Julius Caesar 100 BCE – 44 BCE

Julius CaesarBorn – 12th or 13th July 100 BCE
Died – 15th March 44 BCE (Assassinated)
Father – Gaius Julius Caesar (140 BCE – 85 BCE)
Mother – Aurelia Cotta (120 BCE – 54 BCE)
Spouses – m. 84 BCE – Cornelia (97 BCE – 69 BCE); m. 67 BCE, div. 61 BCE – Pompeia (dates not known);  m. 59 BCE – Calpurnia (b. 76 BCE)
Children – by Cornelia – Julia; by Cleopatra – Caesarion, Octavian (adopted)
Dictator of Rome – 49 BCE – 44 BCE

Please note: we have chosen to use the new format BCE (before common era) rather than the old BC (before Christ)

EARLY YEARS
100 BCE (July 12th or 13th)
Julius Caesar was born Gaius Julius Caesar to Gaius Julius Caesar, a Roman Senator and Aurelia Cotta. He was a member of the Julii family. Little is known of his early life, but it is likely he was educated by a tutor and schooled in military arts.
85 BCE (date unknown)
Julius became head of the Julii family after his father died. He allied himself with his uncle Gaius Marius against Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
84 BCE (date unknown)
Julius was appointed High Priest of Jupiter by his uncle Gaius Marius.
84 BCE (date unknown)
Julius married Cornelia Cinna, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinnilla.
83 BCE (date unknown)
A daughter, Julia, was born to Julius and Cornelia Cinna.
82 BCE (1st November)
Battle of the Colline Gate
This battle was a decisive victory for Lucius Cornelius Sulla and gave him control of Rome.
82 BCE (December)
Julius Caesar was stripped of the High Priesthood and his inheritance by Sulla who had become Dictator of Rome.
81 BCE (early)
Sulla ordered Julius to divorce his wife, Cornelia but he refused. He fled east and joined the Roman army in Turkey.
80 BCE (during)
Julius was awarded the Civic Crown for his show of bravery during the Siege of Mytilene.
78 BCE (Spring)
The Dictator of Rome, Sulla, died. This meant Julius was able to return to Rome.
77 BCE (during)
Back in Rome, Julius became a lawyer and gained a name for the way he attacked and defended in court.
75 BCE (February)
Julius decided to go to Rhodes, Greece to learn the skills of oration. On the way he was captured by pirates and held to ransom. He was in captivity for a month until the ransom was paid.
75 BCE (Spring)
Back in Rome again, Julius raised a fleet and sought out the pirates that had kidnapped him. Once he had found them he executed them.
74 BCE (during)
Julius raised his own army and fought in the Third Mithridatic War.
POLITICAL LADDER
72 BCE (during)
Julius served as military tribune for the year.
70 BCE (during)
Julius spoke in favour of a move to grant an amnesty to those who had fought in recent revolutions against Rome
69 BCE (early)
Julius’s wife, Cornelia died.
69 BCE (Spring)
After Cornelia’s funeral, Julius took up a post as Quaestor (low ranking magistrate with financial responsibilities) in Spain.
67 BCE (during)
After returning from Spain, Julius married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla.
67 BCE (during)
Julius spoke in the Senate in favour of a move to clear the Mediterranean of pirates.
66 BCE (during)
Julius served as surveyor for the Appian Way
66 BCE (during)
Spoke in the Senate in favour of a move to restructure the Eastern Mediterranean.
65 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar served as Aedile (responsibility for temples, buildings and the Games). He staged lavish Games using money loaned from Crassus.
63 BCE (during)
Julius was elected Pontifex Maximus – largely due to bribes.
62 BCE (during)
Bona Dea Scandal
This festival of women was held in Julius’s house and hosted by his wife Pompeia. It was discovered that Clodius Pulcher had disguised himself as a woman and entered the festivities.
62 BCE (during)
Julius served as Praetor for the year.
61 BCE (during)
Following the Bona Dea Scandal, Julius divorced his wife, Pompeia.
61 BCE (for the year)
Julius served as Governor of Spain.
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
60 BCE (December)
Julius formed an unofficial alliance (first triumvirate) with Pompey Magnus and Crassus. In return for their support Caesar agreed to support measures that would benefit them. Cicero was given the opportunity to be part of the alliance but he declined. The agreement would take effect in 59 BCE
60 BCE (late)
It is thought that Julius Caesar’s daughter Julia had been engaged to Julius’s friend Marcus Brutus, who was the son of Julius’s lover, Servilia. The engagement was broken when Julius gave Julia to Pompey to seal the First Triumvirate. In response, Brutus allied himself with the opponents of the Triumvirate who were known as the Optimates.
59 BCE (during)
Julius was elected Consul for the year.
59 BCE (early)
Julius passed a measure that required all debates in the Senate to be recorded.
59 BCE (early)
Agrarian Bill
This measure, favoured by Pompey, was introduced. It provided for the redistribution of wasteland in Italy to Pompey’s soldiers and homeless poor people. Cato spoke against the bill and was later arrested on Caesar’s orders.
59 BCE (May)
Pompey married Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia.
59 BCE (after May)
Julius married Calpurnia Pisonis daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, an influential statesman.
58 BCE (during)
Julius was appointed Governor of Roman Gaul. He began making plans to conquer all of Gaul. His conquest of Gaul is referred to as the Gallic Wars.
58 BCE (June)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Arar
Julius’s Roman forces defeated the Helvetii (Swiss) at Arar.
58 BCE (July)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Bibracte
The Roman army secured a decisive victory over the Helvetii (Swiss).
58 BCE (September)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Vosges
The Roman forces defeated the Suebi (Germans) at Voseges.
57 BCE (May)
Battle of Axona
The Roman force defeated the Belgae (Belgians) at Axona.
57 BCE (July)
Battle of Sabis
Julius defeated the Nervii tribes at Sabis.
57 BCE (during)
A shortage of grain following several poor harvests led to unrest in Rome. Many people blamed Caesar’s Agrarian Law for the shortages. Also, relations between Caesar’s allies Pompey and Crassus were becoming increasingly strained leaving Caesar in a difficult position.
56 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar faced mounting opposition, especially from Clodius, Cicero, Cato, and Bibulus.
56 BCE (April)
Luca Conference
This conference was held to strengthen the government of Rome. It reaffirmed the First Triumvirate and extended Julius’s Governorship of Gaul.
55 BCE (summer)
Julius mounted a campaign into Germany pushing Roman territory beyond the Rhine for the first time.
55 BCE (late August)
Julius made an expedition to Britain. He landed on the beach at Deal but was unable to progress further inland.
54 BCE (during)
Marc Antony joined Julius’s military staff.
54 BCE (July)
Julius made a second expedition to Britain. He made some gains but then withdrew to return to Rome for winter.
54 BCE (September)
Julius’s daughter, Julia, wife of Pompey, died in childbirth.
53 BCE (June)
Battle of Carrhae
the Triumvir Crassus was killed during this battle.
53 BCE (June)
Julius made another raiding expedition across the Rhine and into Germany.
52 BCE (during)
Following the death of Crassus, the division between Julius Caesar and Pompey Magnus had grown deeper. The death of Julia also meant that Crassus was no longer tied to Caesar. Factions developed in Rome with Clodius supporting Pompey and Milo supporting Caesar. Fights broke out frequently in Rome between the two factions. After Milo assassinated Clodius there was rioting and looting in the streets of Rome. Pompey was given special powers to deal with the violence.
52 BCE (March)
Gallic Wars – Siege of Avaricum
This was the first action against the forces of the Gallic leader Vercingetorix.
52 BCE (April)
Gallic Wars – Siege of Gergovia
This was another armed conflict between Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix. The Romans secured victory over the Averni tribes.
52 BCE (September)
Gallic Wars – Battle of Alesia
Marc Antony took part in this decisive battle which saw the forces of Julius Caesar defeat the Gauls led by King Vercingetorix of the Arverni. After this battle Gaul became a Roman province.
CIVIL WAR AND RULER OF ROME
51 BCE (During)
Julius Caesar was ordered to return to Rome unarmed, by Pompey (now leader of the Senate) because his term as governor or Gaul had ended and he had to face re-election
50 BCE (around)
Marcus Brutus allied himself with Cicero and Cato intent on defending the Senate against the increasing power of the generals Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey.
50 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar sent Marc Antony to Rome to champion his cause against Pompey and the Optimates.
50 BCE (during)
Caesar requested permission from the Senate to stand for re-election while remaining in Gaul. He was reluctant to return to Rome without magistrate status fearing that he would be attacked. The Senate refused permission and demanded his return.
49 BCE (1st January)
Marc Antony proposed to the Senate that Pompey and Caesar both be ordered to give up their positions and become ordinary citizens again to stop the continuing violence in Rome. His suggestion was popular among the Senators but was vetoed by Cato and the two consuls, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus all of whom were Optimates.
49 BCE (7th January)
Marc Antony introduced another compromise to seal the rift between Pompey and Caesar. Although Pompey was agreeable Cato, Marcellus and Lentulus were not and the latter forcibly expelled Marc Antony from the Senate.
49 BCE (7th January)
Fearing for his life, Marc Antony left Rome and returned to Caesar who, along with his 13th legion was camped on the bank of the Rubicon river.
49 BCE (7th January)
The Senate, now led by Cato, ordered Julius Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome.
49 BCE (10th January)
Civil War between Caesar and Pompey began when Julius Caesar, with Marc Antony as second in command, crossed the Rubicon river and began to march on Rome.
49 BCE (after 10th January)
Pompey and the Optimates left Rome and fled to Greece. Unfortunately they forgot to take the treasury with them.
49 BCE (March – August)
Rather than follow Pompey to Greece, Julius went to Spain and defeated those forces that were loyal to Pompey.
49 BCE (April – September)
Julius Caesar lay siege to Massilia (Marseille) which was loyal to Pompey. The city fell in September.
48 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar was appointed Consul of Rome for the year.
48 BCE (early)
Julius made plans to transport seven legions to Greece to destroy Pompey and the Optimates. Unable to secure sufficient transport he sailed with two legions and left Marc Antony at Brundisium with orders to bring the remaining legions as soon as he could secure transport.
48 BCE (early)
Pompey mounted a blockade of Brundisium hoping to contain the ships carrying Marc Antony’s troops. However, Marc Antony managed to trick Pompey’s fleet and sailed his troops free.
48 BCE (March)
Marc Antony joined Julius Caesar in Greece and lay siege to Pompey’s forces at Dyrrhachium.
48 BCE (10th July)
Battle of Dyrrhachium
Julius Caesar attacked Pompey’s camp but was forced to retreat. Surprisingly Pompey failed to pursue Caesar’s army and Julius was able to regroup.
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus
This decisive battle saw the forces of Gnaeus Pompey defeated by those of Julius Caesar. Marc Antony fought on Caesar’s left wing. The battle was a decisive victory for Caesar and Pompey fled to Egypt.
48 BCE (October)
Julius Caesar pursued Pompey to Egypt. Upon arrival he was presented with Pompey’s head. Pompey had been assassinated late September on the orders of Ptolemy XIII who hoped this action would win the support of Caesar in his Civil War against his sister Cleopatra.
48 BCE (October)
Caesar was horrified at the murder of Pompey and demanded a return of the money Egypt owed to Rome. He took the city of Alexandria in Egypt for his headquarters and decided to back Cleopatra rather than her brother.
48 BCE (late Autumn)
Cleopatra joined Caesar in Alexandria and they became lovers. Ptolemy lay siege to Alexandria.
47 BCE (Spring)
The siege of Alexandria was lifted when a large force under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived in Egypt from the North Eastern region of the Empire.
47 BCE (Spring)
Battle of the Nile
Julius Caesar was victorious against the forces of Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy drowned in the Nile during the battle.
47 BCE (during)
A son, Caesarion, was born to Julius Caesar and Cleopatra in Egypt.
46 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome for ten years.
46 BCE (April)
Battle of Thapsus
Julius Caesar defeated Pompey loyalists led by Metellus Scipio.
45 BCE (January)
Julius introduced the Julian Calendar which set the year at 365.25 days divided into 12 months. It remained in effect until the 16th century.
45 BCE (17th March)
Battle of Munda
Forces loyal to Pompey’s sons were defeated. Pompey’s eldest son was killed.
44 BCE (February)
Julius Caesar made it clear that he would not restore the republic and saw himself as king of Rome. He was proclaimed dictator for life.
44 BCE (February)
Marcus Brutus was one of the leaders of a plot to assassinate Julius Caesar and restore the republic. The conspirators called themselves the Liberators.
ASSASSINATED
44 BCE (15th March)
Julius Caesar was assassinated by being stabbed to death. When Julius entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by the assassin senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Marcus Brutus.
44 BCE (19th March)
Julius Caesar’s will was read. It revealed that he had chosen to posthumously adopt Octavian and make him his heir. Marc Antony had already taken control of Julius’s money and his bid to control Rome led to Civil War between himself and Octavian.
44 BCE (20th March)
Julius Caesar’s body was burned in the forum. Marc Antony made an inflammatory speech to the citizens of Rome blaming the Liberators for Caesar’s death. Many of the Liberators fled Rome following the speech.
43 BCE (late)
After Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate they hunted down and killed the Liberators. Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators were defeated at the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE. Both committed suicide rather than facing capture.

 

First published 2013, revised and re-published Oct 26, 2020 @ 11:33 am – Updated – Oct 26, 2020 @ 11:34 am

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2013 – 2020). Julius Caesar 100 BCE – 44 BCE. Available: http://www.totallytimelines.com/julius-caesar-100-bce-44-bce/ Last Accessed November 25th, 2020