1239 (18th June)
1240 (29th September)
Edward’s sister, Margaret, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
1242 (25th June)
Edward’s sister, Beatrice, was born to Henry and Eleanor in Bordeaux.
1245 (16th January)
Edward’s brother, Edmund, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Edward’s brother, Richard was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Edward’s brother, John, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Edward’s brother, William, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Edward’s sister, Katherine, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
The Sicilian Crisis
Edward’s father, Henry, made an agreement with the Pope that his son, Edmund should be King of Sicily. Edmund was to march at the head of an army into Sicily and take it from the former King of Sicily’s son. The Pope, Innocent III, agreed to contribute to the cost of the venture. However, Innocent died and was succeeded by Alexander IV who refused to contribute financially and requested repayment of monies already paid.
1254 (1st October)
Edward’s father, Henry led a campaign in France to try to regain lost land but was unsuccessful.
1254 (1st November)
Edward married Eleanor
, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile at the Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd rebelled against English control in Wales and declared himself Prince of Wales.
Edward fought with his father, Henry, to defeat Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and take back control of Wales.
Edward’s sister, Katherine, who had been mute, died.
Pope Alexander IV sent an envoy to England demanding repayment of costs incurred by the papacy in funding an army to go to Sicily. Henry was told that if he did not pay he would be excommunicated. Furthermore, Henry was to fund the army himself and reclaim Sicily.
Provisions of Oxford
Edward’s father, Henry, asked parliament for money but he was told that he could have no money unless he agreed to changes within parliament. The barons wanted a group of 24 men, 12 selected by the King and 12 by the barons to act as advisers to the King. Simon de Montfort was one of the leading barons in this move for reform and one of those put forward by the barons to advise the King.
Provisions of Westminster
This extended and formalised the Provisions of Oxford. Allowing a group of barons to advise the King.
1259 (4th December)
Treaty of Paris
This treaty resolved differences between Henry and Louis IX of France. Henry formally acknowledged the loss of Normandy but retained possession of the Channel Islands. Henry gave up control of Maine, Anjou and Poitou but retained Gascony and Aquitaine as a vassal to the French King. Louis gained Agenais for a period of 20 years paying an annual rent to the English crown.
Edward and his wife, Eleanor of Castile travelled abroad to oversee their continental possessions.
Backed by the Pope, Henry repudiated the Provisions of Oxford. This led to another war between the barons and King.
Edward and Eleanor returned to England to help deal with a worsening situation with the barons.
1264 (14th May)
Battle of Lewes
The forces of Simon de Montfort defeated Henry and Edward and took them prisoner.
1264 (late May)
Edward managed to escape from Simon de Montfort.
1264 (17th June)
A daughter, Eleanor, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile.
A daughter, Joan, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile. She only lived a few months.
1265 (4th August)
Battle of Evesham
The royalist forces led by Prince Edward defeated the forces of Simon de Montfort and killed de Montfort. Henry was released from prison.
1266 (10th July)
A son, John, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile.
Dictum of Kenilworth
This imposed harsh fines on those who had rebelled and fought against Henry.
1268 (13th July)
A son, Henry, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile.
Henry has spent a vast amount of money rebuilding Westminster Abbey. The body of Edward the Confessor was re-buried in the Abbey.
Prince Edward and his wife, Eleanor, left England to join the eighth crusade.
Edward and Eleanor spent the winter in Sicily.
Edward and Eleanor reached Acre in Palestine.
A daughter, Katherine, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile at Acre Palestine. She died after a few months.
1271 (3rd August)
Edward’s son, John, died at the Palace of Westminster.
Henry, whose health was deteriorating, sent a message to ask Edward to leave the crusade and return to England.
A daughter, Joan, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile at Acre, Palestine.
An assassination attempt was made on Edward when he was stabbed with a dagger thought to be poisoned. Edward was saved by a surgeon who cut away the poisoned flesh.
Edward and Eleanor began the return journey to England.
1272 (16th November)
Henry died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. His eldest son, Edward succeeded him as king.
Edward reached Sicily where he learned that his father had died and he was King.
1273 (24th November)
A son, Alfonso, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile in Gascony.
Edward returned to England. He appointed Robert Burnell, who had governed the country in his absence, as chief minister.
1274 (19th August)
Edward was crowned King and Eleanor was crowned Queen consort at Westminster Abbey.
Edward and Robert Burnell began making legal reforms to end the long standing grievances of the barons and re-establish the rights of the crown.
1274 (14th October)
Edward’s son, Henry, died.
Edward introduced a tax on wool.
Llywellyn ap Gruffydd refused to pay homage to King Edward I. In retaliation Edward seized Simon de Montfort’s daughter, Eleanor, who had been on her way to marry Llywellyn.
1275 (23rd January)
Robert Burnell was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells.
1275 (11th September)
A daughter, Margaret, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile at Windsor Castle.
A daughter, Berengaria, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile. She died before her third birthday
War broke out between Edward and Llewellyn ap Gruffydd when Edward invaded Wales. Llewellyn’s forces had no choice but to retreat to the mountains of Snowdonia. Edward then took the island of Angelsey cutting off Llewellyn’s supply of food and forcing him to submit to Edward.
A daughter, Mary, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile.
As agreed by the Treaty of Paris 1259, the Agenais region of France was handed back to the English. The Agenais was an important wine producing area and helped to establish trading links between London and Bordeaux where wine was exported to London and cloth was exported to Bordeaux.
1279 (12th March)
A daughter, Isabella, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile. She died before the end of the year.
Work began on Harlech Castle on the Western coast of Wales.
War broke out between Edward and the Welsh chieftans who were unhappy at Edward’s takeover of Wales.
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile at Rhuddlan Castle, Wales.
1282 (11th December)
Battle of Orewin Bridge
This battle fought between Welsh forces and Edward I saw the Welsh defeated and Llywelyn ap Gruffyd killed.
Work began on Conwy Castle in North Wales.
Edward began rebuilding Caernarvon castle in stone. He also built a stone wall around the city.
1284 (3rd March)
Statute of Rhuddlan
This statute divided Wales into shires and introduced English common law into Wales.
1284 (25th April)
A son, Edward was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile at Caernarvon Castle, Wales.
1284 (19th August)
Edward’s son, Alfonso, died.
1285 (15th August)
Edward’s daughter, Mary, became a nun at Amesbury Abbey.
A daughter, Beatrice, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile. She died young.
Edward went to Gascony. While there he ordered the expulsion of all Jews.
1287 (8th June)
A new Welsh revolt by Rhys ap Maredudd was easily crushed.
A daughter, Blanche, was born to Edward and Eleanor of Castile. She died young.
Edward returned to England.
Edward ordered the expulsion of all Jews from England.
Treaty of Birgham
This treaty agreed a marriage between Edward’s heir, Edward and Margaret, Maid of Norway, heir to the Scottish throne.
Margaret, Maid of Norway left Norway for Scotland to take up the throne but died on the journey. This led to a succession crisis in Scotland between Robert Bruce and John Balliol.
1290 (28th November)
Edward’s wife, Eleanor of Castile, died at the manor of Harby, Nottinghamshire.
Eleanor’s body was transported to Westminster Abbey, London. The journey took 12 days and at each stopping point Edward ordered crosses, known as Eleanor Crosses, to be built. The twelve crosses were built at Lincoln, Grantham, Stamford, Geddington, Hardingstone, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St Albans, Waltham, West Cheap (Cheapside) and Charing.
1290 (17th December)
Eleanor of Castile was buried in Westminster Abbey.
1291 (26th June)
Edward’s mother, Eleanor of Provence, died.
1291 (31st July)
Edward’s son, Prince Edward was betrothed to Blanche, half-sister of Philip IV of France.
1292 (17th November)
Edward was asked to mediate in Scotland and decide whether Robert Bruce or John Balliol should be King. He agreed to do so on condition that he was made overlord of Scotland. Edward was given control of Scotland and eventually decided in favour of John Balliol.
Edward decided to marry his son’s betrothed, Blanche of France.
Edward was annoyed when he learned that Philip IV had promised Blanche of France to Rudolph of Austria. Philip offered him the hand of his half-sister Margaret instead.
Philip IV of France attacked Aquitaine which was held by Edward. Edward, as overlord of Scotland, demanded that Scotland provide him with military support to defend Aquitaine. This made him very unpopular.
A new revolt in Wales led by Madog ap Llywelyn was crushed.
Edward’s popularity in Scotland continued to decrease and the Scottish people became more nationalist, seeking political independence. The nationalist rebels were led by William Wallace.
Work began on the building of Beaumaris castle, a concentric castle built of stone with 12 towers.
John Balliol allied Scotland with France and prepared to invade England.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey refused to allow Edward to tax the clergy.
King Philip IV of France, invaded English-held Gascony.
1296 (30th March)
Edward attacked Berwick in retaliation for John Balliol allying Scotland with France.
1296 (27th April)
Battle of Dunbar
Edward I’s force had been given a new weapon, the longbow. Made from Welsh Yew it was about six feet in length and could drive an arrow through armour. Used for the first time during this battle the Scottish army were defeated and many leaders captured.
Edward had defeated Scotland and taken control of the country. John Balliol had been deposed and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Edward had also taken the Stone of Scone and placed it in the Coronation chair in Westminster Abbey.
Edward faced opposition in parliament. Edward had wanted to raise an army to fight in Gascony on his behalf but Roger Bigod, Marshal of England, argued that soldiers raised should only have to fight alongside their King not in his stead. English magnates also resisted a new tax to raise funds for a new war with France.
With Edward away from Scotland planning a new war with France, Scottish resistance to English rule was organised by William Wallace in the South and Andrew Moray in the North.
Edward left England for Flanders to try to make an alliance and gain military support for a war with France. His mission was unsuccessful.
1297 (11th September)
Battle of Stirling Bridge
An English army marching through Scotland had to cross a narrow bridge across the river Forth. They were met by a Scottish force led by Wallace and Moray. The battle was a decisive victory for Scotland but Moray died from injuries sustained in the battle.
William Wallace declared himself Guardian of Scotland.
1298 (22nd July)
Battle of Falkirk
Edward defeated the Scots led by William Wallace.
1299 (10th September)
Edward married Margaret
, Philip IV’s sister. It was also agreed that Edward’s son and heir, Prince Edward, would marry Philip’s daughter, Isabella when she came of age.
1300 (1st June)
A son, Thomas, was born to Edward and Margaret.
1301 (7th February)
Edward’s son and heir, Prince Edward, was invested as Prince of Wales.
1301 (5th August)
A son, Edmund, was born to Edward and Margaret.
1302 (26th January)
Robert the Bruce, grandson of Robert Bruce, claimant to the Scottish throne in 1291, allied himself with the English.
1303 (20th May)
A new peace treaty with France was negotiated. The terms of the treaty led to the withdrawal of the French alliance with Scotland. England regained Gascony from France.
Most of the Scottish magnates had pledged allegiance to Edward.
1305 (5th August)
William Wallace was captured by the English.
1305 (23rd August)
William Wallace was found guilty of treason and executed by being hung, drawn and quartered.
Although he had aligned himself with the English, Robert the Bruce planned to take the Scottish throne. He asked John Balliol’s nephew John Comyn to join him but when he refused Balliol murdered Comyn.
1306 (25th March)
Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland.
Edward was furious that Robert the Bruce had made himself King of Scotland and planned to invade Scotland.
Robert the Bruce was forced to flee into exile. Legend states that while in exile he became despondent and ready to give up but seeing the persistence of a spider spinning a web realised that he must try and try again to take the throne.
1306 (4th May)
A daughter, Eleanor, was born to Edward and Margaret.
Robert the Bruce returned to Scotland and began raising an army.
Battle of Loudoun Hill
Robert the Bruce defeated Aymer de Valence.
1307 (7th July)
Edward died at Burgh-on-Sands, Northumberland from dysentery. He was succeeded by his son, Edward II