Regnans in Excelsis
Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I. He decreed that Elizabeth was a pretender to the throne of England and that any Catholics who followed her laws would be executed.
This was a plot to depose Elizabeth and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots. It was led by Roberto Ridolfi, a Florentine banker from London, who had enlisted the support of the Duke of Norfolk, the King of Spain and the Pope. The plot failed after incriminating letters were discovered. The Duke of Norfolk was arrested and executed. Ridolfi was abroad when the plot was discovered and avoided capture.
Nicholas Hilliard painted a miniature of Elizabeth.
Elizabeth considered marrying Francis Duke of Anjou as part of an alliance with France against Spain.
1572 (2nd June)
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was executed for his part in the Ridolfi Plot.
1573 (18th December)
Francis Walsingham became Secretary of State.
Nicholas Hilliard painted the Phoenix Portrait.
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, threw a lavish party in Elizabeth’s honour at Kenilworth Castle. The party, which lasted for several days, included jousting, fireworks and banquets.
The Darnley Portrait was painted by an Italian artist.
1576 (11th August)
Martin Frobisher discovered Frobisher Bay while searching for a North-West Passage.
Realising that Elizabeth would never marry him, Robert Dudley married Lettice Knollys.
Gower painted the Plimpton Sieve Portrait of Elizabeth.