King George II of Great Britain 1683 – 1760

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King George II

 

Father – King George I
Mother – Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Spouse – Caroline of Ansbach
Children – Frederick, Anne, Amelia, Caroline, George, William, Mary Louisa

King of Great Britain 1727 – 1760
Predecessor – George I
Successor – George III

 

1683 (30th October)
George II was born George Augustus, to George of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover.
1685 (16th March)
George’s sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born to George of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover.
1687 (October)
George began his education and was taught German, English, Italian, genealogy and military history.
1688 (around)
George’s father began an extra-marital affair with his wife’s maid of honour, Melusine von der Schulenburg while George’s mother, Sophia Dorothea began a relationship with Philip Christoph von Konigsmarck, a Swedish nobleman.
1694 (during)
George’s mother’s lover, Swedish count Philip Christoph von Konigsmarck was killed. It is thought likely that George’s grandfather had engineered the murder to avoid a scandal.
1694 (28th December)
George’s father divorced George’s mother on the grounds of desertion after she refused to live under the same room as him.
1695 (early)
George’s mother was banished to the Castle of Ahlden and was forbidden to remarry. It is unlikey that George saw his mother again.
1698 (23rd January)
George’s father became Elector of Hanover after his grandfather died.
1700 (30th July)
William Duke of Gloucester, second in line to the throne of Britain after his mother Anne, died of hydroencephalus. This made George’s grandmother, Sophia, second in line to the throne since she was the closest living Protestant member of the Royal Family.
1701 (12th June)
Act of Settlement
This act stated that the British succession would pass to the heirs of George’s grandmother, Sophia, Electress of Hanover if Queen Anne died without an heir.
1702 (during)
Negotiations began into a possible match between George and Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, but they did not result in a match.
1702 (8th March)
King William III of Great Britain died from pneumonia. He was succeeded by his sister-in-law Anne. George’s grandmother became heir to the throne.
1705 (during)
George and his family were made British subjects.
1705 (during)
George’s father became ruler of Luneburg-Grubenhagen after his uncle died.
1705 (June)
George paid a visit to the court of the Ansbach family to see if he liked Caroline of Ansbach. He made the visit in disguise so that she did not know who he really was. George liked Caroline and negotiations for his marriage began.
1705 (22nd August)
George married Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Brandenburg, known as Caroline, at Herrenhausen, Hanover, Germany.
1706 (4th April)
George was made a Knight of the Garter.
1706 (9th November)
George was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton and Baron of Tewkesbury.
1707 (1st February)
A son, Frederick Louis, was born to George and Caroline at Hanover, Germany.
1707 (July)
George’s wife, Caroline, fell ill with smallpox. George refused to leave her side and also caught the disease. The both recovered.
1708 (11th July)
War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Oudenaarde
After the birth of his son, George had been allowed to join the army. He took part in this battle that saw the alliance of Britain Austria and the Dutch Republic victorious over the French.
1709 (2nd November)
A daughter, Anne, was born to George and Caroline at Hanover, Germany.
1711 (10th June)
A daughter, Amelia Sophia Eleanor, was born to George and Caroline at Hanover, Germany. She was known as Emily.
1713 (10th June)
A daughter, Caroline Elizabeth, was born to George and Caroline at Hanover, Germany.
1714 (28th May)
George’s grandmother, Sophia, died. Her death meant that George’s father was now heir to the throne of Britain.
1714 (1st August)
George’s father became King of Great Britain after his cousin, Queen Anne, died without issue. George became heir to the throne and was created Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay.
1714 (18th September)
George sailed to England with his father.
1714 (27th September)
George was invested as Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1714 (October)
George’s wife and daughters arrived in England. His son, Frederick, remained in Hanover to represent the family.
1714 (20th October)
George’s father was crowned King of Great Britain at Westminster Abbey.
1715 (27th August)
Jacobite Rebellion
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, former Tory member of the government supported the overthrow of George’s father and his replacement by Queen Anne’s half-brother, James Francis Stuart.
1715 (6th September)
Jacobite Rebellion
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, raised the standard of James III and VIII. John Campbell, Duke of Argyll raised troops loyal to the crown.
1715 (October)
Jacobite Rebellion
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, had taken control of the Scottish Highlands.
1715 (13th November)
Jacobite Rebellion – Battle of Sheriffmuir
The Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar met the forces of the Duke of Argyll. Despite being outnumbered 2-1 by the Jacobites, the Royal army managed to hold them off and the battle was inconclusive. Many of the Jacobite supporters were disheartened at their army’s failure to win the battle.
1715 (23rd December)
Jacobite Rebellion
James Francis Stuart arrived at Peterhead from France but was unable to rekindle enthusiasm for his cause.
1716 (4th February)
Jacobite Rebellion
James Francis Stuart and the Earl of Mar left Scotland and fled to France.
1716 (May)
Septennial Act
This Act extended the length of a parliament from three to seven years.
1716 (20th November)
A stillborn son was born to George and Caroline at St James’s Palace, London.
1717 (during)
Triple Alliance
King George I was instrumental in securing this alliance between Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic.
1717 (10th January)
George’s son, Frederick Louis was created Duke of Gloucester.
1717 (13th November)
A son, George William, was born to George and Caroline at St James’s Palace, London.
1717 (late)
George quarrelled with his father after the King appointed the Duke of Newcastle as a godparent against the wishes of George. George and Caroline were told to leave St James’s Palace but were not allowed to take their children with them.
1718 (during)
Caroline suffered a miscarriage.
1718 (17th February)
George’s son George William, died at Kensington Palace London.
1719 (13th April)
Jacobite Uprising
With the support of King Philip of Spain and Spanish troops there was a new Jacobite uprising. They succeeded in recruiting a number of Scottish highlanders but they were poorly equipped.
1719 (during)
South Sea Bubble
The South Sea Company took on three-fifths of the British national debt.
1719 (10th June)
Jacobite Uprising – Battle of Glenshiel
The Jacobite/Spanish army met British troops led by Joseph Wightman and George Munro at Glen Shiel. The Jacobites were no match for the British and were defeated. The Spanish surrendered while the Scottish highlanders fled to their homes.
1720 (1st January)
South Sea Bubble
The South Sea Company encouraged their bondholders to convert their bonds to shares in the company at a preferential price of £128.
1720 (May)
South Sea Bubble
The South Sea Company began trading and shares in the company rose to £500.
1720 (11th June)
South Sea Bubble – Bubble Act
The government passed this act that forbade the formation of joint stock companies.
1720 (24th June)
South Sea Bubble
Shares in the company were now worth £1050.
1720 (August)
South Sea Bubble
People began selling their shares in the company causing prices to fall drastically.
1720 (late September)
South Sea Bubble
Shares in the company had fallen to £150 and a large number of people lost a lot of money. They blamed the loss on King George and the government.
1720 (November)
George returned to Britain from Hanover to deal with the aftermath of the South Sea Bubble crisis.
1721 (during)
Robert Walpole became the first Prime Minister of Britain (although the title was not yet used). He helped to deal with the aftermath of the South Sea Bubble crisis. He also urged the king to make peace with his son and heir.
1721 (26th April)
A son, William Augustus, was born to George and Caroline at St James’s Palace, London.
1723 (5th March)
A daughter, Mary, was born to George and Caroline at Leicester House, London.
1724 (18th December)
A daughter, Louisa, was born to George and Caroline at Leicester House, London.
1725 (30th April)
Treaty of Hanover
This was an alliance between Britain, France and Prussia against Spain, Naples, Austria, Hungary and Russia.
1727 (28th May)
George became King George II after his father died in Hanover following a stroke. Robert Walpole continued as Prime Minister.
1727 (11th June)
George’s son, Frederick Louis, was created Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay.
1727 (11th October)
George was crowned King George II at Westminster Abbey. The music ‘Zadok the Priest’ composed by George Frederic Handel was played at the coronation. It has been used at all coronations since.
1728 (during)
George’s son, Frederick Louis arrived in England.
1729 (8th January)
George’s son, Frederick Louis, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1736 (27th April)
George’s son, Frederick Louis married Augusta, daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg at the Chapel Royal St James’s Palace, London.
1737 (20th November)
George’s son, Frederick Louis, was created Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay
1737 (20th November)
George’s wife, Caroline, died following a ruptured umbilical hernia. He was devastated by her death.
1739 (22nd October)
War of Jenkin’s Ear
This war between Britain and Spain broke out. It was named after an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, a British ship captain.
1740 (16th December)
War of Austrian Succession
Britain’s conflict with Spain became part of the War of Austrian Succession, a challenge to Habsburg power.
1741 (30th April)
Although he won the election, Robert Walpole’s majority was drastically reduced largely due to the fact that George’s son Frederick campaigned for the opposition.
1742 (16th February)
Robert Walpole resigned as Prime Minister. Spencer Compton was appointed in his stead but George continued to take advice from his favourite, Lord Carteret.
1743 (27th June)
War of the Austrian Succession – Battle of Dettingen
George personally led British troops into battle, the last monarch to do so. The battle was won by the Alliance of Britain, Hanover and Austria.
1743 (2nd July)
Prime Minister Spencer Compton died. Henry Pelham became Prime Minister.
1744 (during)
George’s reliance on the advice of Lord Carteret made him and Carteret unpopular with the British people. Lord Carteret decided to resign his office.
1745 (July)
Jacobite Rebellion
Charles Edward Stuart, son of James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland.
1745 (Late August)
George returned to London from Hanover
1745 (21st September)
Jacobite Rebellion – Battle of Prestonpans
This battle between the Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart and Royal forces led by Sir John Cope saw the Jacobites victorious.
1746 (February)
Henry Pelham resigned as Prime Minister. William Pitt took over the office.
1746 (16th April)
Jacobite Rebellion – Battle of Culloden
The Jacobites led by Charles Edward Stuart faced Royal forces led by King George’s brother, William, Duke of Cumberland. The Jacobites were beaten and Charles Edward fled to France.
1747 (26th June)
Henry Pelham was re-elected as Prime Minister.
1748 (18th October)
War of the Austrian Succession
This war ended with Marie Therese being recognised as Empress of Austria. The end of the war was celebrated in London.
1751 (31st March)
George’s son, Frederick Louis, heir to the throne, died at Leicester House, London. Frederick’s son, George, became heir to the throne.
1751 (19th December)
George’s daughter, Louisa, died at Copenhagen, Netherlands.
1754 (6th March)
Henry Pelham died while still in office. His brother, Thomas Pelham Holles took over as Prime Minister.
1756 (17th May)
Seven Years War
This war began after the British attacked disputed French lands in North America. However, the British fared badly.
1756 (16th November)
Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of Newcastle, resigned as Prime Minister. He was succeeded by William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire.
1757 (29th June)
Thomas Pelham Holles returned as Prime Minister. William Pitt the Elder was appointed Secretary of State and managed tactics for the Seven Years War.
1757 (September)
Seven Years War
George II was furious with his son, William Duke of Cumberland, for negotiating a peace with the French in Hanover. George quickly revoked the deal.
1757 (28th December)
George’s daughter, Caroline Elizabeth, died at Hanover, Germany.
1759 (12th January)
George’s daughter, Anne, died at The Hague, Netherlands.
1760 (25th October)
King George II died following an aortic aneurysm. He was succeeded by his grandson George III.

 

 

Published Dec 28, 2018 @ 8:00 pm – Updated – Jan 20, 2019 @ 7:28 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). King George II of Great Britain 1683 – 1760. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/king-george-ii-of-great-britain-1683-1760. Last accessed May 19th, 2019

 

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