1330 (15th June)
A son, Edward was born to King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault
at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire.
1330 (20th October)
King Edward III decided that he was old enough to rule by himself. However his mother, Isabella
and Roger Mortimer who had been regents while he was a minor, did not want to lose power. Edward managed to over power them and become ruler in his own right. Roger Mortimer was sent to the Tower of London and all his lands were forfeited to the Crown. Isabella was sent to Windsor Castle where she was placed under house arrest.
1330 (29th November)
Roger Mortimer was hanged at Tyburn.
Edward allowed his mother, Isabella, to go to Castle Rising in Norfolk where she lived in comfort.
Edard Balliol, son of John Balliol, became leader of the disinherited English nobles in Scotland after they agreed to support his bid to become King of Scotland.
A daughter, Isabella, was born to Edward and Philippa of Hainault at Woodstock Palace.
1332 (11th August)
Battle of Dupplin Moor
Edward Balliol’s army of disinherited English nobles supported by English archers, defeated a large Scottish force led by the Earl of Mar, guardian for King David following the death of the Earl of Moray. The Earl of Mar was killed in the Battle.
Edward Balliol was crowned King of Scotland and granted southern Scotland to England.
1332 (16th December)
Battle of Annan
A group of supporters of King David of Scotland, led by Archibald Douglas, guardian for David, surprised Edward Balliol forcing him to flee to England.
1333 (18th May)
Prince Edward was created Earl of Chester.
1333 (19th July)
Battle of Halidon Hill
Edward Balliol, supported by Edward III lay siege to Berwick. The Scots, led by Archibald Douglas, were defeated. Archibald Douglas was killed in the battle.
Edward Balliol was restored as King of Scotland and he paid homage to Edward III.
1333 (3rd November)
Edward Balliol gave Berwick to England.
Concerned for the safety of the Scottish King and his wife, King David and Maud were sent to King Philip VI of France.
Edward Balliol was deposed again by forces loyal to King David.
Following his release from captivity in England, Andrew Murray became Guardian of Scotland. He led resistance against Edward III’s occupation of Scotland.
A daughter, Joan, was born to Edward III and Philippa at Woodstock Palace.
A son, William, was born to Edward and Philippa. He died before he was a year old.
1337 (3rd March)
Prince Edward was created Duke of Cornwall.
Hundred Years War began
The reasons why the war began:
1. Long Term Cause – Edward believed he had a genuine claim to the French throne. His mother’s brother Charles IV of France had died without an heir in 1328. Edward was his nephew but the French refused to recognise succession through the female line.
2. Short Term Cause – A group of Flanders’ clothiers led by Jan Van Artevelde, approached Edward III offering to recognise him as King of France if he could break the import restrictions on raw materials imposed by France.
3. Short Term Cause – The Emperor of Germany, a relative of Edward’s wife Philippa, who was at loggerheads with Philip VI of France, encouraged Edward to try to take the French crown.
4. Short Term Cause – Philip VI of France was sheltering David of Scotland and threatened to intervene in Scotland against Edward III.
5. Trigger Event – Philip VI invaded and confiscated English held Gascony. In retaliation Edward claimed the French crown.
Edward had put in place measures to provide for the government of England while he was in France. However, his advisers were unhappy with the campaign to take the French throne because they believed that if he were successful England would take second place to France.
Hundred Years War
Edward mounted a series of campaigns against the French in Flanders but the French refused to be drawn into battle. Edward also continued to make alliances against Philip VI.
1338 (29th November)
A son, Lionel, was born to Edward and Philippa at Antwerp.
French ships made a number of raids on Dover and Folkestone.