King Edward II of England 1284 – 1327

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Edward II

Father – King Edward I
Mother – Eleanor of Castile
Spouse – Isabella of France
Children – Edward, John, Eleanor, Joan
King of England – 1307 – 1327
Predecessor – Edward I
Successor – Edward III

 

 

1284 (25th April)
Born the fourth son of Edward I and his wife Eleanor of Castile and second in line to the throne (two elder brothers had died before his birth). He was born at Caernarfon Castle in Wales.
1284 (19th August)
Edward’s elder brother Alfonso died making Edward heir to the throne.
1290 (July)
Edward’s father negotiated this treaty with Scotland. It settled the Scottish succession on Margaret, the Maid of Norway and provided for her marriage to Prince Edward. The treaty was intended to stop either the Bruce or the Balliol families from taking the throne of Scotland.
1290 (September)
Margaret, the Maid of Norway died on her way from the Orkney Islands to Scotland.
1290 (28th November)
Edward’s mother, Eleanor of Castile, died. His father was distraught at his wife’s death and ordered a lavish funeral at Westminster. Her body was taken in procession from Lincoln to Westminster and a series of crosses (Eleanor Crosses) were placed at 12 intervals along the route.
1290 (28th November)
Edward became Count of Ponthieu and Montreuil on his mother’s death.
1291 (During)
Prince Edward was left as regent of England and Wales while his father was on campaign in the Netherlands.
1291 (31st July)
Edward was betrothed to Blanche, half-sister of Philip IV of France.
1293 (during)
Edward’s betrothal to Blanche was broken when Edward’s father, King Edward I, decided to marry her himself.
1299 (8th September)
Edward’s father, Edward I made peace with France and married Philip IV of France’s half-sister, Margaret. It was also agreed that Prince Edward would marry Philip’s daughter Isabella when she came of age.
1300 (During)
Piers Gaveston joined Prince Edward’s household
1300 (During)
Prince Edward went with his father on campaign against the Scots.
1301 (1st February)
Prince Edward was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1301 (Summer)
Edward, Prince of Wales, led an army on campaign in Scotland.
1304 (Spring)
Edward, Prince of Wales and his father lay siege to Stirling Castle
1304 (20th July)
Stirling Castle surrendered to the English
1306 (February)
Robert Bruce of Scotland killed his rival John Comyn
1306 (25th March)
Robert Bruce declared himself King of Scotland and was crowned at Scone
1306 (After March)
The English led by King Edward I defeated Robert Bruce and he fled into hiding.
1306 (May)
Edward was created Duke of Aquitaine.
1307 (26th February)
Prince Edward’s favourite, Piers Gaveston, was banished by the King
1307 (May)
Robert Bruce returned with a Scottish army and defeated the English at the Battle of Loudoun Hill
1307 (8th July)
Edward became King Edward II of England following the death of his father.
1307 (July)
Edward recalled his favourite, Piers Gaveston
1307 (6th August)
Edward controversially created Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall.
1308 (25th January)
Edward married Isabella, the 12 year old daughter of Philip IV of France.
1308 (25th February)
Edward and Isabella were crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1308 (during February)
The barons were becoming increasingly concerned about the power wielded by Piers Gaveston.
1308 (April)
The barons, supported by Isabella and her father and probably Margaret, second wife of Edward I, again complained about the power and influence wielded by Piers Gaveston. Edward reluctantly agreed to send Gaveston away and gave him the title Lieutenant of Ireland before sending him to Ireland.
1310 (January)
Parliament was scheduled to meet but a great number of nobles stayed away as a protest against the power given to Gaveston
1310 (February)
Parliament met and Edward wanted to discuss funding for war with Scotland, however, the barons wanted to discuss Gaveston.
1311 (October)
Under immense pressure Edward was forced to accept the Ordinances – a list of terms that limited the power of the monarch and ordered that Gaveston be exiled.
1311 (December)
By the end of 1311 Edward was facing opposition from many of the English barons.
1312 (January)
Edward revoked the Ordinances and recalled Gaveston to England.
1312 (Late January)
Edward’s actions had served to further alienate the barons. The barons met secretly in London and drew up a plan to capture both Edward, Isabella and Gaveston.
1312 (Spring)
Edward, Isabella and Gaveston fled north but were followed by the Earls of Lancaster and Pembroke. In an attempt to outwit their pursuers Edward and Isabella went to York leaving Gaveston at Scarborough.
1312 (Late Spring)
Gaveston surrendered to the Earl of Pembroke who took him south. However, on the way Gaveston was seized by the Earl of Warwick who took him to Warwick Castle.
1312 (18th June)
The Earl of Warwick conducted a show trial which found Gaveston guilty of treason.
1312 (19th June)
Piers Gaveston was executed.
1312 (ater 19th June)
Edward was furious when he heard the news of Gaveston’s death and vowed to seek revenge. However, civil war was averted when the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey pledged their support to Edward.
1312 (13th November)
A son, Edward was born to Edward II and his wife Isabella at Windsor Castle.
1313 (During)
With most of the nobles back on side, Edward was able to secure a grant of money from Parliament to reclaim land in Scotland taken by Robert Bruce.
1314 (23rd-24th June)
The English were defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn
1314 (Autumn)
The harvest was very poor in this year leading to a rise in food prices. People blamed the poor harvest on Edward’s defeat at Bannockburn.
1315 (During)
The Earls of Lancaster and Warwick had become increasingly powerful over the past year.
1316 (13th August)
A second son, John was born to Edward II and his wife Isabella at Eltham Palace.
1318 (During)
Edward had two new favourites, Hugh Despensor and his son also named Hugh. Edward gave lavish gifts and money to both men.
1318 (13th June)
A daughter, Eleanor, was born to Edward II and his wife Isabella.
1318 (Autumn)
The barons once again turned against Edward due to the favouritism shown to the Despensors and called for the Ordinances to be re-introduced and the Despensors exiled.
1321 (February)
Civil War broke out between Edward and the Despensors and the Barons led by Roger Mortimer.
1321 (5th July)
A daughter, Joan, was born to Edward II and his wife Isabella. She was known as Joan of the Tower because she was born in the Tower of London.
1321 (August)
Roger Mortimer’s forces were unable to take London.
1322 (16th March)
Edward defeated the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Broughbridge
1322 (22nd March)
Thomas Earl of Lancaster was executed
1323 (During)
Edward was summoned to France to pay homage to the new King Charles IV in respect of his lands in Gascony.
1324 (During)
Charles IV invaded Gascony. Edward had around 4,500 soldiers stationed there but knew that this would not be enough to fight Charles IV.
1324 (November)
It was agreed that Edward should send a force to France.
1325 (March)
Edward’s Queen, Isabella, and their eldest son, Edward travelled to France to pay homage to Charles IV and so end the war.
1325 (September)
Edward II crossed the English Channel in order to pay homage to King Charles IV of France
1326 (During)
Isabella did not return to England but instead remained in France with Roger Mortimer who had been exiled from England. The two had become lovers at some point.
1326 (Summer)
Those nobles who continued to oppose Edward gathered around Isabella and Mortimer in France.
1326 (27th August)
Queen Isabella agreed to the betrothal of Prince Edward and Phillippa of Hainault in return for the support of the Count of Hainault.
1326 (24th September)
Roger Mortimer, Queen Isabella and Prince Edward landed at Orwell on the east coast of England with a small invasion force.
1326 (late September)
Enemies of King Edward and the Despensers flocked to support Mortimer, Isabella and Prince Edward.
1326 (2nd October)
Isabella, Mortimer and Edward reached Oxford where they were warmly welcomed.
1326 (2nd October)
King Edward and the Despensers were forced to leave London because it was becoming increasingly unsafe. They headed west.
1326 (7th October)
Isabella, Prince Edward and Mortimer reached London.
1326 (9th October)
Edward and the Despensers reached Gloucester.
1326 (16th October)
Isabella’s forces reached Gloucester. Edward fled to Wales while Hugh Despenser the elder moved to Bristol.
1326 (18th October)
Isabella’s forces lay siege to Bristol.
1326 (26th October)
Hugh Despenser the elder was captured and executed when Bristol fell to Isabella’s forces.
1326 (2nd November)
King Edward and Hugh Despenser the younger attempted to leave England for Ireland but bad weather drove them back to Wales.
1326 (16th November)
King Edward II and Hugh Despenser the younger were captured by the forces of Mortimer, Isabella and Prince Edward. Despenser was imprisoned while Edward was placed in the custody of Henry of Lancaster.
1326 (24th November)
Hugh Despenser the younger was executed.
1326 (late November)
Isabella took the Tower of London and took control of the government of the country. She arranged for a council of nobles and churchmen to meet and discuss the situation.
1327 (January)
The council of nobility and churchmen met to discuss what to do about the King. It was decided that Edward II should be forced to abdicate in favour of his son.
1327 (21st January)
Edward II became Edward of Caernarvon and his eldest son became King Edward III. Isabella and Mortimer would act as regents while the King was still a child.
1327 (2nd February)
Edward’s son was crowned King Edward III at Westminster Abbey.
1327 (5th April)
Edward of Caernarvon was moved to Berkley Castle because it was feared that opponents of the new regime would try to effect his escape.
1327 (21st September)
Edward of Caernarvon died while in custody. Some historians believe that Edward escaped captivity and lived his life in obscurity and that it suited Isabella and Mortimer to spread the news that he had died.

 

 

Published Jul 16, 2015 @ 19:22 – Updated – Mar 4, 2018 @ 2:52 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015 – 2018). King Edward II of England 1284 – 1327. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/edward-ii-1284-1327 Last accessed

 

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