1386 (16th September)
1387 (19th December)
Henry Bolingbroke joined the Lords Appellant, a group of nobles who sought to curb the tyrannical rule of Richard II
, and led an army to victory against the King.
1387 (late December)
The Lords Appellant met with Richard II in the Tower of London. Richard had no choice but to agree to the Lords Appellant’s demands.
1388 (3rd February)
The Lords Appellant formed a Parliament. It was known as the Merciless Parliament because they purged Richard’s household of pro-France nobles and other retainers
1388 (4th June)
The Merciless Parliament was disbanded. Richard was allowed to return to rule albeit as a puppet king controlled by the Lords Appellant.
1388 (29th September)
Henry’s brother, Thomas, was born to Henry Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun.
1389 (20th June)
Henry’s brother, John, was born to Henry Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun.
1390 (3rd October)
Henry’s brother, Humphrey, was born to Henry Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun.
Henry’s father embarked on a crusade to take Vilnius in Lithuania after which he travelled to the Holy Land.
Henry’s sister, Blanche, was born to Henry Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun.
1394 (4th June)
Henry’s mother, Mary de Bohun, died in childbirth. The child, Philippa survived
1397 (29th September)
Henry Bolingbroke was created Duke of Hereford
Henry Bolingbroke was exiled after quarrelling with the Duke of Norfolk. Henry was taken into Richard II’s court.
1399 (3rd February)
Henry’s grandfather, John of Gaunt
, died. Henry Bolingbroke inherited the titles Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Earl of Lincoln but because he had been exiled, King Richard II seized John of Gaunt’s lands for himself.
1399 (19th August)
Henry Bolingbroke, supported by Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland and Thomas Arundel, invaded England.
1399 (29th September)
King Richard II was forced to abdicate the throne in Bolingbroke’s favour.
1399 (30th September)
Henry Bolingbroke took the throne of England and Wales as King Henry IV.
Henry was now heir to the throne.
1399 (13th October)
Henry’s father was crowned King Henry IV in Westminster Abbey.
1399 (15th October)
Henry, was created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester and Prince of Aquitaine.
1400 (17th February)
It was announced that Richard II had died in Pontefract Castle. He either starved himself to death, was starved to death or was murdered
1400 (25th July)
Henry’s father marched north at the head of an army which would muster at York prior to invading Scotland.
The English army left York and marched to Scotland in an attempt to put Edinburgh castle to siege. The mission failed.
1400 (16th September)
Henry’s father faced rebellion in Wales when Owain Glyn Dwr was declared Prince of Wales.
Henry was given full control of the administration of Wales.
Owain Glyn Dwr was supported by the Mortimer family who believed that Edmund Mortimer, the rightful heir of Richard II, should be king.
Battle of Hyddgen
An English force was beaten by a Welsh force near Aberystwyth.
1402 (22nd June)
Battle of Nesbit Moor
An English force defeated a Scottish raiding party.
1402 (22nd June)
Battle of Bryn Glas
An English force was defeated by Welsh rebels.
1402 (14th September)
Battle of Humbleton Hill
An English force led by Henry Hotspur defeated a Scottish raiding party and captured the Earl of Douglas.
1403 (7th February)
Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland, known as Hotspur, announced that he would join forces with Owain Glyn Dwr and the Mortimer family against the King.
1403 (21st July)
Battle of Shrewsbury
Henry Prince of Wales took part in this battle which saw Henry Percy’s army defeated. Prince Henry was hit in the face with an arrow. Although it was successfully removed he was left with a scar on his face. Percy was captured and executed but Henry allowed Percy’s father to live.
1404 (14th June)
Owain Glyndwr declared himself Prince of Wales and allied himself with the French.
1405 (11th March)
Battle of Grosmont (Monmouthshire)
The English defeated a force of Welsh rebels.
1405 (5th May)
Battle of Usk
The English defeated a force of Welsh rebels.
1405 (8th June)
Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York, supported by the Earl of Northumberland, led a rebellion against the rule of Henry IV. Scrope was defeated and executed. Northumberland fled to Scotland.
1406 (22nd March)
Henry’s father captured James, heir to the Scottish throne and and held him captive.
Henry lay siege to a number of Welsh rebels at Aberystwyth.
1408 (19th February)
Battle of Bramham Moor
The Earl of Northumberland, with Scottish support, invaded England. Henry’s father met them and scored a decisive victory. Northumberland was killed in the fighting.
Prince Henry led an army and took Aberystwyth.
Henry became Chancellor of England. His father Henry IV was becoming increasingly unwell.
Henry, took Harlech Castle in Wales.
1411 (30th November)
Following a disagreement, Henry IV removed Henry from the Royal Council.
1413 (20th March)
1413 (9th April)
Henry V was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
1414 (9th January)
Oldcastle’s Lollard Rising
Sir John Oldcastle escaped from prison and planned a rising. The rebels were rounded up outside Temple Bar, London but John Oldcastle escaped.
Hundred Years’ War
King Henry V genuinely believed that he had an inherited claim to land in France and the French throne through Isabella of France, mother or Edward III who was Henry’s great-grandfather. In order to allow himself to pursue his claim he set virtually impossible demands for extending the peace and began to prepare for an invasion of France.
Henry faced an uprising by Richard of York and Henry, Lord Scrope, who were determined to put Richard II’s heir, Edmund Mortimer, on the throne. Henry was warned of the uprising in good time and easily suppressed it.
1415 (12th August)
Henry sailed for France at the head of an invading force and landed near Harfleur. He put the port town under siege.
1415 (22nd September)
Henry captured Harfleur. However, heavy English losses from dysentery prevented him from marching on Paris so he decided to attack Calais instead.
1415 (25th October)
Battle of Agincourt
Henry’s march to Calais was intercepted by a French army led by Constable D’Albret. Although the English army was outnumbered, Henry used the defensive tactics used by Edward III at the Battle of Crecy and succeeded in routing the French. There were heavy French losses and around 1,000 French prisoners were taken, including Arthur of Brittany, Henry’s step-brother.
Treaty of Canterbury
Henry returned to England and formed an alliance with the German Emperor, Sigismund.
1416 (15th August)
Battle of the Seine
Henry’s naval force broke the French blockade of Harfleur and saved Harfleur from recapture by the French.
Sir John Oldcastle was captured and executed.
1417 (1st August)
Having rebuilt his army, King Henry V returned to France determined to take the French throne.
1418 (1st February)
Henry took Falaise.
1418 (4th September)
Henry took Caen in Normandy.
1419 (19th January)
Henry took Rouen, the capital of Normandy.
1419 (10th September)
The Armagnacs murdered John the Fearless, leader of the Burgundians.
The Burgundians allied with the English. Scotland sent reinforcements to aid their allies, the French.
1420 (21st May)
Treaty of Troyes
With Normandy conquered, Brittany choosing neutrality and the defection of the Burgundians to the English, the French were forced to sue for peace. The peace treaty signed at Troyes provided that:
Henry should become regent of France during Charles VI’s lifetime but that Charles would retain the crown. Henry was to marry Charles VI’s daughter, Catherine of Valois
and their children would inherit the French crown on Charles’s death. Charles VI’s own son, the Dauphin, was disinherited.
1420 (2nd June)
Henry married Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France.
1421 (1st February)
Henry and Catherine returned to England.
1421 (24th February)
Catherine was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey.
1421 (22nd March)
Battle of Bauge
Henry’s brother, Thomas Duke of Clarence, commanding in France during his brother’s absence, impulsively attacked a Franco-Scots army without waiting for reinforcements. He was defeated and killed.
King Henry V returned to France.
1421 (6th December)
A son, Henry
, was born to Henry V and Catherine of Valois at Windsor Castle.
1422 (2nd May)
Meaux, the last remaining stronghold of the Dauphin, fell to the English.
1422 (31st August)
King Henry V died from dysentery at the Castle of Bois-de-Vincennes, France. He was succeeded by his infant son, Henry VI