1421 (6th December)
1422 (1st September)
Henry became King of England when his father died. His uncles, John, Duke of Bedford, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Henry Beaufort acted as regents for the infant King.
1422 (21st October)
King Charles VI of France died. In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Troyes 1420, Henry became King of France.
1422 (after 21st October)
The French disliked being ruled by the English and many ignored laws and resisted measures put in place by the King’s regents. Large parts of southern France openly declared their allegiance to Charles VI’s son, Charles the Dauphin.
1423 (31st July)
Battle of Cravant
This battle, fought between the English and French at Cravant, Burgundy, was a victory for the English.
1423 (28th September)
The English nobility swore fealty to the young King Henry VI.
1424 (17th August)
Battle of Verneuil
This battle, fought between the English and French at Verneuil, Normandy, was a victory for the English.
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort disagreed on how to manage the French.
Parliament of Bats
This was a meeting of Parliament held at Leicester by John Duke of Bedford to settle the dispute between Gloucester and Beaufort. All attendees were told that they were not to carry arms so they appeared carrying bats or clubs instead. A reluctant truce was reached.
Cardinal Beaufort resigned as Chancellor. William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk was appointed in his stead.
1426 (6th March)
Battle of St James
This battle, fought between the English and French at Avranches, was a victory for the English.
Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was appointed Henry’s tutor.
1428 (12th October)
Siege of Orleans
The French placed the English held city of Orleans under siege.
1429 (8th May)
Siege of Orleans
Orleans fell to the French.
1429 (11th June)
Battle of Jargeau
This battle, fought between the French led by Joan of Arc and the English saw the French recapture land lost along the Loire river.
1429 (16th June)
Battle of Beaugency
This battle, fought between the French led by Joan of Arc
and the English saw the French victorious.
1429 (18th June)
Battle of Patay
This battle, fought between the French and the English was a victory for the French.
1429 (17th July)
The Dauphin of France was crowned King Charles VII at Reims Cathedral.
1429 (6th November)
Henry was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.
1430 (23rd May)
Siege of Compiegne
This was Joan of Arc’s last battle. She was captured outside the town by a Burgundian force and handed over to the English.
1431 (30th May)
Joan of Arc was burned at the stake.
1431 (26th December)
Henry was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
1435 (1st January)
Battle of Gerberoy
This battle fought between the French and English was a victory for the French.
1435 (14th September)
John, Duke of Bedford died.
1435 (21st September)
Congress of Arras
This meeting between representatives of the French, English and Burgundians sought to find a peace. The Treaty of Arras found agreement between France and Burgundy which broke the Burgundians allegiance to the English and ultimately left the English in a much weaker position in France.
1437 (3rd January)
1437 (12th November)
King Henry VI took over personal rule.
1440 (7th July)
The English recaptured Harfleur from the French.
1440 (12th September)
Henry VI founded Eton College.
1441 (2nd April)
Henry VI founded Kings College, Cambridge.
1441 (19th September)
The French took Pontoise and Ile de France from the English.
1442 (11th June)
The French invaded Gascony.
1443 (23rd April)
A truce was agreed with Burgundy.
1444 (22nd May)
Treaty of Tours
This was a peace agreement between England and France. It was to be sealed with the marriage of Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou
1445 (23rd April)
Henry married Margaret of Anjou at Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire.
1445 (30th May)
Margaret of Anjou was crowned Queen.
1447 (23rd February)
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was accused of treason and was imprisoned in Bury St Edmunds where he died before he could be tried.
1449 (24th March)
The English captured Fougeres in Brittany.
The French invaded Normandy.
1449 (29th October)
The capital of Normandy, Rouen, surrendered to the French.
1450 (15th April)
Battle of Formigny
This was a major battle fought between the French and English and was a victory for the French.
1450 (2nd May)
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, Henry’s chief minister, was accused and found guilty of treason. He was pardoned by the King and sent into exile but was murdered on his way to his ship.
Suffolk’s death meant there were only two descendants of the Plantagenet line and both wanted positions in the country. The Duke of Somerset was, like the King, of Lancastrian descent. His rival and heir presumptive to the throne was Richard Duke of York
1450 (late May)
Disgruntled Kentishmen rallied behind Jack Cade and marched to London in protest against the government of the country.
1450 (18th June)
The rebels clashed with royal forces at Sevenoaks.
1450 (29th June)
Rebels murdered William Ayscough, Bishop of Salisbury, who had risen to be one of the most powerful men in the country.
1450 (4th July)
The Kentishmen led by Jack Cade reached London and presented a formal complaint.
1450 (8th July)
A battle broke out on London Bridge between Cade’s men and officials of London. The rebels sustained heavy casualties
1450 (9th July)
The King issued a pardon to all of Cade’s men that withdrew from the capital immediately. The pardon did not apply to Cade and he fled south.
1450 (12th July)
Jack Cade was captured near Lewes. However, he was badly wounded and died before he could be tried.
1450 (12th August)
Cherbourg surrendered to the French, a move that gave the French control of all of Normandy.
1451 (30th June)
Bordeaux surrendered to the French.
1451 (21st August)
Bayonne surrendered to the French, a move that gave the French control of Gascony.
1452 (1st March)
Richard Duke of York raised arms against the King but surrendered 2 days later. He was pardoned by the King.
1452 (22nd October)
John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury re-captured Bordeaux allowing England to regain control of Gascony.
1453 (17th July)
Battle of Castillon
This battle was fought between the French and English and was a victory for the French. The English commander, Talbot, was killed. The battle marked the end of the Hundred Years’ War.
King Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was unfit to rule. Richard Duke of York as heir presumptive felt he should replace Henry on the throne. However, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset was favoured by Margaret of Anjou.
1453 (13th October)
A son, Edward, was born to King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou at the Palace of Westminster. He was created Duke of Cornwall.
1453 (19th October)
The French recaptured Bordeaux. England was left with just Calais in France.
1454 (15th March)
Henry’s son, Edward, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
King Henry VI regained his mental capacity.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses
First Battle of St Albans
The forces of Richard Duke of York, supported by Richard Neville, Duke of Salisbury and Warwick
defeated and killed the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland. King Henry VI was captured.
1456 (25th February)
Richard Duke of York was dismissed as regent.
1457 (28th January)
1457 (28th August)
French raiders lay waste to Sandwich, Kent.
1459 (23rd September)
Battle of Blore Heath
A Neville force supporting Richard Duke of York fought off a Lancastrian attack that was supported by the Percy family.
1459 (12th – 13th October)
Rout of Ludlow
Threatened by Margaret of Anjou and her supporters, Richard of York, Warwick and the Nevilles mustered their supporters at Ludlow but when the main Lancastrian army appeared their men deserted. York fled to Ireland and Warwick fled to France.
1460 (15th January)
The French made a raid on Sandwich and captured the Royal fleet.
1460 (26th June)
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Edward, Earl of March
landed at Sandwich at the head of an army and marched towards London.
1460 (10th July)
Battle of Northampton
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Edward, Earl of March defeated a Lancastrian force led by Humphrey, Stafford and Buckingham and captured Henry VI. Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward fled to Harlech Castle.
1460 (19th July)
Richard of York claimed the throne but the landowners refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
1460 (25th October)
Act of Accord
Richard Duke of York was named successor to the throne over Henry VI’s son, Edward.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
Queen Margaret, unwilling to accept the disinheritance of her son Edward, raised an army in the north. Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian force.
1460 (31st December)
King Henry VI was released from captivity but was still mentally unstable and as a consequence was unfit to rule.
Warwick, known as the Kingmaker due to his meddling in matters of the succession, put forward Richard of York’s son, Edward, Earl of March as claimant to the throne.
1461 (2nd February)
Battle of Mortimer’s Cross
The Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire led an army of Welsh Lancastrians and French mercenaries to join Margaret of Anjou’s advance on London but they were intercepted by a Yorkist army led by Edward Earl of March and defeated.
1461 (17th February)
Second Battle of St Albans
Warwick attempted to block Margaret of Anjou’s southward advance on London but his defensive position was surprised. After a long and bloody battle the Yorkists fled. Henry VI was recaptured but the Lancastrians failed to secure London and returned north.
1461 (4th March)
Henry was deposed by Edward Duke of York who took the throne as Edward IV.
1461 (29th March)
Battle of Towton
Edward Earl of March pursued the Lancastrians north and attacked them near Tadcaster. After a long fight in heavy snowfall, the Lancastrians were defeated having suffered heavy casualties.
Following the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, Margaret and Prince Edward fled to Scotland where they were given refuge. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1461 (28th June)
Edward IV was crowned King at Westminster Abbey.
1464 (1st May)
1465 (24th July)
King Henry VI was captured by Yorkist forces and taken to the Tower of London.
Warwick, frustrated by his lack of power over Edward, turned his attention to Edward’s younger brother, George, Duke of Clarence
who he possibly intended to make King in Edward’s stead.
1469 (26th July)
Battle of Edgecote Moor
Warwick raised an army of northern rebels led by Sir John Conyers, Edward’s cousin. They defeated a force of Welsh loyalists led by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.
1469 (late July)
Warwick captured Edward IV. With Edward in captivity he married his daughter to George Duke of Clarence. Warwick then attempted to rule in Edward’s name but he was not supported by the nobility.
1469 (10th September)
Failing to gain the support of the nobility Warwick was forced to release Edward.
King Edward tried to find a peaceful solution rather than retaliate against Warwick.
Warwick and George Duke of Clarence with Lancastrian support rebelled against Edward but were defeated.
1470 (1st May)
Warwick went to France and made an alliance with Margaret of Anjou.
Warwick and the Duke of Clarence at the head of an army returned to England and defeated Edward who was forced to flee to Burgundy. Edward’s wife, Elizabeth Woodville, who was heavily pregnant, sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.
1470 (3rd October)
Henry VI was restored to the English throne.
Edward returned to England at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army.
1471 (14th April)
Battle of Barnet
Edward set out to attack Warwick’s larger Lancastrian force at dawn. After a three hour fight, two Lancastrian divisions mistakenly attacked each other and the army broke and fled. Warwick was killed in the flight.
1471 (4th May)
Battle of Tewekesbury
Landing at Weymouth too late to assist Warwick at Barnet, Margaret of Anjou’s forces were leaving for Wales when they were attacked by Edward IV. They were defeated and Edward, Prince of Wales, was killed. Margaret of Anjou was captured and exiled.
1471 (Mid May)
returned triumphant to London. It is believed that Henry was murdered in the Tower of London on the same day.