1744 (19th May)
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was born Sophia Charlotte to Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg and Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe Hildburghausen at Unteres Schloss, Mirow, Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was the couples eighth child.
1748 (16th August)
Charlotte’s brother George Augustus was born to Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg and Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe Hildburghausen at Unteres Schloss, Mirow, Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Charlotte began her education which was largely confined to non-academic subjects such as needlework, dancing and household management.
1752 (5th June)
Charlotte’s father died. He was succeeded as Duke of Mecklenburg by Charlotte’s elder brother, Adolphus Frederick.
1761 (29th June)
Charlotte’s mother died.
Negotiations were concluded for Charlotte to marry King George III
of Great Britain.
1761 (14th August)
George III sent a deputation to Mecklenburg-Strelitz to sign the marriage agreement and escort Charlotte to Britain.
1761 (7th September)
After a difficult voyage from the continent, Charlotte arrived at the port of Harwich in England.
1761 (8th September)
Charlotte married King George III of Great Britain at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace.
1761 (21st September)
George and Charlotte crowned King George III and Queen consort at Westminster Abbey.
Charlotte, who could only speak German, began learning English.
George purchased Buckingham House in London which offered more privacy. The royal family moved to Buckingham House soon after its purchase though St James’s Palace remained the official royal residence.
1762 (12th August)
1762 (17th August)
Charlotte’s son, George, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1763 (16th August)
A son, Frederick Augustus, was born to Charlotte and George III at St James’s Palace, London.
1764 (19th May)
The young musical prodigy, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and his family were summoned to court where Wolfgang played for the court.
Charlotte, suffered a miscarriage.
Charlotte’s husband, George III, had a temporary episode of mental instability but Charlotte was not told of his mental state because Charlotte’s mother-in-law and Prime Minister Lord Bute did not want to lose power. Charlotte was named as regent if the King was unable to rule.
1765 (18th January)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dedicated his Opus 3 to Queen Charlotte.
1765 (21st August)
A son, William Henry, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1766 (29th September)
A daughter, Charlotte Augusta Matilda was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1767 (2nd November)
A son, Edward Augustus, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1768 (8th November)
A daughter, Augusta Sophia, was born to Charlotte and George at Buckingham House, London.
1769 (22nd May)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1771 (5th June)
A son, Ernest Augustus, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1772 (8th February)
Charlotte’s mother-in-law, Augusta died. Charlotte had not had an easy relationship with Augusta who had interfered and criticised her relentlessly.
1773 (27th January)
A son, Augustus Frederick, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1774 (24th February)
A son, Adolphus Frederick, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1776 (25th April)
A daughter, Mary, was born to Charlotte and George III at Buckingham House, London.
1777 (3rd November)
A daughter, Sophia Matilda, was born to Charlotte and George at Buckingham House, London.
A new property, the Queen’s Lodge at Windsor, was completed and the royal family spent much of their free time there.
Charlotte’s husband, George, suffered a period of mental instability where he became violent and had to be restrained in a straitjacket.
George’s mental health recovered and he was able to resume royal duties.
1779 (23rd February)
A son, Octavius, was born to Charlotte and George III and at Buckingham House, London.
1780 (22nd September)
A son, Alfred, was born to Charlotte and George III and at Buckingham House, London.
Following British defeat in the American War of Independence, King George, who was devastated by the loss of the American colonies, considered abdicating the throne.
1782 (19th April)
Charlotte’s son, William, was made a Knight of the Garter.
1782 (20th August)
Charlotte’s son, Alfred, died at Windsor Castle, London.
1783 (3rd May)
Charlotte’s son, Octavius, died at Kew Palace, Surrey.
1783 (7th August)
A daughter, Amelia, was born to Charlotte and George III at The Lodge, Windsor Castle.
1784 (29th November)
Charlotte’s son, Frederick Augustus, was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster.
1785 (15th December)
Charlotte’s eldest son, Prince George, married Maria Anne FitzHerbert, daughter of Walter Smythe of Brambridge, Hampshire, who was a Catholic and twice widowed. The marriage was in contravention to the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 as he did not have his father’s permission to marry and in contravention to the Test Act which forbade the marriage to Roman Catholics and it was deemed to be invalid.
Charlotte and King George visited the Worcester Porcelain Factory.
Charlotte’s husband, George III, suffered a bout of insanity which was so bad that it scared Charlotte.
King George’s condition worsened and he was reported as speaking and writing incessantly. There was conflict between Charlotte and her eldest son, George over the illness of King George. Charlotte suspected that Prince George wanted his father certified insane so that he could take over as Regent, while Prince George suspected that Charlotte wanted him declared sane so that she could maintain power.
This bill was passed by the House of Commons but before it passed the House of Lords, George III recovered. It made provision for Prince George to become Regent if the King became permanently mentally insane. It also made Charlotte guardian of King George and the royal children.
Charlotte organised a concert to celebrate the King’s recovery. She purposely did not invite the Prince of Wales and this created a scandal.
1789 (19th April)
Charlotte’s son, William, was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews.
1789 (20th May)
Charlotte’s son, William, was created Earl of Munster.
1789 (26th August)
1789 (5th October)
French Revolution – Women’s March on Versailles
Women had come onto the streets of Paris in protest at the price of bread. Political agitators joined them and they marched on the Palace of Versailles demanding reform and a constitutional monarchy. They persuaded the King and his family to return to Paris. Charlotte and King George were deeply concerned about the situation in France.
Charlotte made peace with her son, Prince George.
Although King George had recovered he remained fragile and Charlotte was concerned that the slightest thing may spark off a relapse. She became depressed and concerned for the future. She was reluctant to appear in public and preferred to spend time in the design of a new residence, Frogmore House at Windsor.
King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette were arrested and imprisoned. Charlotte was deeply upset since she had formed a close relationship with the French Queen.
1793 (21st January)
King Louis XVI was executed by guillotine having been found guilty of treason. His wife, Marie Antoinette was executed in October of the same year. The Royal family were very shocked by this news.
1795 (8th April)
Charlotte’s son Prince George married Caroline of Brunswick
at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London.
1797 (29th September)
Charlotte’s daughter, Charlotte married Frederick Duke of Wurttemburg at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace.
1799 (23rd April)
Charlotte’s son, Edward was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin. Her son, Ernest was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh.
1801 (1st January)
Act of Union
The Kingdom of Ireland was formally united with the Kingdom of Great Britain as a single country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
King George suffered another temporary period of mental instability and Charlotte began to live separately from her husband.
Charlotte became patron of the General Lying-in Hospital for expectant mothers. It was later renamed Queen Charlotte’s and Chelsea Hospital.
1810 (2nd November)
Charlotte’s daughter, Amelia, died at Augusta Lodge, Windsor.
George III suffered a bout of insanity that did not respond to treatment. Charlotte’s son, George, Prince of Wales, was made regent.
1811 (5th February)
This act passed most royal duties to George II’s son, George who was given the title Prince Regent. It also formally made Charlotte guardian of King George and the Royal children. Charlotte found George’s insanity hard to deal with and began to visit him less frequently.
1816 (22nd July)
Charlotte’s daughter, Mary, married her cousin, William, Duke of Gloucester at the private chapel, Buckingham Palace.
1818 (13th July)
1818 (17th November)
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz died at Kew Palace.