George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence 1449 – 1478

 

George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence

 

Father – Richard Duke of York
Mother – Cecily Neville
Spouse – Isabel Neville
Children – Margaret, Edward

 

 

1449 (21st October)
A son, George, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville in Dublin, Ireland. He was the couple’s 9th child.
1450 (July)
George and his family returned to England.
1451 (during)
George’s brother, Thomas, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville. He died at a young age.
1452 (2nd October)
George’s brother, Richard, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
1453 (August)
King Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was unfit to rule. The Duke of Somerset, a favourite of King Henry and Margaret of Anjou took control of government.
1453 (September)
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, adviser to the King, was annoyed that his enemy, Somerset, had control and turned his favour to George’s father, Richard Duke of York.
1454 (27th March)
George’s father, Richard of York became protector in place of the Duke of Somerset because many royal councillors were unhappy with the way Somerset was handling government.
1454 (December)
Henry VI regained his mental capacity. He put Somerset back in control of government.
1455 (during)
George’s sister, Ursula, was born to Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville. She died at a young age.
1455 (Spring)
George’s father, Richard of York, his grandfather and the Earl of Warwick began raising troops against Henry and Somerset.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses began
First Battle of St Albans
This battle saw the forces of Warwick, Salisbury and Richard Duke of York defeat the Lancastrians led by Somerset and Northumberland. Somerset was killed in the battle and King Henry VI was captured.
1455 (3rd June)
With the King under his control, George’s father, Richard Duke of York, became Protector of the realm again.
1456 (February)
George’s father, Richard Duke of York, was dismissed as regent when Henry resumed personal rule supported by Queen Margaret.
1459 (23rd September)
Battle of Blore Heath
George’s father, Richard Duke of York, supported by Salisbury fought off a Lancastrian attack that was supported by the Percy family.
1459 (12th – 13th October)
Rout of Ludlow
Threatened by Margaret of Anjou and her supporters, George’s’s father, Richard of York, Warwick and the Nevilles mustered their supporters at Ludlow but when the main Lancastrian army appeared their men deserted. Richard of York fled to Ireland. George’s brother, Edward, was taken to Calais with his grandfather, Salisbury and the Earl of Warwick.
1460 (26th June)
George’s brother, Edward, supported by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and the Earl of Salisbury landed at Sandwich at the head of an army and marched towards London.
1460 (2nd July)
George’s brother, Edward, rode north with the Earl of Warwick.
1460 (10th July)
Battle of Northampton
George’s brother, Edward Earl of March and Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeated a Lancastrian force led by Humphrey, Stafford and Buckingham and captured Henry VI. Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward fled to Harlech Castle in Wales.
1460 (14th July)
George’s brother Edward and the Earl of Warwick returned to London with Henry VI in captivity.
1460 (19th July)
George’s brother Edward and the Earl of Warwick used their forces to defeat the Lancastrian forces in the Tower of London.
1460 (September)
George’s father, Richard of York, claimed the throne but the landowners, refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
1460 (25th October)
Act of Accord
George’s father, Richard Duke of York, was named successor to the throne over Henry VI’s son, Edward.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
Queen Margaret, unwilling to accept the disinheritance of her son Edward, raised an army in the north. George’s father, Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian force. George’s brother, Edmund, was also killed.
1460 (30th December)
George’s brother Edward inherited his father’s titles of Duke of York, Earl of Ulster and Earl of Cambridge.
1460 (31st December)
Henry VI was released from captivity but was still mentally unstable and as a consequence was unfit to rule.
1461 (January)
George and his younger brother, Richard, were sent to safety in Burgundy.
1461 (January)
George’s brother, Edward was put forward as a claimant to the throne by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.
1461 (4th March)
George’s brother, Edward, defeated the forces of King Henry VI and became King Edward IV.
1461 (29th March)
Battle of Towton
George’s brohter Edward pursued the Lancastrians north and attacked them near Tadcaster. After a long fight in heavy snowfall, the Lancastrians were defeated having suffered heavy casualties.
1461 (April)
Following the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward fled to Scotland where they were given refuge. Henry VI was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1461 (28th June)
George’s brother Edward was crowned King Edward IV at Westminster Abbey.
1461 (July)
George and his brother Richard were told to return to England.
1461 (Summer)
George was created Duke of Clarence by his brother, King Edward IV. He was also designated heir to the throne while Edward remained childless.
1462 (during)
George was created Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1462 (during)
George and his brother Richard were sent to live in the household of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Warwick had earned the nickname ‘kingmaker’for the way he has supported the York faction’s claim to the throne.
1462 (during)
The Earl of Warwick was chief advisor to King Edward IV.
1463 (late March)
Ralph Percy and northern nobles rose in support of Henry VI and took Northumberland and Norham. The Earl of Warwick returned to the north and took Norham but was unable to take Northumberland. Unable to put the rebellions down, Warwick negotiated a truce with France which would be sealed with the marriage of Edward IV to the French King’s sister. Without French support the Lancastrians were unable to maintain their hold on the north. The leaders of the rebellion were executed.
1464 (1st May)
Edward secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, Baron Rivers.
1464 (September)
Edward announced his marriage. Warwick was angry with Edward because he had promised the French that Edward would seal their alliance with a royal marriage between the two countries.
1465 (24th July)
Henry VI was captured by Yorkist forces and taken to the Tower of London.
1467 (October)
The Earl of Warwick learned that Edward had gone behind his back and signed a treaty with the Burgundians. Warwick was frustrated and annoyed that Edward favoured his wife’s relatives rather than his trusted advisors.
1467 (late October)
The Earl of Warwick was accused of plotting to return Henry VI to the throne. Warwick refused to attend court to answer the charge but instead sent a letter of denial which the King accepted.
1469 (during)
George found himself courted by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who was frustrated by his lack of power over Edward IV. He possibly intended to make George King in Edward’s stead.
1469 (April)
Warwick secretly organised a rebellion against King Edward in the North and persuaded George to join him. The rebellion, known as Robin of Redesdale’s Rebellion, was quickly put down by the Yorkists.
1469 (11th July)
George married Isabel Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Warwick then attempted to rule in Edward’s stead for George but he was not supported by the nobility.
1469 (12th July)
George and Warwick supported a new uprising against the King.
1469 (26th July)
Battle of Edgecote Moor
This battle saw the forces of Warwick and George pitted against those of King Edward. Warwick and George won the battle and King Edward was taken prisoner. Warwick attempted to take control of the country through George but was not supported.
1469 (10th September)
Failing to gain the support of the nobility and with the country descending into disorder Warwick was forced to release Edward. Warwick tried to work with Edward but Edward continually went against Warwick’s advice.
1470 (12th March)
Battle of Losecoat Field
George joined forces with his father-in-law, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. With Lancastrian support they rebelled against King Edward but were defeated. They were forced to flee to France.
1470 (Spring)
George was stripped of his office as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for acting against the King.
1470 (16th April)
A daughter was born to Isabel Neville and George Duke of Clarence on a ship off the coast of Calais. The baby died soon after birth.
1470 (Summer)
George and Warwick made peace with Henry VI’s Queen, Margaret of Anjou, who was also in France. Their agreement was sealed with the betrothal of Warwick’s daughter, Anne, to Prince Edward, son of Margaret and Henry VI.
1470 (September)
George Duke of Clarence was part of a Lancastrian invasion force that included Henry VI’s son Edward, Jasper Tudor and Richard Earl of Warwick. The invasion led to Edward IV fleeing to Burgundy.
1470 (3rd October)
King Henry VI was restored to the throne and Warwick became his chief minister.
1471 (January)
George was in regular contact with his mother and eldest sister who persuaded him to return to Edward’s side.
1471 (14th March)
Edward IV returned to England, landing at Ravenspur in Yorkshire at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army. George immediately joined his brother. He tried to persuade Warwick to also join Edward IV but Warwick refused.
1471 (14th April)
Battle of Barnet
This battle saw the forces of Henry VI pitted against those of Edward IV. After a three hour fight two Lancastrian divisions mistakenly attacked each other and the army broke and fled. George’s father-in-law, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was killed in the flight.
1471 (late Spring)
George seized the estates of his late father-in-law . He also took his wife, Isabel’s sister, Anne into his custody.
1471 (4th May)
Battle of Tewekesbury
Landing at Weymouth too late to assist Warwick at Barnet, Margaret of Anjou’s forces were leaving for Wales when they were attacked by Edward IV. They were defeated and Edward, Prince of Wales, was killed. Margaret of Anjou was captured and exiled.
1471 (mid May)
George’s brother Edward returned triumphant to London. It is believed that Henry VI was murdered in the Tower of London on the same day.
1472 (during)
George was concerned to learn that his younger brother, Richard wanted to marry Anne Neville, his wife’s sister who had been married to Henry VI’s son, Prince Edward. He did not want to lose Anne’s estate which was under his control.
1472 (March)
George was created Earl of Warwick and Salisbury by right of his wife.
1472 (12th July)
George’s brother, Richard, married Anne Neville. Despite the marriage George still gained a huge portion of Anne’s inheritance.
1473 (4th August)
A daughter, Margaret, was born to George, Duke of Clarence, brother of King Edward IV and Isabel Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick at Farleigh Hungerford Castle, Somerset.
1474 (during)
Edward IV was weary of the feud between his brothers over the Neville estate. He declared that the estate should be divided between them.
1475 (25th February)
A son, Edward, was born to George, Duke of Clarence, brother to Edward IV and his wife, Isabel Neville, daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker. He was born at Warwick. His sister, Margaret had been born two years earlier.
1476 (6th October)
A son, Richard, was born to Isabel Neville and George Duke of Clarence.
1476 (22nd December)
George’s wife, Isabel Neville, died possibly of consumption and possible of complications following the birth of her son Richard.
1476 (late December)
George believed that his wife had been poisoned and arrested her lady-in-waiting, Ankarette Twynyho who he believed was guilty of the crime. Following an illegal trial and a guilty verdict she was hanged.
1477 (during)
George put himself forward as a suitor for the hand in marriage of Mary of Burgundy. However, King Edward objected to the match and began to fear that George was seeking to take power.
1477 (during)
One of George’s retainers, Dr John Stacey, was arrested and tortured and gave evidence that George, together with Thomas Burdett and Thomas Blake plotted to kill the King.
1477 (1st January)
George’s son, Richard, died.
1478 (8th February)
George Duke of Clarence was attainted for plotting against the King. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1478 (18th February)
George was executed for treason, allegedly by drowning in a butt of malmsey wine.

 

Published June 01, 2019 @ 0:35 pm – Updated – Jun 1, 2019 @ 12:41 am

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2019). George Plantagenet Duke of Clarence 1449 – 1478. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/george-plantagenet-duke-of-clarence-1449-1478 Last accessed August 20th, 2019