Genghis Khan was born into the Borjigin tribe at Deluun Boldog. He was named Temujin. His father was called Yesugei and his mother was Hoelun. His father was a Kiyad chief. They lived a nomadic life.
Temujin’s father took him to live with the Khongirad tribe. He would then marry Borte when he was 12 years old.
Temujin’s father, Yesugei, was returning home, having left Temujin with the Khongirad tribe, when he came across a band of Tatars. They invited him to share food but it was poisoned and he died. On hearing the news Temujin returned home to take up his father’s position as chief but the tribe refused him and cast the family out of the tribe.
During a hunting expedition, Temujin killed his older half-brother Bekhter after Bekhter tried to take a position of power in the family.
Temujin was captured by another tribe, the Tayichi’ud and imprisoned.
Temujin managed to escape captivity with the help of a guard.
Temujin married Borte, from the Onggirat tribe, honouring the agreement made by his father and making an alliance with the Onggirat tribe.
Temujin’s wife, Borte, was kidnapped by the Merkit tribe. She was married to a member of the tribe.
Aided by his friend Jamukha, Khan of the Jadaran tribe and Toghrul, Khan of the Keraites, Temujin managed to rescue Borte.
Temujin and Jamukha began to drift apart each having different ideas of how Mongolia should be run.
Temujin’s first son, Jochi was born.
Temujin was elected Khan of the Mongols.
Temujin’s former friend, Jamukha, was unhappy that Temujin had risen so high and attacked him at Dalan Balzhut. Temujin was surprised by the attack and lost the battle.
Temujin’s second son, Chagatai was born.
Temujin’s third son, Ogedei was born.
Temujin’s fourth son, Tolui was born.
Temujin made an alliance with Toghrul, Khan of the Keraites.
Aided by the Keraites and Mongols, Temujin attacked and beat the Tatars.
The friendship between Temujin and Toghrul began to falter after Toghrul refused to marry his daughter to Temujin’s son, Jochi. Toghrul, allied to Temujin’s enemy Jamukha was defeated by Temujin.
Temujin’s enemy Jamukha was elected leader of those tribes that were opposed to Temujin.
Temujin had finally beaten Jamukha and united or subdued the Keraites, Merkit, Mongol, Naimans, Tatars and Turkic tribes. He was given the title Genghis Khan, Universal Ruler of the Mongols.
Genghis began a war against the western Xia tribe that ruled north west China.
The Uyghur Turks allied themselves with Genghis.
The western Xia tribe surrendered to Genghis.
Genghis crossed the Gobi desert with a force of around 50,000 and marched to China to conquer the Jin Dynasty.
Genghis took control of the capital of the Jin Dynasty, Zhongdu (Beijing) after starving the city into surrender. Emperor Xuanzong of the Jin moved the capital south to Kaifeng.
Genghis sent three messengers to Shah Muhammad, head of the Khwarezmid Empire seeking a peaceful trading alliance. The one of the messengers was beheaded and his head sent back to Genghis Khan with the other two messengers.
Genghis began a war against the Khwarezmid Empire attacking from the northeast, the southeast and the northwest simultaneously.
Genghis began a war against Transoxiana (modern day Uzbekistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
Genghis Khan destroyed the cities of Buxor and Samarqand.
Genghis had completely destroyed the Khwarezmid Empire and much of the population had been massacred.
Genghis and his vicorious army made their way back to Mongolia raiding Afghanistan and northern India on the way. At the same time a splinter force of 20,000 led by Jebe and Subtai were sent to attack Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Having taken Georgia and sacked the trading centre, Caffa, the Mongol splinter force wintered by the Black Sea before returning to Mongolia.
Genghis summoned his sons, who each controlled a part of the Empire, to a meeting. They all complied except Jochi who had disagreed with his brothers and father over the massacre of civilians and had made an alliance against his father with Sultan Muhammad.
The Mongol splinter force led by Jebe and Subtai that had wintered at the Black Sea attacked and took control of an army of Kievan Rus at the Battle of the Kalka River.
Both Mongol armies returned to Mongolia.
The Tanguts of western Xia had united with the Jin to resist the Mongols so Genghis led his army east.
Genghis Khan’s son Jochi died. He was possibly poisoned on the order of his father for going against his orders.
Having taken a number of important cities, Genghis succeeded in taking the Tangut capital, Ning Hia. Soon after the Tangut emperor surrendered. He and his family were executed.
A meeting of all the Mongol leaders was held in Mongolia. It was decided that Genghis Khan’s son Ogedei, would be the next leader.
1227 (18th August)
Genghis Khan died during the fall of Yinchuan, the capital of western Xia. He was succeeded by his son, Ogedei.
As was the practice of his tribe, Genghis Khan was buried in an unmarked grave in Mongolia, possibly in the region of his birthplace.