Valerian.
253 CE (late)
Valerian made his son, Gallienus, co-emperor.
256 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars
The Persians took Antioch (Antakya, Turkey).
257 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars
Valerian recovered Antioch (Antakya, Turkey).
258 CE (during)
The Germanic Goths invaded Asia Minor (Turkey).
260 CE (during)
Roman-Persian Wars
Valerian was taken prisoner by the Persians.
260 CE (September)
Postumus was declared ruler of the Gallic Empire (France and Britain).
264 CE (during)
Valerian died while a prisoner of the Persians. His son, Gallienus became sole ruler of Rome.
268 CE (during)
Gallienus was murdered by his own soldiers. He was succeeded by Claudius Gothicus.
269 CE (during)
Postumus, ruler of the Gallic Empire, was killed by his soldiers in favour of Marcus Aurelius Marius.
269 CE (during)
Marius, ruler of the Gallic Empire, was killed by Victorinus who became emperor of the Gallic Empire.
269 CE (during)
Zenobia, Queen of the Palmyrene Empire (Syria) conquered Egypt.
269 CE (during)
Battle of Naissus
The Roman army defeated a Germanic Gothic force in Naissus (Nis, Serbia).
270 CE (January)
Claudius Gothicus died of the plague. He was succeeded by his brother, Quintillus.
270 CE (April)
Quintillus died. He was succeeded by Aurelian.
271 CE (during)
Battle of Fano
This battle between the Roman army and Germanic tribes at Fano, Italy, was a victory for the Romans.
271 CE (during)
Victorinus, leader of the Gallic Empire (France and Britain) was murdered. He was succeeded by Tetricus I who appointed his son, Tetricus II as joint ruler.
272 CE (during)
Zenobia, Queen of the Palmyrene Empire (Syria) was captured by Rome.
274 CE (March)
Battle of Chalons
This battle, between the forces of Roman Emperor Aurelian and Emperors of the Gallic Empire Tetricus I and Tetricus II, saw Aurelian victorious. The Gallic Empire was reunified with the Roman Empire.
275 CE (September)
Aurelian was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He was succeeded by Tacitus.
276 CE (June)
Tacitus died. He was succeeded by his half-brother Florianus.
276 CE (September)
Florianus was killed by his troops in favour of Probus.
282 CE (during)
Probus was assassinated in favour of Carus.
283 CE (during)
Carus made his sons Carinus and Numerian co-rulers.
283 CE (August)
Carus died. He was succeeded by his sons Carinus and Numerian.
284 CE (20th November)
Numerian died. His brother Carinus continued as Emperor but this was contested by Roman forces who proclaimed Diocletian Emperor.
285 CE (July)
Battle of the Margus
This battle was fought between the rival emperors Carinus and Diocletian by the Margus River in Moesia (Serbia). Carinus was killed during the battle, possibly by his own soldiers who defected to Diocletian.
285 CE (July)
Diocletian gave Maximian the title Caesar making him his deputy.
286 CE (during)
Carausian Revolt
Carausius declared himself emperor of northern Gaul and Britain.
286 CE (2nd April)
Diocletian appointed Maximian augustus (emperor) of the west while he made himself augustus of the east.
293 CE (during)
Diocletian established a new ruling system known as the Tetrachy. He appointed Constantius Chlorus to serve as Caesar (deputy) under Maximian in the west and Galerius as Caesar under himself in the east.
293 CE (during)
Carausian Revolt
Maximian’s Caesar, Constantius Chlorus, conquered northern Gaul and reclaimed it for the western Empire. Carausius retained control of Britain until he was murdered by Allectus who took his place.
296 CE (during)
Carausian Revolt
Allectus was defeated in battle and killed.
301 CE (during)
Edict on Maximum Pricesbr>Diocletian set maximum price limits on a number of products.
303 CE (24th February)
Diocletian called for the destruction of Christian literature and persecution of Christians.
305 CE (1 May)
Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Their Caesars became Augusti – Constantius Chlorus in the west and Galerius in the east. Flavius Valerius Severus became Caesar in the west and Maximinus II became Caesar in the east.
306 CE (25th July)
Constantius Chlorus died at Eboracum (York) in Britain. Although troops in Eboracum wanted Constantius’s son to take the place of his father, he was succeeded by his Caesar, Valerius Severus. Constantius’s son Constantine, was appointed Caesar in the west.
306 CE (Autumn)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Rioters in Rome called for Maximian’s son, Maxentius, to replace Valerius Severus as Emperor and proclaimed him Emperor of Rome. Valerius Severus marched towards Rome whereby Maxentius asked Maximian to remain as co-ruler.
307 CE (September)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Valerius Severus surrendered to Maximian at Ravenna, Italy.
307 CE (16th September)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Valerius Severus was executed or forced to commit suicide.
307 CE (Autumn)
Galerius marched from the east and lay siege to Rome. However, many of his soldiers defected to Maxentius and he fled the city.
307 CE (September)
Constantine was appointed Augustus in the west by Maximian and married Maximian’s daughter, Fausta.
308 CE (during)
Maximian attempted to take control from his son, Maxentius, but failed and fled Rome.
308 CE (11th November)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Maximian resigned as Augustus of the west. He was replaced by Licinius while Constantine was demoted to Caesar of the west.
310 CE (early)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Constantine was unhappy with being demoted and was promoted to Augustus of the West alongside Licinius.
310 CE (during)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy

310 CE (July)
Maximian hanged himself after his attempted coup against Constantine failed.
311 CE (May)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Galerius died. Licinius and Maximinus II agreed to divide the eastern Empire between themselves.
312 CE (28th October)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy – Battle of the Milivian Bridge
Before the battle, Constantine famously saw a vision of the Christian cross. Constantine’s forces defeated those of Maxentius and Maxentius died during the battle.
312 CE (late October)
Civil wars of the Tetrachy
Constantine took control of Rome.
313 CE (February)
Edict of Milan
Constantine and Licinius, as joint Augustii of the west, issued this edict which ended persecution of Christians and offered some restitution to those hurt by the persecutions of Diocletian.
313 CE (March)
Licinius married Constantine’s sister, Constantia.
313 CE (March)
Wars of the Tetrachy – Battle of Tzirallum
Licinius defeated Maximinus II at Tzirallum (Corlu, Turkey).
313 CE (August)
Maximinus II, Augustus of the east, died. Licinius took his title.
314 CE (8th October)
Battle of Cibalae
Constantine defeated Licinius at Cibalae (
316 CE (late)
Battle of Mardia
Constantine defeated a force of Licinius at Mardia (Harmanli, Bulgaria)
317 CE (1 March)
Licinius and Constantine reached agreement. Licinius gave all of his territories except Thrace (Bulgaria) to Constantine and executed Valerius Valens who he had created Augustus.
321 CE (during)
Licinius complained that Constantine had broken their truce when Constantine pursued firstly a group of Sarmatians and then a force of Goths, onto Licinius’s territory.
324 CE (3rd July)
Battle of Adrianople
Constantine defeated the forces of Licinius in the Maritsa Valley.
324 CE (18th September)
Battle of Chrysopolis
Constantine’s army defeated the remains of Licinius’s army at Chrysopolis near Chalcedon, Turkey. Following the defeat, Licinius surrendered.
325 CE (Spring)
Licinius was executed.
325 CE (20th May)
First Council of Nicaea
Constantine used this council to organise a council of Christian bishops. He hoped the council would formulate an agreed Christianity.
326 CE (during)
Constantine ordered the execution of his eldest son, Crispus. Although the reason for this is not entirely clear it is thought that Constantine’s second wife, Fausta, was concerned for her sons’ inheritance and implicated Crispus against his father. When Constantine found out he had been duped he ordered the murder of Fausta.
330 CE (11th May)
Constantine moved the capital of the Empire to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople.
337 CE (22nd May)
Constantine died. He was succeeded by his three sons who divided the Empire between themselves. Constantine II took control of Britain, Iberia (Spain), Gaul (France) and Illyria (West Balkans), Constantius II took control of Asia, Syria Palaestina and Egypt and Constans took control of Italy and Africa. Constans was still a minor and Constantine II acted as regent for him.
340 CE (during)
Constantine II invaded Italy. The forces of Constans ambushed and killed him at Aquileia, Italy. Constans took control of Constantine II’s lands.
350 CE (18th January)
The troops of Constans called for commander Magnentius to be ruler of Rome.
350 CE (February)
The supporters of Magnentius killed Constans.
350 CE (3rd June)
Nepotianus, grandson of former Emperor Constantius Chlorus, marched on Rome with a band of gladiators and proclaimed himself Imperator (leader of Rome).
350 CE (30th June)
Marcellinus, a general of Magnentius’s army killed Nepotianus.
351 CE (15th March)
Constantius II made his cousin, Constantius Gallus Caesar (deputy).
351 CE (28th September)
Battle of Mursa Major
The forces of Constantius II defeated Magnentius in the Drava valley, Croatia.
353 CE (3rd July)
Battle of Mons Seleucus
This battle was a decisive victory for Constantius II and Magnentius committed suicide.
354 CE (during)
Constantius Gallus was accused of treason and executed.
355 CE (6th November)
Constantius II gave Julian control of Gaul.
357 CE (during)
Battle of Strasbourg
Julian secured a victory for Rome over the Alemanni tribe.
360 CE (February)
The Roman army in Gaul declared that Julian should be Augustus.
361 CE (3rd November)
Constantius II died. He was succeeded by Julian.
363 CE (5th March)
Julian led a force against the Persian Empire.
363 CE (26th June)
Julian was killed by a Persian force after the siege of Ctesiphon failed.
363 CE (27th June)
Julian’s army declared Jovian as Augustus.
363 CE (July)
Jovian agreed peace with Persia by giving five provinces east of the Tigris to Persia.
364 CE (17th February)
Jovian died. The army appointed Valentinian Augustus.
364 CE (28th March)
Valentinian appointed his brother Valens Augustus of the East while he ruled the west.
375 CE (17th November)
Valentinian had a stroke and died. His place was taken by his son Gratian who had served under his father.
375 CE (22nd November)
The army chose Valentinian’s 4 year old son Valentinian II to be Augustus in the west. It is possible that the army did not want to be led by Gratian and so chose a leader that could not lead in his own right.
376 CE (during)
Gothic War
War broke out between the eastern Empire and Gothic tribes in the Balkans. The conflict was caused when the large numbers of Goths fleeing from the Huns were given asylum by Valens but the Romans lacked resources to feed the large numbers of refugees. The Goths became rebellious and war broke out.
378 CE (9th August)
Gothic War – Battle of Adrianople
The Roman army was defeated by a combined Gothic-Alanic force. The eastern Augustus, Valens, was killed.
379 CE (19th January)
Gratian created Theodosius I Augustus in the east.
380 CE (27th February)
Edict of Thessalonica
This edict effectively made Christianity the religion of the Empire.
382 CE (3rd October)
Gothic War
The war ended when the Goths were given land in Thrace and allowed to settle there. They became known as Visigoths.
383 CE (during)
The Roman general in Britain, Magnus Maximus, crossed the Channel to Gaul in a bid to take power from Gratian.
383 CE (25th August)
Gratian was assassinated by troops led by Magnus Maximus.
388 CE (during)
Battle of the Save
The forces of Magnus Maximus were defeated by those of Theodosius I.
392 CE (15th May)
Valentinian II died from hanging. It is not known whether he committed suicide or was murdered by his general Arbogast.
392 CE (22nd August)
Eugenius was made Augustus in the west by Arbogast.
393 CE (23rd January)
Theodosius I, Augustus in the east, appointed his son Honorius Augustus in the west in opposition to Eugenius.
394 CE (6th September)
Battle of the Frigidus
This decisive battle between Theodosius and Eugenius saw Theodosius victorious. Arbogast and Eugenius were killed leaving Honorius Augustus of the west, however Theodosius’s son-in-law Stilicho was the real power in the west.
395 CE (17th January)
Theodosius I died. He was succeeded by his son, Arcadius.
395 CE (after 17th January)
The Visigoths considered their agreement with Theodosius ended.
398 CE (during)
Stilicho ordered a campaign against the Picts of Scotland to try to stop their raids on Britain.
402 CE (during)
Stilicho took troops from Hadrian’s Wall as well as other areas of Britain to fight the Visigoths in Gaul (France).
402 CE (during)
Ravenna in Italy became capital of the western Empire.
406 CE (31st December)
A force of Vandals, Alans and Suebi crossed the Rhine and invaded the western Empire. They began raiding and destoying Roman cities in Gaul (France). Remaining troops in Britain feared they would invade and wanted strong leadership. Their first choices, Marcus and Gratian were killed for being inefficient and Constantine III was chosen as their leader.
407 CE (during)
Constantine III led the remaining troops in Britain across the Channel and proclaimed himself Augustus of the west.
408 CE (1st May)
Arcadius, Augustus in the east, died. He was succeeded by his son Theodosius II.
409 CE (during)
Honorius agreed to be co-Emperor of the west with Constantine III.
410 CE (24th August)
A force of Visigoths led by King Alaric sacked Rome.
421 CE (8th February)
Honorius appointed his brother-in-law Constantius III co-ruler of the western Empire with himself.
421 CE (2nd September)
Constantius III died leaving Honorius sole ruler of the western Empire.
423 CE (15th August)
Honorius died. He was succeeded by Valentinian, son of Constantius III, but this was contested by Joannes.
425 CE (July)
Joannes was executed in Aquileia.
447 CE (during)
Battle of the Utus
This battle was fought between the Huns led by Attila and the Eastern Roman Empire near the Vit river in Bulgaria. This last battle between the Huns and the Eastern Empire saw the Rommans defeated.
450 CE (28th July)
Theodosius II died from injuries sustained in a riding accident. He was succeeded by general Marcian who married Theodosius’s sister.
455 CE (16th March)
Valentinian III was assassinated by order of the senator Petronius Maximus.
455 CE (17th March)
Petronius Maximus was proclaimed Augustus of the western Empire.
455 CE (31st May)
A Vandal force advanced on Rome. The population fled in the face of the advance as did Petronius Maximus. A mob of angry Romans killed Maximus as he attempted to flee the stricken city.
455 CE (2nd June)
The city of Rome was sacked by the Vandals.
455 CE (9th July)
Avitus became Augustus of the western Empire.
456 CE (17th October)
Avitus fled Rome after a coup was mounted by general Ricimer and guard Majorian.
457 CE (during)
Avitus died. He may have been murdered by Majorian who succeeded him as Augustus of the west.
457 CE (27th January)
Marcian, Augustus of the east, died. He was succeeded by Leo I.
461 CE (19th November)
General Ricimer ordered that Majorian be killed. He was succeeded by Libius Severus.
465 CE (15th August)
Libius Severus died. He was succeeded by Anthemius.
468 CE (during)
Battle of Cap Bon
This was a battle between the east and west Empires against the Vandals of Carthage. The Roman fleet attempted to land at Cap Bon but was intercepted by the Vandals who sank more than 100 Roman ships leaving the Romans unable to mount a cohesive invasion and cementing the loss of Africa.
472 CE (11th July)
Anthemius was killed while fleeing the forces of Ricimer. He was succeeded as western Augustus by Maximus’s son, Olybrius.
472 CE (18th August)
General Ricimer, who had becme a Patrician, died. He was succeeded by his nephew Gundobad.
472 CE (2nd November)
Olybrius died. He was succeeded as western Augustus by Glycerius.
473 CE (during)
Gundobad gave up his Roman titles and status to succeed his father as King of Burgundy.
474 CE (January)
Leo, Augustus of the eastern Empire appointed his nephew, Julius Nepos, Augustus of the western Empire in opposition to Glycerius.
474 CE (18th January)
Leo, Augustus of the eastern Empire, died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II. Leo II’s father, Zeno acted as co-Augustus with his son.
474 CE (July)
Julius Nepos deposed Glycerius and took control of the western Empire.
474 CE (17th November)
Leo II, Augustus of the eastern Empire, died leaving Zeno as sole emperor of the east.
475 CE (January)
Zeno fled to Isauria (Turkey) when the people revolted against his rule.
475 CE (9th January)
Basiliscus was appointed Augustus of the eastern Empire to replace Zeno.
475 CE (during)
Julius Nepos appointed Orestes commander of the western Roman army.
475 CE (28th August)
Orestes took control of Ravenna and forced Julius Nepos to flee to Dalmatia (Croatia).
475 CE (31st October)
Orestes created his young son, Romulus Augustulus, Augustus of the western Empire.
476 CE (August)
Zeno retook Constantinople. Basiliscus surrendered and Zeno regained control of the eastern Empire.
476 CE (23rd August)
Germanic tribesmen who had settled in Roman provinces and declared loyalty to Rome renounced western Roman authority and declared general Odoacer their king.
476 CE (28th August)
Odoacer captured Orestes and executed him. Romulus was forced to abdicate in favour of Odoacer who declared himself king of Italy. This marked the end of the Roman Empire.

 

Published Jun 03, 2018 @ 1:04 pm – Updated – Jun 3, 2018 @ 1:22 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Ancient Rome 753 BCE – 476 CE. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/ancient-rome-753-bce-476-ce Last accessed November 8th, 2018

 

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