Eleanor of Provence, was born to Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy in Aix-en-Provence. She was the couple’s second daughter, her sister Margaret had been born in 1221.
Eleanor’s sister, Sanchia, was born to Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy.
1236 (14th January)
Eleanor married King Henry III at Canterbury Cathedral. Afterwards she and Henry went to London where she was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey.
A large number of Eleanor’s relatives arrived in England and many were given positions in government. This made Eleanor unpopular with the people.
1239 (18th June)
A son, Edward
was born to Eleanor and Henry.
Eleanor’s husband, King Henry III, took control of North Wales after Llywelyn the Great died.
1240 (29th September)
A daughter, Margaret, was born to Eleanor and Henry.
King Henry III, set sail for France at the head of an army . He was hoping to make gains in France.
1242 (20th May)
Battle of Taillebourg
King Henry III, was beaten by the French in this battle. He avoided capture and managed to escape to Bordeaux.
1242 (25th June)
A daughter, Beatrice, was born to Eleanor and Henry in Bordeaux.
1245 (16th January)
A son, Edmund, was born to Eleanor and Henry.
Prince Edward, was taken very ill at Beaulieu Abbey. Although women were not allowed in the abbey Eleanor of Provence insisted on staying by her son’s side until he began to recover.
A son, Richard was born to Eleanor and Henry.
A son, John, was born to Eleanor and Henry.
A son, William, was born to Eleanor and Henry.
A daughter, Katherine, was born to Eleanor and Henry.
The Sicilian Crisis
King Henry III, made an agreement with the Pope that his and Eleanor’s son, Edmund should be King of Sicily. Edmund was to march at the head of an army into Sicily and take it from the former King of Sicily’s son. The Pope, Innocent III, agreed to contribute to the cost of the venture. However, Innocent died and was succeeded by Alexander IV who refused to contribute financially and requested repayment of monies already paid.
1254 (1st October)
King Henry led a campaign in France to try to regain lost land but was unsuccessful.
1254 (1st November)
Prince Edward, married Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile at the Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd rebelled against English control in Wales and declared himself Prince of Wales.
Henry, supported by his son, Edward, defeated Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and took back control of Wales.
Eleanor’s daughter, Katherine, who had been mute, died.
Pope Alexander IV sent an envoy to England demanding repayment of costs incurred by the papacy in funding an army to go to Sicily. Henry was told that if he did not pay he would be excommunicated. Furthermore, Henry was to fund the army himself and reclaim Sicily.
Provisions of Oxford
Henry asked parliament for money but he was told that he could have no money unless he agreed to changes within parliament. The barons wanted a group of 24 men, 12 selected by the King and 12 by the barons to act as advisers to the King. Simon de Montfort was one of the leading barons in this move for reform and one of those put forward by the barons to advise the King.
1258 (4th December)
Treaty of Paris
This treaty agreed a peace between England and France. It officially recognised King John’s loss of Normandy and Poitou to France but confirmed England’s possession of Aquitaine.
Provisions of Westminster
This extended and formalised the Provisions of Oxford. Allowing a group of barons to advise the King.
Backed by the Pope, King Henry repudiated the Provisions of Oxford. This led to another war between the barons and King.
1264 (14th May)
Battle of Lewes
The forces of Simon de Montfort defeated Henry III and Prince Edward and took them prisoner.
1264 (late May)
Edward managed to escape from Simon de Montfort.
1265 (4th August)
Battle of Evesham
The royalist forces led by Prince Edward defeated the rebel forces and killed Simon de Montfort. King Henry was released from prison.
Dictum of Kenilworth
This imposed harsh fines on those who had rebelled and fought against Henry.
The remaining rebels against Henry’s rule surrendered.
King Henry had spent a vast amount of money rebuilding Westminster Abbey. The body of Edward the Confessor
was re-buried in the Abbey.
Prince Edward left England to join the eighth crusade.
Henry, whose health was deteriorating, sent a message to ask Edward to leave the crusade and return to England.
1272 (16th November)
Eleanor of Provence founded the priory at Guildford.
Eleanor entered the convent at Amesbury.
1291 (24th June)