Empress Matilda (Maud) 1102 – 1167

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Empress Matilda

 

Father – King Henry I of England
Mother – Edith (Matilda) of Scotland
Spouse – Henry V of Germany, Geoffrey of Anjou
Children – Henry, Geoffrey, William

 

 

1102 (between February and August)
Born in England, the daughter of King Henry I and Edith of Scotland (Matilda). She was named Adelaide.
1103 (by 5th August)
Her brother William was born. He was given the name Atheling being heir to the throne.
1110 (10th April)
Adelaide was betrothed to Henry V, Emperor of Germany who was 20 years older than her.
1114 (7th January)
Adelaide married Henry V Emperor of Germany. On her marriage her name was changed to Matilda. She was also crowned Empress of Germany on the same day.
1117 (During)
Matilda and her husband visited Rome and were given the titles Holy Roman Emperor and Empress by the Pope.
1118 (1st May)
Matilda’s mother, Edith of Scotland, died in England
1120 (During)
Matilda’s husband,Henry V was facing unrest in Germany.
1121 (29th January)
Matilda’s father, Henry I, married Adeliza of Louvain in the hopes of fathering a son and heir to the throne.
1120 (25th November)
Matilda’s brother and heir to the English throne, William Atheling, died in the White Ship Disaster
1122 (23rd September)
Matilda’s husband Henry V signed the Concordat of Worms which settled the unrest in Germany and made peace with the Pope.
1125 (23rd May)
Matilda’s husband Henry V died. The couple were childless and Matilda was recalled to Normandy.
1127 (January)
Henry I’s second wife, Adeliza, had still not become pregnant. Henry I, concerned for the succession gathered together the nobility of England and Normandy at Westminster where they swore an oath to recognise his daughter Matilda as heir to the throne and to support her as Queen and any children she may have.
1128 (17th June)
Married Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. He was fifteen years old
1133 (5th March)
Matilda gave birth to a son, Henry at Le Mans, Anjou
1134 (1st June)
Matilda gave birth to a son, Geoffrey at Rouen, Normandy
1135 (1st December)
Henry I of England and Normandy died near Rouen, Normandy. Matilda was technically now Queen of England and Normandy but despite having sworn to support her many nobles were against a woman becoming Queen.
1135 (December)
Following the death of Henry I, Matilda and her husband Geoffrey began taking control of key castles in Normandy. Matilda, was in the early stages of pregnancy and may have been reluctant to make the sea crossing to England.
1135 (22nd December)
Stephen of Blois, Count of Mortain, grandson of William I of England seized the English throne.
1135 (26th December)
Stephen was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
1136 (During)
David I of Scotland supported Matilda’s claim to the English throne and invaded the north of England. Stephen marched north to intercept the Scottish king.
1136 (21st July)
Matilda gave birth to a son, William at Argentan, Normandy
1138 (During)
Matilda’s half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, rebelled against Stephen on Matilda’s behalf and declared war on Stephen beginning a period of civil war.
1138 (22nd August)
King David I of Scotland was defeated by King Stephen of England at the Battle of the Standard.
1139 (9th April)
King David I of Scotland and King Stephen reached an agreement and hostilities were ended between the two.
1139 (September)
Matilda and Geoffrey landed at Arundel in Sussex to press Matilda’s claim to the throne.
1139 (after September)
Supported by Robert of Gloucester, Matilda quickly gained control of the south-west of England
1141 (2nd February)
Matilda and Stephen fought a decisive battle at Lincoln. Stephen was captured and held prisoner by Matilda who declared herself Queen of England.
1141 (2nd March)
Matilda met with the Bishop of Winchester, Stephen’s brother, Henry of Blois. Henry and his brother had disagreed on the ruling of the country and so Henry gave his support to Matilda.
1141 (3rd March)
Matilda was given a formal welcome to Winchester and handed the keys to the treasury.
1141 (Spring)
Matilda went to Oxford before going on to London.
1141 (24th June)
Matilda had set 24th June as the date for her coronation, however a group of pro-Stephen supporters forced her to flee to Oxford before the event.
1141 (July)
Henry of Blois, seeing that Matilda did not have the support of London, decided to change sides and directed Stephen’s forces to besiege Matilda’s forces in Winchester.
1141 (31st July)
As soon as she learned of Henry of Blois’ actions Matilda set out for Winchester with her own army and lay siege to Stephen’s forces that were besieging her own forces.
1141 (early August)
Winchester was set on fire (probably by Stephen’s forces). This made it more difficult for Matilda’s forces to withstand the siege.
1141 (14th September)
The Rout of Winchester – Matilda’s forces were no longer able to withstand the siege by Stephen’s forces and tried to break out and flee north. Matilda was able to get away but Robert of Gloucester was captured.
1141 (November)
Matilda was unable to continue the war without Robert of Gloucester and refused to make peace with Stephen’s wife and so it was agreed that Robert of Gloucester would be swapped for Stephen and both were released.
1142 (During)
Matilda’s eldest son, Henry, arrived in England to help his mother’s cause.
1143 (During)
Robert of Gloucester put Wilton Castle, where Stephen was staying, under siege. However, Stephen was able to break free.
1143 (Late)
Geoffrey, Earl of East Anglia rose up against Stephen and planned a march south to London.
1144 (Summer)
Ranulf of Chester rebelled against Stephen but Matilda was unable to use this to further her claim to the throne
1144 (September)
Geoffrey, Earl of East Anglia died.
1144 (During)
Matilda’s eldest son, Henry, who Matilda and her supporters expected to be king after Stephen, returned to Anjou to begin learning how to administer the family’s lands there.
1147 (During)
Matilda’s half-brother and chief supporter, Robert of Gloucester died.
1147 (During)
Matilda’s son, Henry, returned to England with a mercenary force to try to take the throne from Stephen. The mission failed because Henry did not have sufficient funds to pay his men and his mother refused to pay the men for him.
1148 (Early)
Matilda returned to Normandy.
1151 (7th September)
Matilda’s husband Geoffrey died. His lands were inherited by their son, Henry.
1153 (Early)
Henry returned to England to try to win support for his claim to the throne. He had limited success but the barons did not want to return to a state of civil war. The church acted as a mediator and it was agreed that Henry would be named Stephen’s successor and would inherit the throne when Stephen died.
1154 (19th December)
Stephen died and Matilda’s son Henry, became King Henry II of England. He was crowned on the same day.
1154 (After)
After her son had been crowned King of England Matilda remained in Normandy handling the family estates there.
1167 (10th September)
Matilda died in Normandy

 

Published Sept 11, 2015 @ 18:20 – Updated – Feb 22, 2018 @ 12:30 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015). Empress Matilda (Maud) 1102 – 1167. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/empress-matilda-maud-1102-1167 Last accessed May 19th, 2019

 

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