Henry, fourth son of William I
and Matilda of Flanders
was born at Selby, Yorkshire. The date of his birth is thought to be 1068 but is not certain.
1086 (24th May)
Henry was knighted by his father
1087 (9th September)
William I died in France from wounds received at the siege of Mantes. He left Normandy to his eldest son, Robert Curthose
. He left both his sword and the English crown to his second son William
. His third son, Henry, received a large sum of cash but no land.
William I was buried in St Stephen’s Abbey, Caen, Normandy.
1087 (26th September)
William, known as Rufus, was crowned King William II in England. Henry remained in Normandy.
Robert Curthose planned an invasion of England to take the crown away from his brother, William. He asked Henry to loan him some money to finance the venture but Henry refused.
Robert Curthose and Henry came to an arrangement whereby Henry purchased lands in the Cotentin for a sum of money. Henry was given the title Count of Cotentin.
Henry travelled to England to try to persuade William to grant him his mother’s lands in Buckinghamshire but William refused.
Henry returned to Normandy. As he landed he was siezed by Odo of Bayeux and imprisoned. Odo had convinced Robert that Henry was conspiring against him and Robert had taken back Henry’s lands and title in Cotentin.
Relations between Robert and William continued to be strained.
William II persuaded Conan Pilatus to rebel against Robert. Henry supported Robert in the ensuing battle but Robert left Henry to fight alone. Henry won the battle and then executed Conan Pilatus. Robert forced Henry to leave Normandy.
William II invaded Normandy at the head of a large army. Robert and William agreed a treaty of mutual assistance which excluded Henry from the succession.
Henry was besieged by Robert and William’s forces at Mont St Michel. He was unable to withstand the siege and left for France.
William and Robert had fallen out again.
Henry took control of Domfront, Normandy
An illegitimate daughter, Sybilla, was born to Henry, by his mistress Sybilla Corbet, at Domfront, Normandy.
Henry was still in control of Domfront and had extended his power in Normandy. William II made peace with Henry.
1095 (27th November)
Pope Urban II called a First Crusade “to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquests of the Levant.” Robert Curthose decided to join the Crusade and leased his lands to William II.
1100 (2nd August)
Henry’s brother, King William II was killed by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest. As soon as he learned of William’s death, Henry had to move fast to prevent his older brother, Robert Curthose, who was returning from Crusade, succeeding to the throne. Henry rode to Winchester and took control of the treasury. He gained English support by emphasising his native birth.
William II was buried in Winchester Cathedral.
1100 (5th August)
Henry was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey by the Bishop of London.
1100 (5th August)
Henry issued a Coronation Charter of Liberties, denouncing his brother’s oppressive rule and promising a return to good and fair government. Henry knew that when Robert Curthose returned to Normandy from Crusade there could be trouble. He therefore promised to grant favours to the Barons if they agreed to support him.
William II’s favourite, Ranulf Flambard, was imprisoned for the cruelty he had shown the English people.
Robert Curthose arrived back in Normandy. He was not happy that his brother had seized the English throne.
Anselem of Bec, the archbishop of Canterbury who had been exiled by William II, returned to England. He refused to acknowledge those bishops and abbots that Henry had appointed, claiming that appointments could only be made by high churchmen. This put Henry in an awkward position since the bishops and abbots he had appointed were great landowners and he needed their support. Henry avoided the issue.
1100 (11th November)
Henry married Edith
, daughter of Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland at Westminster Abbey. Edith’s mother, Margaret was the sister of Edgar Atheling, the last royal Saxon descendant. The marriage therefore represented the union of Norman and Saxon royal lines. Edith adopted the name Matilda because it was thought that the Norman barons might not respect a Queen with a Saxon name.
1100 (14th November)
Matilda was crowned Queen Consort at Westminster Abbey.
Ranulf Flambard, former favourite of William II, escaped from imprisonment and went to Robert Curthose in Normandy.
The English nobles were required to swear fealty to Henry
1101 (20th July)
Robert Curthose landed at Portsmouth to lay claim to the English throne. Many influential barons led by Robert of Belleme flocked to his side, believing him to be the true King of England. However, the former court of Rufus, led by Robert of Meulan and the English church remained loyal to Henry. Conflict was avoided when they agreed to negotiate.
Treaty of Alton
After extensive negotiations, a peace treaty was signed that agreed that Henry should keep England but pay Robert a pension of 2,000 marks per year.
A number of nobles who had sided with Robert Curthose in the Summer, including the Earl of Surrey William de Warenne, were banished.
Henry accused Robert de Belleme of crimes against the King and imprisoned him. However, he escaped from prison and raised arms against Henry. Henry responded by putting Robert’s castles to siege. Robert had no choice but to accept banishment to Normandy.
1102 (7th February)
A daughter, Adelaide
, was born to Henry I and his wife, Matilda of Scotland.
1102 (25th October)
A son, William Clito, was born to Robert Curthose and his wife Sybilla of Conversano.
1103 (5th August)
A son William
was born to Henry I and his Queen, Matilda at Winchester. He was known as William Aetheling.
A worsening situation in Normandy forced Henry to cross the Channel and sort the situation out. A number of nobles assured Henry of their continuing loyalty which gave Henry the power to confront his brother Robert Curthose and accuse him of plotting against him.
Henry sent his trusted friend Robert Fitzhamon into Normandy. After provoking a fight with Robert Curthose, Fitzhamon was captured. Henry invaded Normandy in protest at Fitzhamon’s imprisonment in Bayeux. Henry placed Bayeux under siege and then burnt the town when it refused to surrender. Having seen the fate of Bayeux the town of Caen surrendered to Henry who made some additional gains in Normandy. A new peace treaty between Henry and Robert Curthose failed and sporadic fighting dragged on throughout the year.
Henry and Anselem of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury finally reached an agreement over their differences. Henry gave up his right to invest clergy but in return it was agreed that churchmen should pay homage to the King in respect of land owned by their church.
Henry returned to England for Christmas.
Henry invaded Normandy again.
1106 (28th September)
Battle of Tinchebrai Henry succeeded in defeating Robert Curthose’s smaller army at Tinchebrai. Robert de Belleme escaped but Duke Robert was captured and sentenced to indefinite imprisonment.
Robert’s young son, William Clito was put forward as rightful Duke of Normandy. His claim was backed by Louis VI of France and Count Fulk V of Anjou. Henry was forced to return to Normandy where he successfully defended his claim to be Duke of Normandy.
In order to protect his lands, Henry married eight of his illegitimate daughters to neighbouring princes.
Having postponed finding a solution to the Church’s move to stop lay investiture (appointment of churchmen by non-churchmen) in 1100, Henry now reached agreement with the Church and renounced lay investiture. However, he insisted that prelates were required to continue to pay homage to the King. In practice the King’s wishes were to remain the main factor in the making of bishops.
King Alexander of Scotland married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of Henry I by Sybilla Corbet.
Henry invaded Wales and had some successes.
1108 (29th July)
Louis VI became King of France. He immediately set about asserting his authority including insisting that Henry pay homage to him and surrender two castles on the Norman/French border. Henry refused.
1109 (21st April)
Anselem of Bec died. Henry did not immediately replace him but decided to keep the position of Archbishop of Canterbury vacant. After the problems caused by Anselem of Bec’s, Henry did not want further confrontation with the Church.
The royal caravan still toured the country as it had in Saxon times, collecting taxes and settling problems in the royal court, but it was becoming increasingly necessary to establish a central court and financial clearing house. Roger, bishop of Salisbury, Henry’s closest advisor, was given the title of Justicar, (judge). Henry also set up a financial-counting system using a large chequered cloth. The royal treasurer and officials argued general policy and specific expenditure plans across this cloth. This department became known as the ‘exchequer’.
Henry attempted to capture Robert Curthose’s son, William Clito but the young Duke’s protectors learned of the scheme and moved him to Flanders.
1110 (10th April)
Henry’s daughter Adelaide was betrothed to Henry V, Emperor of Germany.
Henry and Louis agreed terms at Gisors. Louis agreed to allow Henry to keep the castles on the border between Normandy and France
Norman lords in Wales came under attack from the Welsh. Henry sent troops into Wales forcing Owain and Gruffudd to sue for peace.
1114 (7th January)
Henry’s daughter, Adelaide, married the Emperor of Germany, Henry V at Mainz, Germany. Her name was changed to Matilda on the same day. She was crowned Empress of Germany as part of the Wedding ceremony.
1114 (26th April)
Ralph d’Escures was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
Henry was in Normandy trying to persuade the nobles to accept his son, William Aetheling as Duke of Normandy. He had little success since most saw William Clito, Robert Curthose’s son as the natural heir.
Henry spent the whole year in Normandy defending it against attack from the King of France, the Count of Anjou and the Count of Flanders. With Henry’s long absences in Normandy it was necessary to leave the government of England in the hands of a vice-regal committee. This committee met twice-yearly to audit the accounts of the sheriffs. Accounts were balanced with the famous chequered cloth. Routine administrative work, especially that related to revenue was carried out by Roger of Salisbury.
1118 (1st May)
Henry’s wife, Matilda died at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Count Fulk of Anjou agreed an alliance with Henry to be sealed with the marriage of Prince William (Aetheling) to Count Fulk’s daughter.
1119 (20th August)
Battle of Bremule – this battle between Henry and Louis VI of France saw Henry victorious. Louis and William Clito escaped.
Henry and Louis VI agreed peace terms. William Aetheling gave homage to the French King and Louis recognised William as heir to the Duchy of Normandy.
1120 (25th November)
White Ship Disaster A ship carrying a drunken party of three hundred noblemen, including William Aetheling, heir to the throne and his illegitimate brother Richard, sank when it hit a rock in the French harbour of Barflour. There was one survivor, a butcher who was able to tell the tale of the disaster.
The death of William Aetheling led to the disentegration of the peace treaty made with Fulk of Anjou in May 1119.
The death of William Aetheling had caused a succession problem for Henry who had no remaining male heir to succeed him. Henry married Adeliza, daughter of Geoffrey, Count of Louvain, Duke of Lower Brabant and Lower Lorraine, in Windsor, hoping for a male heir.
There was a new outbreak of trouble in Normandy along the border with Anjou.
Henry went to Normandy to try to resolve the on-going conflict in Normandy.
1125 (23rd May)
Emperor Henry V, of Germany, husband to Henry’s only surviving legitimate daughter Matilda, died.
Henry recalled his daughter, Matilda to England.
Henry called his nobles to court and required that they swear to support the succession of Matilda as Queen of England should Henry die without a male heir.
Henry approached Count Fulk of Anjou with a proposal for a marriage alliance between his daughter, Matilda, and the Count’s son, Geoffrey
. Geoffrey had earned the nickname Plantagenet because he wore a sprig of broom (planta genista) as an emblem. The marriage proposal was welcomed by Fulk since it would enable him and his Angevin House to take over the Anglo-Norman realm.
1128 (17th June)
Henry’s daughter, Matilda, married Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. He was fifteen years old and she was reluctant to enter into the marriage.
William Clito died unexpectedly. His death removed him from the succession which Henry hoped would help her daughter’s position.
Count Fulk of Anjou left to go to Jerusalem. Henry’s son-in-law, Geoffrey took over as Count of Anjou.
Matilda left her husband and returned to her father in Normandy stating that she could not continue with the marriage.
Matilda returned to her husband Geoffrey of Anjou.
1133 (5th March)
A son, Henry
was born to Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet, at Le Mans, Anjou.
Henry I was now openly quarrelling with his daughter and son-in-law who wanted Henry to pass power to Matilda while he was still alive. However, although Henry was openly quarrelling with his daughter and son-in-law he still hoped that they would succeed to the throne.
1135 (late November)
Henry became ill after eating lampreys against his doctor’s advice. It soon became evident that Henry I was dying. His daughter and son-in-law were in Anjou and some days away from England. Henry’s nephew, Stephen, on the other hand, was in Boulogne, a mere days travel from England.
1135 (1st December)
Henry I, aged 67 years, died, in Rouen France. He was buried in Reading Abbey. He was succeeded by his nephew Stephen of Blois