1452 (10th March)
Ferdinand of Aragon was born to King Juan II of Aragon and Navarre and Juana Enriquez, Juan’s second wife, at Sada Palace, Sos del Rey, Catolico, Zaragoza
Ferdinand was created heir to Aragon by his father despite their being other contenders for the title.
Ferdinand was given the title King of Sicily by his father. The title was given to impress those negotiating a marriage for Ferdinand with Isabella of Castile
A son, Alonso, was illegitimately born to Ferdinand and Aldonza Ruiz de Iborre y Alemany.
A daughter, Juana was illegitimately born to Ferdinand and Joana Nicolaua.
1469 (before 19th October)
Ferdinand and Isabella signed an agreement that after their marriage they would share power.
1469 (19th October)
Ferdinand married Isabella of Castile at the palace of Juan de Vivero at Valladolid. Because Isabella and Ferdinand were second cousins a dispensation from the Pope was needed. Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia presented the couple with a dispensation signed by Pope Pius II, who had died 5 years earlier.
When he found out about the marriage, Henry IV declared Isabella guilty of treason. He also questioned the validity of the marriage since a correct papal dispensation had not been issued.
1470 (1st October)
A daughter, Isabella, was born to Ferdinand and Isabella at Duenas, Palencia.
Ferdinand and Isabella received a papal bull declaring their marriage legitimage.
Ferdinand and Isabella gained the support of the Mendoza family.
1474 (11th December)
Isabella’s half-brother, Henry IV, died.
1474 (13th December)
Isabella was crowned Queen of Castile and Leon at Segovia.
Isabella was concerned that there were around 150 mints in Castile all producing coin. She had all but 5 shut down and placed those that remained under royal control.
War of the Castilian Succession
Afonso V of Portugal, who was betrothed to Henry IV’s daughter Joanna, invaded Castile and declared Joanna the rightful Queen of Castile. Ferdinand led the army against Afonso.
A stillborn son was born to Ferdinand and Isabella in Cerebros.
1476 (1st March)
Battle of Toro
This was a battle between Ferdinand of Aragon and Afonso V of Portugal. Ferdinand was victorious leaving Isabella secure as Queen of Castile.
Ferdinand and Isabella’s eldest daughter, Isabella, was sworn as heir to the throne of Castile.
1478 (28th June)
A son, Juan (John), was born to Ferdinand and Isabella at Seville, Spain. He was proclaimed heir to the throne and given the title Prince of the Asturias.
War of the Castilian Succession – Battle of Guinea
This was a naval battle fought between Portugal and Castile where the Portuguese ships captured the Castilian fleet.
1479 (4th September)
Treaty of Alcacovas
This treaty ended the war of the Castilian succession. It agreed that Alfonso V of Portugal would make no claim on the throne of Castile and Isabella and Ferdinand would make no claim on the throne of Portugal. The Atlantic islands would be divided between Spain and Portugal. The marriage of Joanna Beltraneja and Alfonso V was annulled and Joanna entered a convent. The treaty was to be sealed with the betrothal of Ferdinand’s eldest daughter, Isabella to Afonso, grandson of Afonso V.
1479 (6th November)
A daughter, Joanna
, was born to Ferdinand and Isabella at Toledo.
Ferdinand and Isabella summoned the Cortes of Toledo. They agreed a code of law and centralised rule for Spain.
Ferdinand and Isabella began the Spanish Inquisition to remove heretics from Spain, notably those Jews and Muslims that had outwardly converted to Christianity but actually retained their religion.
Mohammed XII succeeded his father as Sultan of Graada. Known to the Castilians as Boabdil, he attempted to invade Castile.
Ferdinand and Isabella moved to Medina del Campo. They were to use this as a base for the conquest of Granada.
1482 (29th June)
A daughter, Maria, was born to Ferdinand and Isabella at Cordoba, Spain. Her twin was stillborn.
Ferdinand and Isabella captured Boabdil at Lucena.
The Andalusian town of Ronda fell to Ferdinand’s forces.
1485 (15th December)
The town of Loja fell to Ferdinand’s forces.
Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to release Boabdil after he promised to make Granada subservient to Castile. He also agreed to take no part in the siege of Malaga.
The towns of Malaga and Baza fell to Ferdinand’s forces.
The towns of Almunecar, Salobrena and Almreia fell to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Ferdinand’s daughter, Isabella married Afonso, son of King Juan of Portugal by proxy in Seville.
1490 (19th November)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Isabella travelled to Portugal for her wedding.
1490 (22nd November)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Isabella married Afonso of Portugal in Evora.
Granada was the sole remaining Muslim city in Spain and the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella placed it under siege.
Afonso of Portugal, Ferdinand’s daughter’s husband died following a riding accident.
1491 (25th November)
Treaty of Granada
This was a peace settlement between Ferdinand and Isabella and Muhammad XII. It agreed that Granada would be surrendered and in return the Moors would be granted freedom of religion and be treated fairly.
1492 (2nd January)
As agreed by the terms of the Treaty of Granada 1491, Muhammad XII surrendered the city to Ferdinand and Isabella. He left Spain and settled in North Africa.
1492 (31st March)
By the terms of this decree, Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain. They were told to convert to Catholicism or leave. This marked the end of the period in Spanish history known as Reconquista (the reconquering of Spain from the Muslims).
1492 (17th April)
Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to sponsor a Genoese explorer, Christopher Colombus who wanted to find a route to the Indies by travelling west.
1492 (3rd August)
Christopher Columbus set sail to discover a new route to the Indies.
1492 (12th October)
Christopher Columbus reached San Salvador and claimed it for Spain.
Christopher Columbus returned to Spain. He brought with him Natives and gold.
Treaty of Tordesillas
This treaty with Portugal divided the Earth outside Europe between their respective countries.
Pope Alexander VI gave Ferdinand and Isabella the titles ‘Catholic Monarchs’.
Charles VIII of France, who had invaded Italy the previous year, reached Naples and expelled Ferdinand’s cousin, Alfonso, King of Naples. Ferdinand took troops to Italy to help regain the throne of Naples.
With the French defeated in Italy, Ferdinand was able to return to Spain.
1496 (20th October)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Joanna married Philip, Archduke of Habsburg.
Ferdinand’s daughter, Isabella married Manuel of Portugal.
1497 (4th October)
Ferdinand’s son and heir, Juan, married Margaret of Austria.
1497 (after 4th October)
Juan’s wife was pregnant at the time of his death and the hope of the Spanish succession rested on the birth of Juan’s child.
Juan’s wife, Margaret of Austria, was delivered of a stillborn daughter. This meant that Ferdinand’s eldest daughter Isabella was now heir to the throne of Castile.
1498 (23rd August)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Isabella Queen of Portugal, died in childbirth at Zaragoza, Spain. Her baby son, Miguel was heir to Castile.
The Muslims in Granada revolted agains the rule of the Catholic Monarchs.
1500 (19th July)
Ferdinand’s grandson, Miguel, heir to the throne of Castile died. This meant that his daughter Joanna was now heir to Castile.
1500 (30th October)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Maria, married her sister Isabella’s widower, Manuel of Portugal.
1501 (14th November)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Catalina (Catherine of Aragon), married Prince Arthur, heir to the throne of England.
All Muslims remaining in Spain were ordered to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country.
1502 (2nd April)
Prince Arthur of England died leaving Ferdinand’s daughter, Catherine of Aragon, a widow. There ensued a long struggle over the question of her dowry which left her stranded in England.
1502 (22nd May)
Ferdianand’s daughter, Joanna and her husband Philip were formally proclaimed as heirs to Castile. Joanna would be Queen and Philip King Consort.
1502 (27th October)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Joanna, was proclaimed heir to the throne of Aragon. Her husband, Philip would be known as King consort.
Ferdinand’s daughter Joanna had a terrible argument with her husband who left Spain and returned to Flanders alone. When Joanna, who was six months pregnant, discovered what had happened she wanted to ride after Philip but her mother refused to let her go and locked her up in Castle La Mota. Both Ferdinand and Isabella had concerns about their daughter’s mental state.
Ferdinand and Isabella realised they could not keep their daughter away from her husband indefinitely and allowed her to return to Flanders on condition that she left her infant son, Ferdinand in Spain.
1504 (14th September)
Ferdinand’s wife, Isabella, withdrew from government due to her declining health.
1504 (26th November)
Ferdinand’s wife, Isabella, died at Medina del Campo. She was buried in the Royal Chapel of Granada.
1504 (26th November)
Ferdinand was concerned that Joanna, who had shown signs of mental instability, was not able to rule and he did not trust Joanna’s husband Philip to act in Spain’s best interests. He therefore renounced his title of King Consort of Castile and made himself governor of Castile.
1505 (24th November)
Treaty of Salamanca
This treaty recognised that Ferdinand’s daughter Joanna was unfit to rule and divided the regency between Ferdinand and his son-in-law Philip.
1506 (22nd March)
Concerned about the succession, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix, niece of the King of France in the hopes of fathering a son who would inherit Spain.
1506 (27th June)
Treaty of Villafafila
This treaty formally recognised that Ferdinand’s daughter, Joanna, was unfit to rule and passed the regency of Castile to Joanna’s husband Philip.
Ferdinand left Castile.
1506 (25th September)
Ferdinand’s son-in-law and regent of Castile, Philip, died. His daughter, Joanna was grief-stricken and refused to part with his embalmed body. This was taken as a sign of madness and Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros took over the regency but was not able to stop some of the nobility from seizing power in their regions. Ferdinand returned to Castile with an army and restored order.
1507 (late Spring)
Ferdinand met with his daughter Joanna. The stories that she insisted on keeping Philip’s body with her at all times convinced him that she was mentally unfit to rule and he had her placed under house arrest in the castle of Tordesillas. Her infant daughter, Catherine, was allowed to remain with her mother.
Ferdinand joined the League of Cambrai, an alliance of all those with interests in Italy to take lands held by Venice.
1509 (3rd May)
A son, John, Prince of Girona, was born to Ferdinand and Germaine de Foix. He died soon after his birth.
1509 (14th May)
Battle of Agnadello
Venice was defeated by a French force under the League of Cambrai.
1509 (11th June)
Ferdinand’s daughter, Catherine, married King Henry VIII of England.
After their victory against the Venetians, the French had advanced through Italy. The Pope now called for a Holy League against France and Ferdinand joined.
Treaty of Westminster
This was a treaty of mutual aid between Ferdinand and Henry VIII of England. Henry wanted Ferdinand’s support for an invasion of France and Ferdinand wanted support to take the throne of Navarre.
1516 (23rd January)
Ferdinand died at Madrigalejo, Extremadura. He was buried in Granada.