1457 (28th January)
1458 (3rd January)
Henry’s mother married Henry Stafford, son of the Duke of Buckingham at Maxstoke Castle.
1461 (4th March)
Edward, Duke of York, took the throne as Edward IV
1461 (after 4th March)
Jasper Tudor went into exile and Edward IV gave Pembroke Castle and the title Earl of Pembroke to William Herbert.
Five year old Henry was made a ward of William Herbert by Edward IV. His mother was allowed to maintain contact with her son.
1469 (27th July)
William Herbert, Henry’s guardian, who had been captured at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, 26th July 1469, was executed.
1470 (30th October)
1470 (after 30th October)
Henry’s uncle, Jasper Tudor, returned from exile and took Henry to court.
1471 (14th April)
Henry’s stepfather, Henry Stafford, was badly injured in the Battle of Barnet.
1471 (22nd May)
Edward IV returned to the throne. It is thought that Henry VI was murdered on the same day.
Henry, the Lancaster heir to the throne, was taken to Brittany for safety by his uncle, Jasper Tudor
. They were given protection by Francis II, Duke of Brittany.
1471 (4th October)
Henry’s stepfather, Henry Stafford, died.
1472 (12th June)
Henry’s mother, Margaret Beaufort, married Thomas Stanley, steward to Edward IV. This gave her a place in court and she worked to further Henry’s interests. She also became good friends with Edward IV’s wife, Elizabeth Woodville
Henry’s protector, Francis II of Brittany fell ill. Edward IV immediately began negotiations with Francis’s advisers for the return of Henry Tudor.
Henry was taken to the port of Saint Malo where he was to be handed over to the Edward IV’s representatives. While there he managed to escape to the sanctuary of a monastery.
1483 (9th April)
1483 (26th June)
After proclaiming the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville to be invalid, Richard, Duke of Gloucester took the throne as King Richard III
Henry’s mother, Margaret Beaufort and Elizabeth Woodville worked to effect Henry Tudor’s taking the throne. They agreed that Henry would marry Elizabeth’s eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York
once he had secured the throne.
Henry’s mother persuaded the Duke of Buckingham to support Henry Tudor.
1483 (25th December)
Henry publicly swore an oath in Reims Cathedral stating that once he was King he would marry Elizabeth of York.
Richard III took all of Henry’s mother’s property.
1485 (1st August)
Henry left Harfleur at the head of an invasion force.
1485 (7th August)
Henry landed at Milford Haven and marched inland picking up support along the way.
1485 (21st August)
Henry made camp at Whitesmoor’s Plain, near Market Bosworth in Leicestershire.
1485 (22nd August)
Battle of Bosworth Field
This decisive battle between the forces of Henry Tudor and Richard III, saw Richard killed and Henry proclaimed King Henry VII on the battlefield.
1485 (late August)
1485 (30th October)
Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Henry VII’s first parliament repudiated Titulus Regius (1484) legitimising Elizabeth of York and her family.
An act was passed that returned to the crown all lands it had lost during the Wars of the Roses.
1486 (18th January)
Henry married Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, at Westminster Abbey.
Henry and Elizabeth embarked on a progress of the north of England.
1486 (20th September)
A son, Arthur
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at St Swithun’s Priory in Winchester.
1486 (24th September)
Prince Arthur was baptised at Winchester Cathedral by the Bishop of Worcester.
A pretender to the throne, Lambert Simnel
, claimed to be Elizabeth’s cousin, Edward Earl of Warwick.
1487 (16th June)
Battle of Stoke
Henry VII fought the forces of Lambert Simnel and the Earl of Lincoln at Stoke. Lincoln was killed and Lambert Simnel, was captured and set to work in the royal kitchens.
Henry arranged for Margaret
, daughter of Edward IV’s brother George, Duke of Clarence, to to marry his cousin, Richard Pole.
1487 (25th November)
Elizabeth of York, was crowned Queen consort at Westminster Abbey.
The people of Yorkshire rebelled against a tax imposed to help Henry support Brittany maintaining independence from France.
1489 (14th February)
The Treaty of Redon
This treaty allied England with Brittany against France.
1489 (27th March)
Treaty of Medina del Campo
This treaty between England and Spain agreed that Prince Arthur would marry Catherine of Aragon
when they were both of age to marry.
Henry introduced a new coin. It was a golden sovereign that depicted Henry VII wearing a crown.
1489 (28th November)
A daughter, Margaret
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at the Palace of Westminster. She was named after her Henry’s mother, Margaret Beaufort.
1489 (29th November)
Prince Arthur, was made Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and a Knight of the Bath.
1491 (8th May)
Henry’s son, Arthur, was made a Knight of the Garter.
1491 (28th June)
A son, Henry
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace.
1491 (early July)
Prince Henry was baptised in the Church of Observant Friars at Greenwich Palace.
1491 (31st October)
Prince Henry was made a Knight of the Bath.
1491 (21st December)
Tariffs were imposed on Italian imports. In retaliation the Italians refused to allow English trading ships a return cargo.
1492 (2nd July)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Sheen Palace in Surrey.
Anxious to maintain the independence of Brittany, Henry crossed the Channel at the head of an army to prevent Charles VIII of France
from annexing Brittany. Charles agreed to negotiate peace.
Henry extended the peace with Scotland for a further two years.
1492 (3rd November)
Treaty of Etaples
This was a peace treaty between England and France to last until one year after the death of the King that lived the longest.
Henry prevented English merchants from trading with Antwerp in retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy’s support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck.
Prince Henry was created Earl Marshall of England.
King Henry imposed economic sanctions on Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, because he had declared his support for Perkin Warbeck.
1494 (31st October)
Prince Henry, was made Duke of York.
1495 (17th May)
Henry’s son, Henry, was made a Knight of the Garter.
1495 (25th June)
Henry VII and the royal party made a progress of Lancashire.
1495 (3rd July)
Perkin Warbeck attempted an invasion of England by landing a small force at Deal in Kent. When those that landed were captured he sailed to Ireland.
1495 (14th September)
Henry’s daughter, Elizabeth, died of atrophy.
1495 (27th November)
Perkin Warbeck landed in Scotland and was given a state welcome by King James IV
The World’s first dry dock was built at Portsmouth.
1496 (24th February)
This treaty between England and the Netherlands provided for a renewal of trade between the two countries. A clause was included that stated that neither country was to aid the other’s rebels.
1496 (5th March)
Letters patent were granted to John Cabot
allowing him to sail five ships under the English flag to discover new lands. He would pay the crown one fifth of all his profits.
1496 (18th March)
A daughter, Mary
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Richmond Palace.
England joined the Holy League of Venice. The League united Italian states against France.
1496 (21st September)
King James IV of Scotland and Perkin Warbeck crossed the border with a large army. James hoped the northern counties would rise against Henry but he found little support and returned to Scotland four days later after learning that an English army was marching north from Newcastle.
Negotiations began between England and Scotland to secure a peace. The possibility of a marriage between Margaret Tudor and King James of Scotland was discussed.
Henry added two new ships to the navy – The Sweepstake and The Mary Fortune.
Parliament approved a new tax to raise money to defend the border with Scotland against a further invasion in support of Perkin Warbeck.
1497 (2nd May)
John Cabot set sail in ‘The Matthew’ to discover new lands.
1497 (late May)
The people of Cornwall rebelled against the tax for the defence of the Scottish border. They argued that they were too far away from Scotland for its defence to be their responsibility.
A force of Cornishmen led by Michael Joseph and Thomas Flamank began a march to London. They were joined by James Touchet, Baron Audley who became their leader.
1497 (17th June)
The Cornish rebels reached Kent seeking support for their cause. However they were attacked by the Earl of Kent and the leaders captured at the Battle of Deptford Bridge.
1497 (24th June)
John Cabot discovered an uninhabited land which he named the New-Found-Land.
1497 (27th June)
Thomas Flamank and Michael Joseph, leaders of the Cornish rebels were hanged at Tyburn.
1497 (28th June)
James Touchet, Baron Audley was beheaded at Blackfriars, London.
1497 (5th July)
Henry asked James IV to surrender Perkin Warbeck to England and threatened him with war if he did not comply. Deciding that an alliance with England would be in Scotland’s best interests he gave Perkin Warbeck a boat and expelled him from Scotland.
1497 (16th July)
Perkin Warbeck landed in Cork, Ireland.
1497 (18th July)
Treaty of Medina del Campo
The terms for the marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were now set out in detail. Catherine would come to England in 1500 when Arthur was 14 years old and her dowry of 200,000 crowns would be paid in two instalments.
Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were formally betrothed at the Palace of Woodstock. The Spanish ambassador stood as proxy for Catherine.
1497 (7th September)
Perkin Warbeck landed in Cornwall.
1497 (17th September)
Perkin Warbeck supported by a peasant force lay siege to Exeter but was beaten back.
1497 (21st September)
Realising he was not going to be able to mount a successful invasion, Perkin Warbeck left Cornwall for Southampton. He hoped to return to the continent.
1497 (30th September)
Treaty of Ayton
This treaty agreed a seven year peace between England and Scotland. Negotiations for a marriage between Princess Margaret and James IV were re-opened.
1497 (5th October)
Perkin Warbeck was captured at Beaulieu Abbey.
1497 (27th November)
Perkin Warbeck was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
A conference was held at Westminster between England and the German States in order to clarify the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht.
A son, Edward was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.
Both Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon appealed to the Pope to grant a dispensation to allow them to marry before reaching legal age.
A conference was held at Bruges to discuss trade between England and the Netherlands, but little was accomplished.
The English Merchant Adventurers were granted a trading monopoly with the Netherlands.
1498 (9th June)
Perkin Warbeck escaped from the Tower of London. He later surrendered to the abbot of the monastery at Sheen and was returned to the Tower.
Margaret of Burgundy sent an official apology to Henry VII for the support she had given Perkin Warbeck.
Henry’s son, Edward died.
1499 (12th February)
A new pretender to the throne, Ralph Wulford, who claimed to be the imprisoned Earl of Warwick was captured and sentenced to death.
1499 (21st February)
A son, Edmund was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace.
A conference was held at Calais between Henry VII and Philip of Burgundy to settle trading disputes.
1499 (19th May)
Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were married by proxy at Bewdley.
Catherine of Aragon’s father, Ferdinand of Aragon
, told Henry VII that he was concerned by the fact that claimants to the throne remained alive in England.
An extension of the peace between England and Scotland, to last for the lifetime of both Kings, was discussed. It would be sealed with the marriage of Princess Margaret to James IV of Scotland.
1499 (early November)
Perkin Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick exchanged letters while in the Tower. They agreed to escape and overthrow Henry VII.
1499 (23rd November)
The pretender, Perkin Warbeck, who had claimed to be Elizabeth of York’s brother, Richard of York, was hanged at Tyburn.
1499 (28th November)
Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of Edward IV’s younger brother George, was beheaded.
1500 (9th June)
Henry held a meeting with Philip of Burgundy in Calais.
1500 (after 9th June)
After learning that Henry had met with Philip of Burgundy, Ferdinand of Aragon delayed sending Catherine to England.
1500 (19th June)
Henry’s son, Edmund, died at the Old Palace, Hatfield.
1500 (28th July)
Henry VII appealed to the Pope to grant a dispensation allowing Princess Margaret to marry her fourth cousin, James IV of Scotland.
1501 (2nd October)
Catherine of Aragon arrived in England.
1501 (14th November)
Henry’s son, Arthur, married Catherine of Aragon at St Paul’s Cathedral.
1501 (28th November)
Ferdinand and Isabella
of Spain paid the first installment of Catherine’s dowry.
Prince Arthur and Catherine made their home in Ludlow Castle in the Welsh Marches.
1502 (24th January)
Treaty of Perpetual Peace
This treaty between England and Scotland provided that each King would put an end to the border disputes and would not make war on each other or assist each other’s enemies. A Perpetual peace was to last for the lifetime of each king and their legitimate heirs and successors. The allies of each country were to be given the opportunity to be included in the treaty. The treaty would be sealed with the marriage of Princess Margaret to King James of Scotland.
1502 (late March)
Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were taken ill with a viral infection.
1502 (2nd April)
Henry’s son, Arthur, died at Ludlow Castle.
1502 (2nd April)
The death of Prince Arthur meant that Prince Henry became Duke of Cornwall.
1502 (23rd April)
A funeral service took place for Prince Arthur.
1502 (early May)
Having recovered from the viral infection that killed Arthur, Catherine returned to London. She was given accommodation in Durham House.
The Spanish ambassador, de Puebla, suggested that Catherine could marry Prince Henry.
1502 (19th June)
Henry agreed a treaty with the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian at Aachen. Henry agreed to donate 10,000 crowns to Maximilian’s war with Turkey and in return Maximilian would no longer harbour Henry’s enemies.
Elizabeth of York went to the Tower of London to prepare for the birth of her seventh child.
1503 (24th January)
Work began on the construction of Henry VII’s chapel at Westminster Abbey.
1503 (2nd February)
A daughter, Katherine, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York in the Tower of London.
1503 (11th February)
Elizabeth of York died from complications following the birth of her daughter, Katherine.
1503 (24th February)
Henry’s wife, Elizabeth of York was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Henry was concerned for the succession with only one surviving male heir. He considered marrying Catherine of Aragon.
1503 (23rd June)
Catherine’s parents had not wanted their daughter to marry Henry VII and so arrangements went ahead for her to marry Prince Henry.
1503 (25th June)
Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon were formally betrothed.
Isabella of Spain suggested that Henry could marry her niece, Joan, Queen of Naples.
1503 (8th July)
Princess Margaret began her journey north to marry James IV.
1503 (8th August)
Princess Margaret married James IV of Scotland in the monastery of Holyrood House.
1503 (26th December)
The Pope granted a dispensation allowing Prince Henry to marry Catherine of Aragon.
Henry asked parliament for a tax to help pay for costs of the marriage of Princess Margaret.
Henry introduced a new coin, the shilling. It was made of silver and worth twelve pennies.
1504 (18th February)
Prince Henry was created Prince of Wales.
Many leading clerics including the Archbishop of Canterbury
doubted that the Pope had the power to grant a dispensation allowing a man to marry his brother’s widow. Henry delayed marriage ceremony.
Catherine of Aragon was taken ill with a mystery illness which kept her confined to bed.
Henry VII sent an envoy to Spain to report on the suitability of Joan of Naples as a bride.
Henry was having doubts about the marriage of Catherine of Aragon and Prince Henry.
Henry’s envoy returned from Spain and reported that Joan of Naples had no income of her own and was financed by Ferdinand of Aragon. Henry was furious that he had not been given this information by Ferdinand himself.
1505 (27th June)
Henry ordered Prince Henry to formally protest against marrying Catherine of Aragon. The Prince stated that the treaty had been made when he was a minor and was therefore not valid.
1505 (late June)
The Spanish ambassador was concerned about Catherine of Aragon’s welfare but was also reluctant to ask Henry to give her more money since he did not want to be out of favour with the King of England.
Henry was annoyed when English merchants reported that they no longer enjoyed privileges in Spain.
1505 (12th October)
Ferdinand of Spain agreed a treaty with France at Blois.
1505 (mid October)
Henry began negotiations with Philip of Burgundy for a possible marriage between Prince Henry and Philips daughter, Eleanor.
1505 (late October)
Henry refused to allow the marriage of Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon to go ahead. He also refused to allow Catherine to return to Spain because he did not want to repay the part of her dowry already paid.
Catherine of Aragon was facing financial hardship and asked de Puebla to speak to Henry on her behalf. Henry told the Spanish ambassador that Catherine should join the court and her house be disbanded to save money.
1505 (24th November)
Ferdinand of Spain sent copies of the dispensation allowing the marriage of Prince Henry and Catherine. He hoped this would improve his daughter’s situation.
1506 (15th January)
Philip of Burgundy and his wife, Juana, Catherine’s sister, were shipwrecked in the Channel and landed at Melcombe Regis.
1506 (31st January)
Henry met Philip of Burgundy at Windsor where they discussed peace terms. No mention was made of Catherine of Aragon’s delayed marriage to Prince Henry.
1506 (9th February)
Henry and Philip of Burgundy concluded a peace treaty at Windsor.
1506 (10th February)
Celebrations were held at Windsor for the peace treaty. Catherine of Aragon was present at the celebrations and had a reunion with her sister.
1506 (15th February)
Henry and Philip of Burgundy discussed possible marriages between Prince Henry and Philip’s daughter Eleanor, between Princess Mary and Philip’s son, Charles and between Henry VII and Philip’s sister Margaret of Savoy.
1506 (after 15th February)
The Spanish ambassador, de Puebla, wrote to Ferdinand of Aragon telling him of Henry’s betrayal.
1506 (16th March)
Philip of Burgundy handed Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, to English authorities in Calais. He was sent back to England and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1506 (Late March)
Margaret of Savoy declined the offer to marry Henry VII stating that he was old enough to be her father.
1506 (23rd April)
Philip of Burgundy and Juana of Aragon left England for Spain.
1506 (late April)
Henry VII declared that there would be no further discussions regarding a marriage between Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon until the remainder of her dowry was paid.
1506 (late April)
Catherine of Aragon wrote to her father, Ferdinand of Aragon, begging him to offer some assistance. She also stated that the Spanish ambassador had been of no help to her.
1506 (30th April)
A new trade deal was concluded between England and the Netherlands. The terms of the treaty meant that more cloth could be exported without incurring tarrif payments.
Catherine of Aragon was taken ill with a fever.
1506 (25th September)
Philip of Burgundy died. His son Charles became the Duke of Burgundy and the Low Countries.
Prince Henry began to spend more time with Catherine of Aragon. Henry VII was furious when he found out and sent Catherine to live at Fulham Palace.
Henry gave Ferdinand of Spain an ultimatum to pay Catherine’s dowry within 6 months.
1507 (19th May)
Ferdinand of Spain made Catherine of Aragon Spanish ambassador. The appointment put her in a better position.
Henry was concerned that he had received no money from Ferdinand of Spain and, not wanting to have to repay the first part of Catherine’s dowry, he extended the deadline for payment to March 1508.
1507 (21st December)
Princess Mary was betrothed to Maximilian’s grandson, Charles. It was agreed that they would marry when Charles was 15 years old.
King Henry was taken ill and confined to bed for a while.
1508 (22nd February)
The new Spanish ambassador, Fuensalida, arrived. He brought a bill of exchange to pay the remaining amount of Catherine’s dowry.
Henry announced that because Catherine of Aragon had sold some of the jewels and plate she had brought with her to England that her dowry payment was incomplete. He re-opened negotiations for Prince Henry to marry Eleanor of Austria.
1508 (early Summer)
Negotiations for the marriage of Prince Henry and Eleanor of Austria broke down.
Henry was taken ill again, he had lost weight, had a nasty cough and could not walk unaided.
1508 (late Summer)
Ferdinand of Spain wrote to Henry demanding either the return of his daughter or for the marriage to Prince Henry to go ahead. Henry was furious and broke off Catherine’s allowance.
A deputation of nobles had an audience with Henry. They knew that he was ill and wanted to know that the succession would pass to Prince Henry without incident. They urged Henry to allow the marriage of Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon to go ahead.
1509 (24th March)
Henry collapsed and was taken to his bed.
1509 (late March)
Henry summoned his chaplains, Thomas Wolsey
and John Fisher
, to his bedside. Henry requested that the two men say ten thousand masses between them. He agreed to pay 6 pence per mass.
1509 (31st March)
Henry dictated his will.
1509 (10th April)
Henry issued a proclamation that cancelled all bonds worth less than fifteen pounds and granted an amnesty to all criminals.
1509 (20th April)
Prince Henry was summoned to his father’s bedside.
1509 (21st April)
King Henry VII died from tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. He was succeeded by his son, Henry who became King Henry VIII
1509 (11th May)
Henry VII was buried in a chapel in Westminster Abbey. Henry had left money in his will for the chapel, known as the Henry VII chapel, to be built.