1367 (3rd April)
A son, Henry was born to John of Gaunt
, Duke of Lancaster, (third surviving son of Edward III
) and Blanche of Lancaster at Bolingbroke castle. He was styled Henry Bolingbroke.
1368 (12th September)
Henry’s mother, Blanche of Lancaster, died at Tutbury Castle possibly from the plague
1377 (23rd April)
Henry was invested as a Knight of the Garter.
1377 (21st June)
1377 (16th July)
Henry Bolingbroke was created Earl of Derby.
1377 (21st September)
John of Gaunt married Constance of Castile.
John of Gaunt wanted Henry to marry the heiress Mary de Bohun.
With the support of Mary’s mother, Joan, John of Gaunt had Mary abducted from Pleshey Castle and taken to Arundel Castle.
1380 (27th July)
Henry Bolingbroke aged 13 years, married Mary de Bohun aged 12 years at Arundel Castle. Due to their ages they were advised not to consummate the marriage, but they disobeyed.
A son, Edward, was born to Henry and Mary de Bohun. He lived for just four days.
1384 (22nd December)
Bolingbroke was created Earl of Northampton in right of his wife.
1386 (16th September)
A son, Henry
, was born to Henry Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun at Monmouth Castle.
Henry was one of a group of nobles, known as the Lords Appellant, that sought to curb the increasingly tyrannical rule of King Richard II
1386 (19th November)
The Lords Appellant were granted a commission to rule the country as a regency for a period of one year.
1387 (19th December)
Battle of Radcot Bridge
Bolingbroke led an army of Lords Appellant to victory against the King.
1387 (late December)
The Lords Appellant met with Richard II in the Tower of London. Richard had no choice but to agree to the Lords Appellant’s demands which included summoning Parliament in February 1388.
1388 (3rd February)
The Lords Appellant formed a Parliament. It was known as the Merciless Parliament because they purged Richard’s household of pro-France nobles and other retainers.
1388 (4th June)
The Merciless Parliament was disbanded. Richard was allowed to return to rule, albeit as a puppet king controlled by the Lords Appellant.
1388 (29th September)
A son, Thomas, was born to Henry and Mary de Bohun.
1389 (20th June)
A son, John, was born to Henry and Mary de Bohun.
Henry Bolingbroke spent much of the year on crusade with the Teutonic Knights laying siege to the capital of Lithuania, Vilinius.
1390 (3rd October)
A son, Humphrey, was born to Henry and Mary de Bohun.
Bolingbroke embarked on a second crusade to take control of Lithuania. When this failed again he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
A daughter, Blanche, was born to Henry and Mary de Bohun.
1394 (24th March)
Henry’s stepmother, Constance of Castile died.
1394 (4th June)
Henry’s wife, Mary de Bohun, died in childbirth. The child, Philippa survived.
1396 (13th January)
John of Gaunt, Henry’s father, married his long time mistress, Katherine Swynford.
1397 (29th September)
Bolingbroke was created Duke of Hereford.
Henry made a chance, disparaging remark about Richard’s rule. Richard used this as an excuse to take revenge on Henry for his support of the Lords Appellant and banished him for a year. Henry spent time in Brittany where he met Joan of Navarre, wife of John IV of Brittany.
1399 (3rd February)
Henry’s father, John of Gaunt
, died and Henry inherited the titles Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Earl of Lincoln.
1399 (after 3rd February)
Henry was still exiled at the time of his father’s death. King Richard II seized his inheritance and extended Henry’s banishment for life. Henry was not happy and planned to overthrow the king.
1399 (19th August)
While Richard was in Ireland, Henry landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire. With the support of Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland and Thomas Arundel, exiled former Archbishop of Canterbury
he took the throne.
1399 (29th September)
When Richard returned from Ireland Henry had him arrested and imprisoned in Pontefract Castle. Richard was forced to abdicate the throne in his favour.
1399 (30th September)
Henry took the throne of England and Wales as King Henry IV.
1399 (12th October)
King Henry IV founded the Order of the Bath.
1399 (13th October)
Henry was crowned King Henry IV in Westminster Abbey.
1399 (15th October)
Henry’s eldest son, Henry, was created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester and Prince of Aquitaine.
King Henry proposed to Joan of Navarre, whose husband had died in November 1399. She accepted but stated that she had to set the affairs of Brittany in order before the marriage could proceed.
The Epiphany Rising
This plot to seize Henry IV and restore Richard II to the throne failed when one of the conspirators betrayed the others.
1400 (17th February)
It was announced that King Richard II
had died in Pontefract Castle. He most likely died from starvation.
1400 (25th July)
Henry marched north at the head of an army that was to muster at York prior to invading Scotland.
The English army marched to Scotland in an attempt to put Edinburgh castle to siege. The mission failed.
1400 (16th September)
Henry faced rebellion in Wales when Owain Glyn Dwr was declared Prince of Wales.
Owain Glyn Dwr was supported by supporters of the Mortimer family who believed that Edmund Mortimer, the rightful heir of Richard II, should be king.
Battle of Hyddgen
The English were beaten by a Welsh force near Aberystwyth.
1402 (22nd June)
Battle of Nesbit Moor
The English defeated a Scottish raiding party.
1402 (22nd June)
Battle of Bryn Glas
An English force was defeated by Welsh rebels.
1402 (14th September)
Battle of Humbleton Hill
An English force led by Henry Hotspur defeated a Scottish raiding party and captured the Earl of Douglas.
Henry’s betrothed, Joan of Navarre and her daughters, left Brittany for England.
1403 (7th February)
King Henry IV married Joan of Navarre at Winchester Cathedral.
1403 (10th May)
Henry’s second stepmother, Katherine Swynford, died.
Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland, known as Hotspur, announced that he would join forces with Owain Glyn Dwr and the Mortimer family against Henry.
1403 (21st July)
Battle of Shrewsbury
Before Henry Percy had a chance to join the Mortimer faction King Henry marched north and defeated him in battle. Percy was captured and executed but Henry allowed Percy’s father to live.
1404 (14th June)
Owain Glyn Dwr declared himself Prince of Wales and allied himself with the French.
1405 (11th March)
Battle of Grosmont (Monmouthshire)
The English defeated a force of Welsh rebels.
1405 (5th May)
Battle of Usk
The English defeated a force of Welsh rebels.
1405 (8th June)
Richard Scrope Archbishop of York, led a rebellion against the rule of Henry IV. He was supported by Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland. The rebellion failed and Scrope was captured and executed. Nothumberland fled to Scotland.
1406 (22nd March)
Henry captured James, heir to the Scottish throne and and held him captive.
Henry, Prince of Wales, lay siege to a number of Welsh rebels at Aberystwyth.
1408 (19th February)
Battle of Bramham Moor
The Earl of Northumberland had invaded England with Scottish support. King Henry marched north and defeated them at Bramham Moor. Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland was killed in the fighting.
Henry, Prince of Wales, took Aberystwyth.
Prince Henry, heir to the throne, became Chancellor of England. Henry IV was becoming increasingly unwell.
Henry, Prince of Wales, took Harlech Castle in Wales.
1411 (30th November)
Following a disagreement with his son, Henry IV removed his son, Henry, from the Royal Council.
1413 (20th March)
King Henry IV died in the Jerusalem Chamber of Westminster Abbey during a meeting of Convocation. He was succeeded by his son, Henry V