King George III of Great Britain and Ireland 1738 – 1820

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King George III of Britain and Ireland

Father – Frederick Louis Prince of Wales
Mother – Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Spouse – Chalotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Children – George, Frederick, William, Charlotte, Edward, Augusta, Elizabeth, Ernest, Adolphus, Mary, Sophia, Octavius, Alfred, Amelia

King of Great Britain 1760 – 1820
Predecessor – George II
Successor – George IV

 

1738 (4th June)
King George III was born George William Frederick to Prince Frederick and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha at Norfolk House, London.
1739 (25th March)
George’s brother, Edward, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Norfolk House.
1741 (10th January)
George’s sister, Elizabeth, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Norfolk House.
1743 (around)
George was educated with his brother, Edward, by private tutors. He was taught French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, law, astronomy and science.
1743 (25th November)
George’s brother, William Henry, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Leicester House.
1745 (7th November)
George’s brother, Henry, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Leicester House.
1749 (19th March)
George’s sister, Louisa, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Leicester House.
1749 (22nd June)
George was created a Knight of the Garter.
1750 (13th May)
George’s brother, Frederick, was born to Frederick and Augusta at Leicester House.
1751 (31st March)
George’s father Frederick, died at Leicester House, London from a pulmonary embolism. His death meant that George, became heir to the throne.
1751 (13th April)
George’s father was buried in Westminster Abbey.
1751 (20th April)
George was invested as Prince of Wales.
1751 (11th July)
George’s sister, Caroline Matilda, was born at Leicester House.
1755 (during)
John Stuart, Earl of Bute, was appointed tutor to Prince George. Rumours that George’s mother was having an affair with Stuart created a scandal.
1756 (June)
George was offered St James’s Palace by the King, however, on his mother and his tutor’s advice he turned the offer down. It is likely that his mother feared that the King would have more influence on George if he left the family home.
1759 (during)
King George II wanted George to marry Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel but George and his mother resisted the match.
1760 (25th October)
King George II died and George succeeded as King George III.
1760 (late)
Civil List Act
George surrendered control of all Crown estates to the Treasury in return for an annual income from the Civil List.
1761 (July)
Negotiations were concluded for George to marry Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1761 (14th August)
George III sent a deputation to Mecklenburg-Strelitz to sign the marriage agreement and escort Charlotte to Britain.
1761 (7th September)
After a difficult voyage from the continent, Charlotte arrived at the port of Harwich in England and made her way to London.
1761 (8th September)
George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace.
1761 (21st September)
George and Charlotte crowned King George III and Queen consort at Westminster Abbey.
1762 (during)
George purchased Buckingham House in London which offered more privacy. The royal family moved to Buckingham House soon after its purchase. St James’s Palace remained the official royal residence.
1762 (26th May)
George dismissed Whig Prime Minister Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of Newcastle and appointed his former tutor, John Stuart, Earl of Bute as Tory Prime Minister. This did not go down well with the population.
1762 (after 26th May)
Treaty of Paris
This treaty, negotiated by the Earl of Bute ended the Seven Years War. Britain gained most French possessions in North America, some of the Caribbean islands and took Florida from the Spanish.
1762 (12th August)
A son, George Augustus Frederick, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at St James’s Palace, London. He was styled Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay.
1762 (17th August)
George’s son, George, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1763 (8th April)
John Stuart, Earl of Bute, resigned as Prime Minister. George’s mother tried to persuade George to restore Bute to government but had no success. Whig George Grenville became Prime Minister.
1763 (16th August)
A son, Frederick Augustus, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at St James’s Palace, London.
1763 (7th October)
Royal Proclamation of 1763
This proclamation was issued to define settlement following the acquisition of new territories in the New World at the Treaty of Paris the previous year. The proclamation determined that land to the west of the Appalachian Mountains should not be settled but should be left as an Indian reserve.
1764 (19th May)
The young musical prodigy, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and his family were summoned to court where Wolfgang played for the court.
1764 (Summer)
George’s wife, Charlotte, suffered a miscarriage.
1765 (during)
George III had a temporary episode of mental instability.
1765 (22nd March)
Stamp Act
This act stated that from 1st November 1765 a tax would be levied on every printed document in the American colonies that had to be produced on special stamped paper. Goods that would be taxed included magazines and newspapers as well as legal documents. The colonists were not happy with the act and used the slogan ‘No taxation without representation’ to stir opposition to the act.
1765 (13th July)
George dismissed George Grenville and appointed Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister.
1765 (21st August)
A son, William Henry, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1766 (18th March)
Stamp Act
The unpopular Stamp Act was repealed.
1766 (18th March)
Declaratory Act/American Colonies Act
This act asserted the right of the British parliament to pass laws that were binding in the American colonies.
1766 (Spring)
The replacement of the Stamp Act with the Declaratory Act neant that opposition to the British government by the American colonists continued.
1766 (30th July)
Charles Watson-Wentworth resigned as Prime Minister. He was succeeded by William Pitt the Elder.
1766 (29th September)
A daughter, Charlotte Augusta Matilda was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1767 (2nd November)
A son, Edward Augustus, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1768 (14th October)
William Pitt the Elder resigned as Prime Minister on the grounds of poor health. He was succeeded by Augustus FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton.
1768 (8th November)
A daughter, Augusta Sophia, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1769 (during)
George had an observatory, known as the King’s Observatory or Kew Observatory, built in Richmond, London.
1769 (22nd May)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1770 (28th January)
Frederick (Lord) North became Prime Minister after the Duke of Grafton resigned.
1771 (5th June)
A son, Ernest Augustus, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1772 (1st April)
Royal Marriages Act
This act made it illegal for members of the royal family to marry without the permission of the sovereign.
1773 (27th January)
A son, Augustus Frederick, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1773 (10th May)
Tea Act
This act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea from China in the American colonies without paying additional taxes.
1773 (16th December)
Boston Tea Party
American colonists angry at the tax imposed on the import of tea, boarded ships moored in Boston Harbour and threw the entire shipment of tea into Boston harbour in protest at taxes imposed by the British government on the American colonies when they had no representation in that government.
1774 (24th February)
A son, Adolphus Frederick, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1774 (31st March)
The Boston Port Act
This act was the first of the ‘Intolerable Acts’ passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. The act closed the port of Boston to all ships from 1st June. Royal Navy patrol ships ensured the act was not violated.
1774 (20th May)
The Massachusetts Government Act
This act was the second of the ‘Intolerable Acts’ passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. The act gave British officials control of the government of Massachusetts. Colonists largely ignored the British government and set up a new Congress in the provinces.
1774 (20th May)
Administration of Justice Act
This act was the third of the ‘Intolerable Acts’ passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. The act stated that all British officials who were accused of capital offenses while carrying out their official duties should have a fair trial.
1774 (2nd June)
Quartering Act
This act was the fourth of the ‘Intolerable Acts’ passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. The act stated that British soldiers in the American colonies should be provided with accommodation and food by the local governments of the colonies.
1775 (19th April)
American War of Independence/ American Revolutionary War
War began between Britain and American colonists after the colonists fought British troops at the battles of Lexington and Concord.
1776 (25th April)
A daughter, Mary, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1776 (4th July)
American War of Independence
The Continental Congress, led by John Hancock, declared the independence of the colonies from Britain. The Declaration of Independence listed grievances against King George and the British Parliament.
1776 (19th September)
American War of Independence – First Battle of Saratoga – Freeman’s Farm
This battle between the British led by Burgoyne and the Americans led by Horatio Gates was a victory for the British. However, the British failed to gain any ground.
1776 (7th October)
American War of Independence – Second Battle of Saratoga – Bemis Heights
This battle between the British led by Burgoyne and the Americans led by Horatio Gates saw the British defeated.
1777 (3rd November)
A daughter, Sophia Matilda, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1778 (during)
Papists Act
This was the first Roman Catholic relief act. It stated that Roman Catholics who would swear an oath of allegiance to King George and also to denounce the Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart would be exempt from the Popery Act of 1698. The Act also repealed the prosecuting of priests and life imprisonment for opening a school. Roman Catholics would also be able to inherit and purchase land and would not have to swear the religious oath when joining the armed forces.
1778 (during)
George suffered a period of mental instability where he became violent and had to be restrained in a straitjacket.
1778 (6th February)
American War of Independence – Treaty of Alliance
This treaty, signed in Paris, allied France with America and agreed mutual military support.
1778 (17th March)
American War of Independence
Following the signing of the Treaty of Alliance by France, Britain declared war on France. This meant that France joined the war on the side of the Americans.
1779 (during)
George’s mental health recovered and he was able to resume royal duties.
1779 (23rd February)
A son, Octavius, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1779 (12th April)
American War of Independence – Treaty of Aranjuez
By the terms of this treaty between France and Spain, Spain agreed to support France.
1779 (21st June)
American War of Independence
Spain declared war on Britain and joined the war on the side of France and America.
1780 (29th March)
American War of Independence – Siege of Charleston
The British lay siege to the Charleston garrison in South Carolina.
1780 (12th May)
American War of Independence – Siege of Charleston
The Charleston Garrison surrendered to the British army.
1780 (2nd June)
Gordon Riots
These were a series of riots and looting over a period of seven days in protest at the terms of the Papists Act 1778 instigated by Lord George Gordon, President of the Protestant Association of London after King George III refused to repeal the Act. The riots were eventually put down by the army after opening fire on protestors.
1780 (16th August)
American War of Independence – Battle of Camden
The British led by Lord Cornwallis routed the Americans led by General Horatio Gates.
1780 (22nd September)
A son, Alfred, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at Buckingham House, London.
1781 (15th March)
American War of Independence – Battle of Guilford Court House
The British led by General Cornwallis defeated the Americans led by Nathanael Greene. However, the British incurred heavy losses and their army was severely depleted.
1781 (19th October)
American War of Independence – Battle of Yorktown
The British were decisively defeated by the Americans and French in this final battle of the war.
1782 (27th March)
Following the British defeat in America, Prime Minister, Lord North, resigned. He was succeeded by Charles Watson-Wentworth who returned for a second term as Prime Minister.
1782 (Spring)
King George was devastated by the loss of the American colonies and considered abdicating the throne.
1782 (19th April)
George’s son, William, was made a Knight of the Garter.
1782 (1st July)
Prime Minister Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham died from influenza. He was succeeded by William Petty, Lord Shelburne.
1782 (20th August)
George’s son, Alfred, died at Windsor Castle, London.
1783 (26th March)
Prime Minister William Petty, Lord Shelburne was forced to resign in the face of opposition to his policies. He was succeeded by William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland.
1783 (3rd May)
George’s son, Octavius, died at Kew Palace, Surrey.
1783 (7th August)
A daughter, Amelia, was born to George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz at The Lodge, Windsor Castle.
1783 (3rd September)
Treaty of Paris
By this treaty, Britain acknowledged the independence of the thirteen colonies of America as the United States. Florida was returned to Spain.
1783 (17th December)
East India Bill
Foreign Secretary Charles Fox proposed nationalising the troubled East India Company. George III intensely disliked Fox and told the House of Lords that he would be severely annoyed with any peer that voted for the bill. The Bill was defeated by the House of Lords.
1783 (18th December)
Lord Shelburne’s government was dismissed following defeat of the East India Bill. William Pitt the Younger became Prime Minister.
1784 (March)
William Pitt the Younger won the election with a large majority.
1784 (29th November)
George’s son, Frederick Augustus, was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster.
1785 (during)
George III paid for the construction of William Herschel’s 40 foot telescope which was later used to discover the planet Uranus.
1785 (24th February)
John Adams was appointed first American ambassador the to Britain.
1785 (15th December)
George’s son and heir, Prince George married Maria Anne FitzHerbert, daughter of Walter Smythe of Brambridge, Hampshire, who was a Catholic and twice widowed. The marriage was in contravention to the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 as he did not have his father’s permission to marry and in contravention to the Test Act which forbade the marriage to Roman Catholics and it was deemed to be invalid.
1788 (Summer)
George III suffered a bout of insanity which was so bad his behaviour scared the Queen.
1788 (25th September)
Parliament was adjourned due to the King’s deteriorating state of mind.
1788 (November)
George’s condition worsened and he was reported as speaking and writing incessantly. There was conflict between Charlotte and her eldest son, George over the illness of King George. Charlotte suspected that Prince George wanted his father certified insane so that he could take over as Regent, while Prince George suspected that Charlotte wanted him declared sane so that she could maintain power.
1788 (20th November)
Parliament reconvened but was unable to function as the King was unable to deliver the Opening of Parliament speech. Nevertheless Parliament began discussing a move to make George Regent while the King was incapacitated.
1789 (February)
Regency Bill
Despite controversy over the legality of Parliament debating without the King’s authority, this bill was passed by the House of Commons but before it passed the House of Lords, George III recovered. It made provision for Prince George to become Regent if the King became permanently mentally insane. It also made Charlotte guardian of King George and the royal children.
1789 (19th April)
George’s son, William, was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews.
1789 (5th May)
French Revolution
The people of France began to revolt against the establishment.
1789 (20th May)
George’s son, William, was created Earl of Munster.
1789 (14th July)
French Revolution
Revolutionaries stormed the Bastille in Paris which was seen as a symbol of aristocratic tyranny.
1789 (26th August)
French Revolution
The National Constituent Assembly of France issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
1789 (5th October)
French Revolution – Women’s March on Versailles
Women had come onto the streets of Paris in protest at the price of bread. Political agitators joined them and they marched on the Palace of Versailles demanding reform and a constitutional monarchy. They persuaded the King and his family to return to Paris.
1792 (August)
French Revolution
King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette were arrested and imprisoned.
1792 (22nd September)
French Revolution
The monarchy of France was abolished and the First Republic of France was proclaimed.
1793 (21st January)
French Revolution
King Louis XVI was executed by guillotine having been found guilty of treason.
1793 (1st February)
War of the First Coalition
War began after France declared war on Britain following Britain’s condemnation of the execution of Louis XVI.
1793 (16th October)
French Revolution
Queen Marie Antoinette of France was executed by guillotine having been found guilty of treason.
1795 (5th April)
War of the First Coalition
Prussia concluded a peace with France.
1795 (8th April)
George’s son and heir married Caroline of Brunswick at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London.
1797 (29th September)
George’s daughter, Charlotte married Frederick Duke of Wurttemburg at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace.
1797 (October)
War of the First Coalition
Austria agreed terms with the French ending the War of the First Coalition.
1793 (1st February)
War of the Second Coalition
Great Britain and the Habsburg Monarchy formed a second coalition against the Republic of France.
1799 (23rd April)
George’s son, Edward was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin. His son, Ernest was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh.
1801 (1st January)
Act of Union
The Kingdom of Ireland was formally united with the Kingdom of Great Britain as a single country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1801 (16th February)
William Pitt the Younger resigned as Prime Minister in protest that King George III refused to grant Catholics emancipation. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by Henry Addington who opposed emancipation of Catholics.
1801 (October)
Henry Addington began peace talks with the French.
1802 (1st February)
Treaty of Amiens
This treaty ended the War of the Second Coalition.
1803 (18th May)
Napoleonic Wars – War of the Third Coalition
War resumed against France in the face of a possible invasion of Britain by Napoleon Bonaparte. Faced with the possibility of an invasion thousands of Britains joined the army.
1804 (during)
George suffered another temporary period of mental instability.
1804 (10th May)
Henry Addington was unable to withstand criticism of his policies by William Pitt the Younger who replaced him as Prime Minister.
1805 (21st October)
Napoleonic Wars – War of the Third Coalition – Battle of Trafalgar
This naval battle saw the British Navy commanded by Lord Horatio Nelson defeat the French fleet off Cape Trafalgar.
1806 (23rd January)
Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger died. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by William Grenville.
1806 (18th July)
Napoleonic Wars – War of the Third Coalition
The Third Coalition ended after Austria made peace with France.
1807 (during)
King George III vetoed a proposal to allow Roman Catholics to join the armed forces in a bid to increase recruitment.
1807 (25th March)
Prime Minister William Grenville was dismissed. He was succeeded by William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland.
1809 (4th October)
Prime Minister William Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland resigned his office. He was succeeded by Spencer Perceval.
1810 (2nd November)
George’s daughter, Amelia, died at Augusta Lodge, Windsor.
1810 (late)
George III suffered a bout of insanity that did not respond to treatment. His son, George, Prince of Wales, was made regent.
1811 (5th February)
Regency Act
This act passed most royal duties to George III’s son, George who was given the title Prince Regent.
1812 (11th May)
Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated. He was succeeded by Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool.
1815 (during)
Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon was defeated by British and German troops.
1816 (22nd July)
George’s daughter, Mary, married her cousin, William, Duke of Gloucester at the private chapel, Buckingham Palace.
1818 (13th July)
George’s son, William, married Adeleide of Saxe-Meningen at Kew Palace, Surrey.
1818 (17th November)
George’s wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz died at Kew Palace. George was incapable of understanding that she had died.
1820 (23rd January)
George’s son, Edward died at Woodbrook Cottage, Devon.
1820 (29th January)
King George III died at Windsor Castle. He was succeeded by his son, George IV.

 

 

Published Jan 08, 2019 @ 3:00 pm – Updated – Feb 2, 2019 @ 7:42 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2019). King George III of Great Britain and Ireland 1738 – 1820. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/king-george-iii-of-great-britain-and-ireland-1738-1820. Last accessed June 23rd, 2019

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