Margaret, Maid of Norway
left Norway bound for Scotland to take up the throne but died on the journey. This led to a succession crisis in Scotland between Robert Bruce and John Balliol.
King Edward I
ordered construction of a round table at Winchester.
Treaty of Birgham
This treaty agreed a marriage between Edward’s heir, Prince Edward and Margaret, Maid of Norway, heir to the Scottish throne.
1290 (18th July)
King Edward ordered the expulsion of all Jews from England.
1290 (28th November)
Edward ordered work to begin on twelve stone crosses to mark the procession of Eleanor of Castile’s body from Lincoln to Charing (Charing Cross) in London.
1291 (26th June)
1292 (17th November)
Edward was asked to mediate in Scotland and decide whether Robert Bruce or John Balliol should be King. He agreed to do so on condition that he was made overlord of Scotland. Edward was given control of Scotland and eventually decided in favour of John Balliol.
1293 (13th February)
King Philip IV of France attacked Aquitaine which was held by Edward I. Edward, as overlord of Scotland, demanded that Scotland provide him with military support to defend Aquitaine. This made him very unpopular.
1294 (14th May)
Philip IV of France took Gascony.
A new revolt in Wales led by Madog ap Llywelyn was crushed.
King Edward’s popularity in Scotland continued to decrease and the Scottish people became more nationalist, seeking political independence. The nationalist rebels were led by William Wallace.
Work began on the building of Beaumaris castle, a concentric castle built of stone with 12 towers.
1295 (5th March)
Battle of Maes Moydog
This battle saw the defeat of the Welsh rebels. Welsh leader Madog ap Llywelyn managed to escape.
John Balliol allied Scotland with France and prepared to invade England.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey refused to allow Edward to tax the clergy.
1296 (30th March)
Edward attacked Berwick in retaliation for John Balliol allying Scotland with France.
1296 (27th April)
Battle of Dunbar
Edward I’s force had been given a new weapon, the longbow. Made from Welsh Yew it was about six feet in length and could drive an arrow through armour. Used for the first time during this battle the Scottish army were defeated and many leaders captured.
Edward had defeated Scotland and taken control of the country. John Balliol had been deposed and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Edward had also taken the Stone of Scone, symbol of Scottish sovereignty, and placed it in the Coronation chair in Westminster Abbey.
King Edward I faced opposition in parliament. He had wanted to raise an army to fight in Gascony on his behalf but Roger Bigod, Marshal of England, argued that soldiers should only have to fight alongside their King not in his stead. English magnates also resisted a new tax to raise funds for a new war with France.
With Edward away from Scotland planning a new war with France, Scottish resistance to English rule was organised by William Wallace in the South and Andrew Moray in the North.
1297 (24th August)
King Edward left England for Flanders to try to make an alliance and gain military support for a war with France. His mission was unsuccessful.
1297 (11th September)
Battle of Stirling Bridge
An English army marching through Scotland had to cross a narrow bridge across the river Forth. They were met by a Scottish force led by Wallace and Moray. The battle was a decisive victory for Scotland but Moray died from injuries sustained in the battle.
William Wallace declared himself Guardian of Scotland.
1297 (7th October)
England and France called a truce.
1298 (22nd July)
Battle of Falkirk
Edward defeated the Scots led by William Wallace.
The Palace of Westminster was damaged by fire.
1299 (10th September)
King Edward married Margaret, Philip IV’s sister. The marriage brought peace between England and France.