1510 (31st January)
Catherine of Aragon
was prematurely delivered of a stillborn daughter. Miscarriage and stillbirth were a common occurrence in the sixteenth century and the couple were hopeful their next child would survive.
became a Knight of the Garter and a member of the privy council
Catherine of Aragon announced a second pregnancy
1510 (24th May)
A peace treaty was signed with Spain.
1510 (10th July)
1511 (1st January)
A son, Prince Henry, was born to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Guns were fired from the Tower of London and the city bells were rung. Beacons were lit to announce the royal birth to the country.
1511 (6th January)
Prince Henry was christened at Richmond. His godparents were the Archbishop of Canterbury
, the Earl of Surrey and the Countess of Devon.
1511 (mid January)
The royal court moved to the Palace of Westminster where banquets and tournaments were held to celebrate the Prince’s birth.
1511 (22nd February)
Prince Henry died at Richmond Palace. Both King and Queen were deeply upset. The infant prince was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Henry and Catherine went on a progress of England. A progress was a form of working holiday where the monarch would visit different regions of his land staying with noblemen.
Thomas Wolsey became a member of the King’s council. Henry was impressed with the way that he handled governmental matters quickly and efficiently.
1511 (13th November)
Henry joined the Holy League of Spain, Venice and the Pope. He hoped this move would help him to conquer lands in France.
1511 (17th November)
Treaty of Westminster
This was signed by Henry and Ferdinand of Spain and agreed that both England and Spain would attack France before the end of April 1512.
Parliament authorised a tax to pay for the war with France.
England declared war on France.
1512 (7th April)
The Lord High Admiral, Sir Edward Howard, was commissioned to command a fleet of eighteen ships. He was told to harass French ships and threaten the French coast to prevent any French naval attack on England.
1512 (7th June)
An English naval force commanded by the Marquis of Dorset landed at San Sebastian in Spain. They were to join forces with Spain to attack France.
Ferdinand of Spain abandoned the English army once he had secured Navarre. The English soldiers had few supplies and resorted to drinking quantities of Spanish wine which made them ill. In the insanitary conditions of the makeshift camp many contracted dysentery and died.
An English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey was sent North to be ready for any invasion the Scots might make in support of their ally, France.
1512 (10th August)
The Battle of Brest
Edward Howard, Lord Admiral, attacked the French fleet off Brest in Northern France. The Battle was won by the English.
1512 (late October)
Thomas Wolsey drew up plans for the forthcoming invasion of France.
1512 (4th November)
An act was passed that laid down standards for a number of fortifications to be built along the South Coast.
The English army left for France
Edward Howard attempted to win a naval victory over the French. However, the French outmanoeuvred him, he was overpowered and thrown into the sea.
1513 (4th May)
Thomas Howard, brother of the late Edward Howard, was appointed Lord Admiral in his brother’s place.
Thomas Howard was sent north at the head of an army to strengthen the north against any attack by the Scots.
1513 (15th June)
Henry, accompanied by Catherine, rode out of London at the head of an army of around 11,000 men. They were bound for Dover to await passage to Calais in France.
1513 (mid June)
The English army in France, commanded by Shrewsbury and Somerset marched out of Calais and laid siege to Therouanne.
1513 (30th June)
Henry set sail from Dover bound for Calais. When he reached Calais tournaments and celebrations were held for his safe arrival. Catherine was to act as regent in Henry’s absence.
1513 (late July)
James IV of Scotland
sent a naval force to relieve the siege of Therouanne. An ultimatum was delivered to Henry which stated that if Henry remained on French soil then James would attack England.
1513 (4th August)
Henry joined the siege of Therouanne. He ordered that prefabricated buildings be put up so that he could live in as much splendour as possible.
1513 (12th August)
Scotland declared war on England
1513 (16th August)
Battle of the Spurs
A French army of around 15,000 approached the English army laying siege to Therouanne and Henry ordered the English to attack. The two sides met near the village of Borny. The French, seeing the approaching English army turned and fled, leading the battle to be dubbed ‘The Battle of the Spurs.’ Many French noblemen were captured and held for ransom.
1513 (22nd August)
James IV of Scotland marched into England at the head of a 20,000 army
1513 (24th August)
Henry took the town of Therouanne in France.
1513 (late August)
Henry left Therouanne and marched to Tournai
1513 (early September)
Catherine ordered the Earl of Surrey and Thomas Howard to march north to Flodden Edge. The Earl was reluctant to attack James’ camp so marched towards Berwick.
1513 (9th September)
Battle of Flodden Field
James IV broke camp and moved to prevent the Earl of Surrey from taking Berwick. When they sighted the English James ordered his Scots soldiers to attack, however, many were killed by English archers and canon fire. The Scots were easily defeated with many, including James IV being killed. His seventeen month old son became King.
1513 (mid September)
The Earl of Surrey dismissed the English army. With a minor on the throne of Scotland the country posed no immediate threat to England.
1513 (15th September)
Siege of Tournai
The English army laid siege to the French town of Tournai
1513 (17th September)
Catherine went into labour prematurely and was delivered of a son that died soon after birth.
1513 (21st September)
Tournai fell to the English.
1513 (17th October)
Treaty of Lille
With Winter approaching the English were unable to make further gains in France this year and so a new treaty was agreed between Henry, Ferdinand of Spain and Maximillian, Holy Roman Emperor, to make a new invasion of France the following year. The treaty was to be sealed by the marriage of Henry’s sister, Mary to Ferdinand’s grandson, Charles.
1513 (22nd October)
Henry and the English army returned to England
Henry contracted smallpox but made a speedy recovery.
1514 (6th February)
Thomas Wolsey became Bishop of Lincoln.
Henry learned that despite agreeing to the terms of the Treaty of Lille in 1513, Ferdinand of Spain was making no move to prepare to invade France. Henry therefore decided to make peace with France. The peace was to be sealed with the marriage of Henry’s younger sister Mary
to King Louis XII
Catherine announced that she was pregnant again.
A new ship, the Henry Grace a Dieu was built at the newly constructed dockyard at Woolwich. It was the largest warship in the world.
1514 (mid July)
Henry’s sister, Mary, begged Henry not to marry her to the elderly King of France but Henry insisted the marriage go ahead. Henry did agree that when the King died Mary would be able to marry whoever she chose.
was one of the girls selected to go to France as a maid to Princess Mary.
1514 (early October)
Henry’s sister, Mary left England for France.
1514 (9th October)
Henry’s sister, Mary, married King Louis XII of France.
1514 (5th November)
Henry’s sister, Mary was crowned Queen of France.
1514 (31st December)
King Louis XII of France died.
Thomas Wolsey acquired Hampden Court.
Mary and Anne Boleyn were asked to serve the new Queen of France, Queen Claude wife of Francis I
1515 (8th January)
Catherine of Aragon was delivered of a stillborn son.
1515 (mid February)
Henry’s sister Mary married Charles Brandon
. The couple had not been given permission to marry by the King.
1515 (5th April)
The Treaty of Paris agreed a renewed peace between France and England.
Mary and Charles Brandon, Duke and Duchess of Suffolk, were allowed to return to England on condition that they pay Henry £1,000 per year for 24 years.
Catherine of Aragon announced her fifth pregnancy.
Henry’s sister, Margaret
appealed to her brother to help her situation in Scotland. The Duke of Albany had been made regent of Scotland and he wanted custody of Margaret’s two sons by James IV of Scotland. Margaret refused and shut herself and her children up in Stirling Castle. When no help came from her brother Margaret had no choice but to hand the children over.
Rise of Wolsey
1515 (18th November)
Thomas Wolsey was officially created a cardinal by William Warham. The ceremony took place in St Paul’s cathedral.
1515 (22nd December)
Thomas Wolsey became Lord Chancellor.
1516 (18th February)
Queen Catherine gave birth to a healthy baby girl at Greenwich Palace. The child was named Mary
1516 (21st February)
Princess Mary was christened.
1516 (11th March)
Henry’s sister, Mary Brandon, gave birth to a son, Henry.
The truce with Scotland, made after the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, was extended until the end of January 1517.
Henry began negotiating a peace with Burgundy.
1517 (1st May)
Evil May Day
The people of London had become increasingly hostile towards the numbers of foreigners in the capital. Londoners claimed that the foreigners stole their jobs and used up English resources and food. During the May Day celebrations riots broke out. Despite attempts for peace the riots continued into the night when the King sent instructions for Norfolk to raise an army to stop the riots.
1517 (5th May)
279 people were charged with treason for their part in the May Day riots. Fifteen Londoners were found guilty of inciting the riot and were sentenced to be executed.
1517 (early Summer)
Francis I of France, worried that the treaty between England and Burgundy might threaten France, began negotiating for peace between England and France.
The Treaty of Rouen
provided peace and mutual aid between France and Scotland. This treaty meant that if England were to attack Scotland then France would launch a counter-attack on England.
Sweating sickness reached England. Henry and the court left London.
1517 (31st October)
In Germany, Martin Luther
sent his ninety-five thesis, protesting against indulgences in the Catholic Church, to Archbishop Albert of Mainz. Some historians record him as nailing the thesis to the door of the church in Wittenberg, but this is now thought to be symbolic rather than an actual fact. Nevertheless this protest against indulgencies by the Catholic church was the beginning of the Protestant religion.
1517 (late November)
French ambassadors in England returned to France as no agreement on peace terms had been reached.
Catherine of Aragon announced her sixth pregnancy.
In France the English towns of Calais and Tournai were readied for a possible French attack.
Henry and the court were in residence at Windsor.
In a bid to gain Venetian support against France Henry set about persuading the Venetians that the King of France was deceitful.
Due to a new outbreak of sweating sickness, Henry moved the court to Woodstock.
Francis I of France asked for peace negotiations with England to be re-opened.
Henry was having an affair with Elizabeth (Bessie) Blount, one of the Queen’s ladies in waiting.
became secretary to the King and gave up his law practice.
Thomas Wolsey was appointed bishop of Bath and Wells.
1518 (23rd September)
The Royal College of Physicians was founded in London.
1518 (24th September)
French officials, Bonnivet, Admiral of France and the Bishop of Paris arrived in England to discuss terms for a peace between the two countries.
1518 (27th September)
The visiting French officials were received at Blackheath where they were entertained with a banquet and pageant.
1518 (30th September)
Terms were agreed for the return of Tournai to France and a peace between the two nations.
1518 (2nd October)
The Treaty of London
This treaty provided that France and England would live in peace and not invade each others territories. The treaty was to be sealed with the marriage of the Dauphin of France and Princess Mary. Tournai would be returned to France before the end of November.
1518 (3rd October)
Henry and the foreign ambassadors travelled in procession to St Paul’s Cathedral where they celebrated a mass to give thanks for the universal peace between the two countries.
1518 (5th October)
Princess Mary aged two years was formally betrothed to Henri, the Dauphin of France.
1518 (7th October)
A tournament was held as part of the Treaty of London celebrations. Henry had spent a total of £5,000 entertaining the French ambassadors.
1518 (10th November)
Catherine of Aragon was delivered of a daughter but she was weak and died within days.
1518 (late November)
Henry began to have serious doubts regarding his marriage. Partly due to another child dying after a few days and partly because one of the French ambassadors had commented that “the King of England had no son because although he was young and handsome himself he kept such an old and deformed wife.”
It was first recorded this year that Henry began to suffer from recurring headaches and migraines. This affliction was to last all his life.
1519 (date unknown)
Henry added a new wing to Greenwich Palace. The second floor contained a new library housing 329 books which were kept in desks or combined lecterns.
1519 (date unknown)
Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, died. Henry put his name forward as a candidate for the title.
1519 (13th June)
Henry decided to stand down as a candidate for the title of Holy Roman Emperor. He did this because he had learned that the two other candidates, Charles V of Spain and Francis I of France had spent vast sums of money in bribes for votes and as a result Henry had no chance of winning the election.
1519 (28th June)
Charles V of Spain was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Henry’s former mistress, Elizabeth (Bessie) Blount gave birth to a baby boy. Henry was overjoyed that he was able to father a son and concluded that his lack of male heir was not his fault. The child was named Henry
and given the surname Fitzroy (King’s son).
1519 (late Summer)
Catherine began to withdraw from court life. It is thought that the number of pregnancies and stillbirths had affected her health. She may have also been suffering from depression.
Henry arranged for Elizabeth Blount to marry Gilbert Talboys. The couple were given generous gifts of land and money.
Negotiations began between England and France for a summit meeting between the countries’ two kings.