1207 (1st October)
1209 (5th January)
Henry’s brother, Richard, was born to John and Isabella at Winchester Castle.
1210 (22nd July)
Henry’s sister, Joan, was born to John and Isabella
1212 (1st October)
Henry began his education. He was tutored by Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester. He was also taught to ride and use a sword.
Henry’s sister, Isabella, was born to John and Isabella
Henry’s sister, Eleanor, was born to John and Isabella
1215 (15th June)
Henry’s father, John, was forced to sign a charter, called Magna Carta, which met the baron’s grievances and limited the power of the King. Magna Carta contained 61 clauses which included:
The freedom and rights of the church should be guaranteed
That the King was not above the law of the land.
That no free man should be arrested, imprisoned, dispossessed, outlawed or exiled except by the lawful judgement of his peers and by the law of the land.
1215 (13th September)
After complaining to the Pope that he had been forced to sign Magna Carta, the Pope declared that the agreement was null and void.
The Baron’s War
War broke out between the barons and King John after the annullment of Magna Carta. The barons made an agreement that the French king’s son, Louis would be King in return for military support to defeat and overthrow the king.
1216 (18th October)
King John died at Newark Castle Lincolnshire. He was succeeded by his son, Henry aged 9 years. William Marshal was appointed regent for the young king of England who was also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine.
1216 (28th October)
Henry was crowned King of England in Gloucester Cathedral.
1217 (late April)
The Baron’s War
Prince Louis split his force and sent one half north to lay siege to Lincoln Castle. The other half would take Dover Castle.
1217 (20th May)
William Marshal marched north to Lincoln. He took the castle and city. A large number of rebel soldiers were taken prisoner.
1217 (24th August)
Battle of Sandwich
A French fleet arrived with fresh troops and siege engines for Louis. Hubert de Burgh intercepted the fleet forced it to flee.
1217 (12th September)
Treaty of Kingston
This was a peace treaty between England and Prince Louis and brought an end to the Baron’s War.
Henry’s mother, Isabella, left England to accompany her eldest daughter Joan to Angouleme where she would marry Hugh de Lusignan. However, Isabella decided to take Hugh for herself instead.
1219 (14th May)
William Marshal died. Hubert de Burgh took over as regent.
Henry’s mother, Isabella, married Hugh de Lusignan. The marriage gave Hugh and Isabella a large power base in south-west France. She wrote to Henry stating that Joan was too young to bear Hugh the heirs he desperately needed and that she had married him to prevent him seeking a French alliance. She also asked Henry to grant her lands in Poitou that had been promised to her on her marriage to John. Henry refused this request.
1220 (17th May)
Henry was given a second coronation in Westminster Abbey because it was believed that the ceremony used in 1216 was not legal.
1221 (25th June)
Henry’s sister, Joan, married Alexander II of Scotland
1224 (23rd April)
Henry’s sister, Eleanor married William Marshal
1227 (1st October)
Henry came of age and began to take control of England. Hugh de Burgh remained influential.
1228 (27th April)
Hubert de Burgh was appointed Justicar for life.
1230 (3rd May)
Henry left England at the head of an army to try to reclaim lands in France.
Henry returned to England having made no gains in France and been forced to agree a truce with France.
Henry was persuaded to dismiss Hubert de Burgh and replace him with Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester.
The English barons rebelled against the influence of the French at court. On the advice of Archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund Rich, Henry dismissed Peter des Roches.
1235 (20th July)
Henry’s sister, Isabella, married Frederick II, King of Sicily
1236 (14th January)
Henry married Eleanor of Provence
at Canterbury Cathedral. Afterwards they rode to London where Eleanor was crowned Queen in Westminster Abbey.
The Treaty of York agreed the border between England and Scotland.
1238 (7th January)
Henry’s sister, Eleanor, married Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester.
1239 (18th June)
A son, Edward
was born to Henry and Eleanor of Provence.
LLywelyn the Great died. Henry was able to re-take control of North Wales.
1240 (29th September)
A daughter, Margaret, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Henry announced his intention to fight another campaign in France and began to mobilise troops.
Henry at the head of an army set sail for France.
1242 (20th May)
Henry was beaten by the French at Taillebourg. Henry managed to escape to Bordeaux.
1242 (25th June)
A daughter, Beatrice, was born to Henry and Eleanor in Bordeaux.
1245 (16th January)
A son, Edmund, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Henry’s eldest son, Edward, was taken very ill at Beaulieu Abbey. Although women were not allowed in the abbey, Henry’s wife, Eleanor, insisted on staying by her son’s side until he began to recover.
A son, Richard was born to Henry and Eleanor.
Treaty of Woodstock
This treaty was an agreement between Henry and Llywelyn the Great’s grandsons, Owain and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
A son, John, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
A son, William, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
A daughter, Katherine, was born to Henry and Eleanor.
The Sicilian Crisis
Henry made an agreement with the Pope that his son, Edmund should be King of Sicily. Edmund was to march at the head of an army into Sicily and take it from the former King of Sicily’s son. The Pope, Innocent III, agreed to contribute to the cost of the venture. However, Innocent died and was succeeded by Alexander IV who refused to contribute financially and requested repayment of monies already paid.
1254 (1st October)
Henry led a campaign in France to try to regain lost land but was unsuccessful.
1254 (1st November)
Henry’s son, Edward, married Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile at the Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd rebelled against English control in Wales and declared himself Prince of Wales.
Henry, supported by his son, Edward, defeated Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and took back control of Wales.
Henry’s daughter, Katherine, who had been mute, died.
Pope Alexander IV sent an envoy to England demanding repayment of costs incurred by the papacy in funding an army to go to Sicily. Henry was told that if he did not pay he would be excommunicated. Furthermore, Henry was to fund the army himself and reclaim Sicily.
Provisions of Oxford
Henry asked parliament for money but he was told that he could have no money unless he agreed to changes within parliament. The barons wanted a group of 24 men, 12 selected by the King and 12 by the barons to act as advisers to the King. Simon de Montfort was one of the leading barons in this move for reform and one of those put forward by the barons to advise the King.
1258 (4th December)
Treaty of Paris
This treaty agreed a peace between England and France. It officially recognised John’s loss of Normandy and Poitou to France but confirmed England’s possession of Aquitaine.
Provisions of Westminster
This extended and formalised the Provisions of Oxford. Allowing a group of barons to advise the King.
Backed by the Pope, Henry repudiated the Provisions of Oxford. This led to another war between the barons and King.
1264 (14th May)
Battle of Lewes
The forces of Simon de Montfort defeated Henry and Edward and took them prisoner.
1264 (late May)
Edward managed to escape from Simon de Montfort.
1265 (4th August)
Battle of Evesham
The royalist forces led by Prince Edward defeated the forces of Simon de Montfort and killed de Montfort. Henry was released from prison.
Dictum of Kenilworth
This imposed harsh fines on those who had rebelled and fought against Henry.
The remaining rebels against Henry’s rule surrendered..
Henry has spent a vast amount of money rebuilding Westminster Abbey. The body of Edward the Confessor was re-buried in the Abbey.
Prince Edward left England to join the eighth crusade.
Henry, whose health was deteriorating, sent a message to ask Edward to leave the crusade and return to England.
1272 (16th November)
Henry died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. His eldest son, Edward
succeeded him as king.