1091 (2nd February)
Treaty of Caen
This treaty agreed a peace between William II and his brother Robert Curthose. The English King gained lands in Normandy as part of the settlement.
The English army returned from Normandy and marched North to deal with the Scottish invasion. On hearing of the English advance Malcolm Canmore returned to Scotland. A peace was agreed between Edgar Aetheling
and Robert Curthose and Malcolm was forced to pay homage to William II.
1091 (17th or 23rd October)
The first recorded tornado to hit London killed two people and destroyed London Bridge.
William II took Cumbria from Malcolm Canmore of Scotland.
1092 (9th May)
Lincoln Cathedral was consecrated.
High tides caused severe flooding in Britain. Earl Godwin’
s lands in Kent were completely flooded and those areas became known as the Goodwin Sands.
1093 (6th March)
William II was taken ill and believing he was dying appointed the Frankish scholar, Anselem of Bec, as Archbishop of Canterbury
. Anselem was a strong supporter of Church reform. William recovered a few days later.
1093 (19th March)
William II invaded Normandy but failed to make further gains.
1093 (8th April)
The construction of Winchester Cathedral which had begun in 1079, was completed.
1093 (11th August)
Work began on a new cathedral at Durham.
1093 (13th November)
Battle of Alnwick
King Malcolm of Scotland had invaded England and lay siege to Alnwick. An English force led by Robert of Mowbray attempted to relieve the siege. Malcolm and his son Edward were both killed in the fighting. Malcolm’s brother, Donald, became King of Scotland.
1093 (16th November)
Margaret of Scotland, wife of Malcolm III, sister of Edgar Aetheling, died following a short illness.
William II was a very different man to his father. He had long hair and enjoyed parties and having fun. Together with his favourite, Ranulf Flambard
, he raised money by increasing taxes and also by selling church offices and taking revenue from vacant sees. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Anselem of Bec was furious at his behaviour.
1094 (19th March)
William II invaded Normandy again but once again failed to make any gains.
Robert of Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland rebelled against William’s rule by refusing to attend the Curia Regis. William marched North and defeated him. He was imprisoned.
1095 (19th January)
Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, died.
1095 (25th February)
Council of Rockingham
This was held in an attempt to resolve the ongoing dispute between William II and Anselem of Bec but it failed to find any common ground for a settlement.
Walter of Albano was sent as Papal Legate to England. He was instructed to find a reconciliation between William II and Anselem of Bec and also to get William II to recognised Urban II as Pope. The legate’s mission was successful.
1095 (26th June)
Robert, Bishop of Hereford, died.
Teaching began at an institution in Oxford. It would later become Oxford University.
, William II’s brother, decided to join the first crusade. In order to raise money for the venture he leased Normandy to William for 10,000 marks.
William II went North to help Edgar Aetheling to overthrow Donald III of Scotland. Edgar Aetheling’s nephew, Edgar, was then made King of Scotland.
1097 (8th November)
Anselem of Bec left England for Rome following a further disagreement with William II. William seized his lands at Canterbury.
William II appointed his favourite, Ranulf Flambard, as Bishop of Durham.