Julius Caesar 100 BCE – 44 BCE

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Julius Caesar

 

Father – Gaius Julius Caesar
Mother – Aurelia Cotta
Spouse – Cornelia, Pompeia, Calpurnia
Children – Julia, Caesarion

Please note: we have chosen to use the new format BCE (before common era) rather than the old BC (before Christ)

 

EARLY YEARS
100 BCE (July 12th or 13th)
A son, Gaius Julius Caesar was born to Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta. He was of the Julii family.
85 BCE (date unknown)
Julius became head of the Julii family after his father died. He allied himself with his uncle Gaius Marius against Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
84 BCE (date unknown)
Appointed High Priest of Jupiter by his uncle Gaius Marius.
84 BCE (date unknown)
Married Cornelia Cinna, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinnilla.
83 BCE (date unknown)
A daughter, Julia, was born to Julius and Cornelia Cinna.
82 BCE (December)
Stripped of High Priesthood by Sulla, an enemy of the Julii family, who had become Dictator of Rome following victory over Marius at the Battle of the Colline Gate (1st November).
81 BCE (early in year)
Julius was forced into hiding for refusing to divorce his wife after being ordered to do so by Sulla. He was pardoned later that year.
81 BCE (from early in year)
Julius fled East and served in the Roman army in Turkey.
80 BCE (date unknown)
Juliu was awarded the Civic Crown for his show of bravery during the Siege of Mytilene.
78 BCE (Spring)
Julius was able to return to Rome following Sulla’s death.
77 BCE (during the year)
Back in Rome, Julius became a lawyer and gained a name for the way he attacked and defended in court.
75 BCE (February)
Julius decided to go to Rhodes, Greece to learn the skills of oration. On the way he was captured by pirates and held to ransom. He was in captivity for a month until the ransom was paid.
75 BCE (March or later)
Back in Rome, Julius raised a fleet and sought out the pirates that had kidnapped him. Once he had found them he executed them.
74 BCE (for two years)
Raised his own army and took part in the Third Mithridatic War.
POLITICAL LADDER
72 BCE (during)
Julius served as military tribune for the year.
70 BCE (date unknown)
Spoke in favour of a move to grant an amnesty to those who had fought in recent revolutions against Rome
69 BCE (early)
Julius’s wife, Cornelia died.
69 BCE (Spring)
Served as quaestor (low ranking magistrate with financial responsibilities) in Spain. He took up the post after Cornelia’s funeral.
67 BCE (date unknown)
After returning from Spain, Julius married Pompeia, a grand daughter of Sulla.
67 BCE (date unknown)
Julius spoke in the Senate in favour of a move to clear the Mediterranean of pirates.
66 BCE (during)
Served as surveyor for the Appian Way
66 BCE (date unknown)
Spoke in the Senate in favour of a move to restructure the Eastern Mediterranean.
65 BCE (during)
Served as aedile – responsibility for temples, buildings and the Games. He staged lavish Games using money loaned from Crassus.
63 BCE (during)
Julius was elected Pontifex Maximus – largely due to bribes.
62 BCE (during)
Bona Dea Scandal
This festival of women was held in Julius’s house and hosted by his wife Pompeia. It was discovered that Clodius had disguised himself as a woman and entered the festivties.
62 BCE (during)
Julius served as Praetor for the year.
61 BCE (during)
Julius divorced his wife, Pompeia.
61 BCE (for the year)
Julius served as Governor of Spain.
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
60 BCE (December)
Formed an unofficial alliance (first triumvirate) with Pompey and Crassus. In return for support Caesar would support measures that would benefit them. Cicero was offered a part of the alliance but declined. The agreement would take effect in 59BCE
60 BCE (late)
It is likely that Julius Caesar’s daughter Julia had been engaged to Julius’s friend Marcus Brutus who was the son of Julius’s lover, Servilia. The engagement was broken when Julius gave Julia to Pompey to seal the First Triumvirate. In response, Brutus allied himself with the opponents of the Triumvirate known as the Optimates.
59 BCE (during)
Julius was elected Consul for the year.
59 BCE (early)
Passed a measure that required all debates in the Senate to be recorded.
59 BCE (early)
Introduced an Agrarian Bill favoured by Pompey that would redistribute wasteland in Italy to Pompey’s soldiers and homeless poor people.
59 BCE (early)
Julius had Cato arrested for speaking against his Agrarian Bill.
59 BCE (May)
Pompey married Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia.
59 BCE (After May)
Julius married Calpurnia Pisonis daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus.
58 BCE (during)
Julius was appointed Governor of Roman Gaul – He set about planning to conquer all of Gaul. His conquest of Gaul is referred to as the Gallic Wars.
58 BCE (June)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Arar
Julius’s Roman forces defeated the Helvetii (Swiss) at Arar.
58 BCE (July)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Bibracte
Julius’s Roman army secured a decisive victory over the Helvetii (Swiss).
58 BCE (September)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Vosges
The Roman forces defeated the Suebi (Germans) at Voseges.
57 BCE (May)
Battle of Axona
Julius’s Roman force defeated the Belgae (Belgians) at Axona.
57 BCE (July)
Battle of Sabis
Julius defeated the Nervii tribes at Sabis.
57 BCE (during)
Their was unrest in Rome due to several poor harvests resulting in a grain shortage. Many people blamed Caesar’s Agrarian Law. Also, relations between Caesar’s allies Pompey and Crassus were becoming increasingly strained.
56 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar faced mounting opposition especially from Clodius, Cicero, Cato, and Bibulus.
56 BCE (April)
Luca Conference
This reaffirmed the First Triumvirate and extended Julius’s Governorship of Gaul.
55 BCE (summer)
Julius mounted a campaign into Germany pushing Roman territory beyond the Rhine for the first time.
55 BCE (late August)
Julius made an expedition to Britain. He landed on the beach at Deal but was unable to progress further inland.
54 BCE (during)
Marc Antony joined Julius’s military staff.
54 BCE (July)
Julius made a second expedition to Britain. He made some gains but then withdrew to return to Rome for winter.
54 BCE (September)
Julius’s daughter, Julia, died in childbirth.
53 BCE (June)
Battle of Carrhae
the Triumvir Crassus was killed during this battle.
53 BCE (June)
Julius made another raiding expedition across the Rhine and into Germany.
52 BCE (during)
With the death of Crassus the division between Julius Caesar and Pompey Magnus had grown deeper. Factions developed in Rome with Clodius supporting Pompey and Milo supporting Caesar. Fights broke out frequently in Rome between the two factions. After Milo assassinated Clodius there was rioting and looting in the streets of Rome. Pompey was given special powers to deal with the violence.
52 BCE (March)
Siege of Avaricum (Gallic War)
This was the first action against the forces of the Gallic leader Vercingetorix.
52 BCE (April)
Siege of Gergovia (Gallic War)
This was another armed conflict between Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix. The Romans secured victory over the Averni tribes.
52 BCE (September)
Battle of Alesia (Gallic War)
Marc Antony took part in this decisive battle which saw the forces of Julius Caesar defeat the Gauls led by King Vercingetorix of the Arverni. After this battle Gaul became a Roman province.
CIVIL WAR AND RULER OF ROME
51 BCE (During)
Ordered to return to Rome unarmed by Pompey (now leader of the Senate) because his term as governor or Gaul had ended and he had to face re-election
50 BCE (around)
Marcus Brutus allied himself with Cicero and Cato intent on defending the Senate against the increasing power of the generals Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey.
50 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar sent Marc Antony to Rome to champion his cause against Pompey and the Optimates.
50 BCE (During)
Caesar requested permission from the Senate to stand for re-election while remaining in Gaul. He was reluctant to return to Rome without magistrate status fearing that he would be attacked. The Senate refused permission and demanded his return.
49 BCE (1st January)
Marc Antony proposed to the Senate that Pompey and Caesar both be ordered to give up their positions and become ordinary citizens again to stop the continuing violence in Rome. His suggestion was popular among the Senators but was vetoed by Cato and the two consuls, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus all of whom were Optimates.
49 BCE (7th January)
Marc Antony introduced another compromise to seal the rift between Pompey and Caesar. Although Pompey was agreeable Cato, Marcellus and Lentulus were not and the latter forcibly expelled Marc Antony from the Senate.
49 BCE (7th January)
Fearing for his life, Marc Antony left Rome and returned to Caesar who, along with his 13th legion was camped on the bank of the Rubicon river.
49 BCE (7th January)
The Senate, now led by Cato, ordered Julius Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome.
49 BCE (10th January)
Civil War between Caesar and Pompey began when Julius Caesar, with Marc Antony as second in command, crossed the Rubicon river and began to march on Rome.
49 BCE (after 10th January)
Pompey and the Optimates left Rome and fled to Greece. Unfortunately they forgot to take the treasury with them.
49 BCE (March – August)
Julius went to Spain and defeated those forces that were loyal to Pompey.
49 BCE (April – September)
Lay siege to Massilia (Marseille) which was loyal to Pompey. The city fell in September.
48 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar was appointed Consul of Rome for the year.
48 BCE (early)
Juius Caesar made plans to transport seven legions to Greece to destroy Pompey and the Optimates. Unable to secure sufficient transport he sailed with two legions and left Marc Antony at Brundisium with orders to bring the remaining legions as soon as he could secure transport.
48 BCE (early)
Pompey mounted a blockade of Brundisium hoping to contain Marc Antony’s troops. However, Marc Antony managed to trick Pompey’s fleet and managed to sail his troops free.
48 BCE (March)
Marc Antony joined Julius Caesar in Greece and lay siege to Pompeys forces at Dyrrhachium.
48 BCE (10th July)
Battle of Dyrrhachium
Julius Caesar attacked Pompey’s camp but was forced to retreat. Surprisingly Pompey failed to pursue Caesar’s army and he was allowed to regroup.
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus
This decisive battle saw the forces of Gnaeus Pompey defeated by those of Julius Caesar. Marc Antony fought on Caesar’s left wing. The battle was a decisive victory for Caesar and Pompey fled to Egypt.
48 BCE (October)
Pursued Pompey to Egypt. Upon arrival was presented with Pompey’s head. Pompey had been assassinated late September on the orders of Ptolemy XIII who hoped this action would win the support of Caesar in his Civil War against his sister Cleopatra.
48 BCE (October)
Caesar was horrified at the murder of Pompey and demanded a return of money Egypt owed to Rome. He took the city of Alexandria in Egypt for his headquarters. He also decided to back Cleopatra rather than her brother
48 BCE (late Autumn)
Cleopatra joined Caesar in Alexandria and they became lovers. Ptolemy lay siege to Alexandria.
47 BCE (Spring)
The siege of Alexandria was lifted when a large force under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived in Egypt from the North Eastern region of the Empire.
47 BCE (Spring)
Battle of the Nile
Julius Caesar was victorious against the forces of Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy drowned in the Nile during the battle.
47 BCE (during)
A son, Caesarion, was born to Julius Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt.
46 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome for ten years.
46 BCE (April)
Battle of Thapsus
Julius Caesar defeated Pompey loyalists led by Metellus Scipio.
45 BCE (January)
Julius introduced the Julian Calendar which set the year at 365.25 days divided into 12 months. It remained in effect until the 16th century.
45 BCE (17th March)
Battle of Munda
Forces loyal to Pompey’s sons were defeated. Pompey’s eldest son was killed.
44 BCE (February)
Julius Caesar made it clear that he would not restore the republic and saw himself as king of Rome. He was proclaimed dictator for life.
44 BCE (February)
Marcus Brutus was one of the leaders of a plot to assassinate Julius Caesar and restore the republic. The conspirators called themselves the Liberators.
ASSASSINATED
44 BCE (15th March)
Julius Caesar wasassassinated by being stabbed to death. When Julius entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by the assassin senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Marcus Brutus.
44 BCE (19th March)
Julius Caesar’s will was read. It revealed that he had chosen to posthumously adopt Octavian and make him his heir. Marc Antony had already taken control of Julius’s money and his bid to control Rome led to Civil War between himself and Octavian.
44 BCE (20th March)
Julius Caesar’s body was burned in the forum. Marc Antony made an inflammatory speech to the citizens of Rome blaming the Liberators for Caesar’s death. Many of the Liberators fled Rome following the speech.
43 BCE (late)
After Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate they hunted down and killed the Liberators. Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators were defeated at the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE. Both committed suicide rather than facing capture.

 

Published Oct 14, 2015 @ 3:25 pm – Updated – May 21, 2018 @ 12:36 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015 – 2018). Julius Caesar 100 BCE – 44 BCE. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/julius-caesar-100-bce-44-bce/ Last Accessed August 15th, 2018

 

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