Since 1327 England and Wales have shared a monarch
Since 1603 England, Wales and Scotland have shared a monarch
England and Ireland shared a monarch from 1254 to 1936 when the Republic of Ireland broke from the monarchy, Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom retained the monarchy.
Married to Redburga, daughter of Charlemagne, King of the Franks (this may be legend)
Noted for being the first King to have the submission of all Kingdoms of England.
Married to Judith of France (his father’s wife)
Did not marry
Married to Wulfthryth
His sons Aethelhelm and Aethelwold were considered too young to rule when Aethelwulf died.
Married to Ealhswith
Drove the Vikings out of Wessex and began to unite England.
Married 1. Ecgwynn, 2. Aelfflaed, 3. Eadgifu
Continued to drive out the Vikings and work towards uniting England.
Did not marry
United England and is recognised as the first King of all England
Married 1. Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury, 2. Aethelflaed of Damerham
His two sons, Eadwig and Edgar did not immediately succeed as they were too young to rule.
Did not marry
He did not have any children
Married 1. Aethelflaed, 2. Wulfthryth, 3. Aelfthryth
Edgar was known as ‘the Peaceful’.
Did not marry
Murdered at Corfe Castle by supporters of his younger half-brother, Aethelred
Married 1. Aelfgifu of York, 2. Emma of Normandy
He was known as the Unready, the word ‘unread’ meaning poor counsel. Faced with new Viking invasions he chose to pay them vast sums of money to leave England. He was deposed by Sweyn Forkbeard but returned after Sweyn’s death
Married to 1. Gunhilda, 2. Sigrid
After conquering much of the country he was declared King of England in December 1013. On his death he left the throne to his son, Cnut but the people chose to allow Aethelred II to return as their King.
Known as Ironside because of his bravery fighting successive Danish invasions, succeeded his father, Aethelred the Unready. Died soon after agreeing to split the Kingdom with Canute of Denmark. His son Edward the Exile was later summoned to return to England by Edward the Confessor.
Married 1. Aelfgifu of Northampton, 2. Emma of Normandy
Had ruled northern England as part of peace terms since 1015 and took throne following death of Edmund II
Known as Harefoot because of his speed on the battlefield. He took the throne of England because Cnut’s nominated successor, his half-brother Harthacnut, was in Denmark.
Did not marry
Took the throne after the death of his half-brother King Harold I.
Married Edith of Wessex
Was sent to Normandy to live with his mother’s family after King Canute took the throne. He allegedly took a vow of celibacy and had no children. His childlessness led to the Norman Conquest as William of Normandy believed he had been promised the throne.
Married 1. Edith Swanneck (married by Danish handfasting ceremony) 2. Edith of Mercia
Harold claimed that Edward the Confessor had given him the throne on his deathbed.
Married Matilda of Flanders
Nicknamed the Conqueror after defeating King Harold II at Battle of Hastings. Commissioned the Domesday Survey.
Did not marry
Died while hunting in New Forest in mysterious circumstances.
Married Edith of Scotland.
Used a large chequered cloth to count income leading to finance being known as the Exchequer. His eldest son, William Aetheling drowned in the White Ship Disaster which led to a succession crisis.
Married Matilda of Boulogne
Appointed King over Henry I’s daughter Matilda – a move that led to civil war
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine
His views on church reform came into conflict with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury who was assassinated in 1170.
Married Berengaria of Navarre
He was nicknamed Lionheart due to his involvement in the crusades.
Married 1. Isabella of Gloucester, 2. Isabella of Angouleme
Known as Lackland because his father did not grant him any land.
Married Eleanor of Provence
Became King at the age of 9 years and ruled for 56 years.
Married 1. Eleanor of Castile, 2. Margaret of France
Nicknamed Longshanks because he was tall and the Hammer of the Scots because he fought in Scotland. He conquered Wales and built many castles. When his wife, Eleanor, died, Edward erected crosses along her funeral route including at Charing Cross in London.
Married Isabella of France
He was created the first Prince of Wales and eldest sons of the reigning monarch have been created Prince of Wales ever since. He was deposed in favour of his son and imprisoned where he died.
Married Philippa of Hainault
Edward’s reign was dominated by the Hundred Years War with France. Edward’s eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, died fighting in the war. Society changed following the drastic reduction in the population following the Black Death. Rivalry between Edward’s sons led to the Wars of the Roses.
Married 1. Anne of Bohemia, 2. Isabella of Valois
Became King at the age of 10 years when he succeeded his grandfather to the throne. He was deposed and imprisoned in Pontefract Castle where he died.
Married 1. Mary de Bohun, 2. Joan of Navarre
Henry took the throne from Richard II.
Married Catherine of Valois
Continued the Hundred Years War and saw victory at Agincourt. He died from a wound sustained while fighting.
Married Margaret of Anjou
Suffered bouts of madness that led to challenges to the throne known as the Wars of the Roses
Married Elizabeth Woodville
Took the throne from Henry VI. Alienated Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick by marrying Elizabeth Woodville and raising her family.
Did not marry
Aged 12 when his father died. Edward and his brother Richard mysteriously died in the Tower of London and are referred to as the Princes in the Tower.
Married Anne Neville
Appointed regent for young Edward V and became King after declaring the sons of Edward IV to be illegitimate.
Married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV
Defeated Richard III at Battle of Bosworth Field and claimed the throne founding the Tudor dynasty. His marriage to Elizabeth of York ended the Wars of the Roses.
Married 1. Catherine of Aragon, 2. Anne Boleyn, 3. Jane Seymour, 4. Anne of Cleves, 5. Kathryn Howard, 6. Katherine Parr
Famously married six times and beheaded two of his queens. He broke with Rome and made himself Head of the Church of England in order to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon and changed religion to Anglican.
Did nor marry
Became King at the age of 10 years. Was a committed Protestant and introduced the Book of Common Prayer. He died after 6 years as King.
Married Guildford Dudley
Queen for just 9 days. She was given throne by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland to avoid a return to Catholicism.
Married Philip II of Spain
Nicknamed Bloody Mary for killing Protestants. She lost Calais, England’s last possession in France.
Did not marry
Nicknamed the Virgin Queen because she never married. Ruled for 45 years, saw English victory in the Spanish Armada and had the American state of Virginia named after her by Walter Raleigh.
Married Anne of Denmark
Grandson of Henry VIII’s elder sister Margaret was also King James VI of Scotland. He was the first Stuart monarch and survived the Gunpowder Plot attempt to assassinate him and the government.
Married Henrietta Maria of France
Caused conflict with the Church and Parliament due to his leanings towards Catholicism and his insistence on the Divine Right of Kings. His refusal to grant concessions led to the English Civil War He was executed by Parliament at the end of the war.
Married Elizabeth Bourchier
There was no monarch following execution of Charles I. Britain was declared a Commonwealth and Cromwell was its Head. Cromwell was a strict Puritan and imposed Puritanism on the country.
Married Dorothy Maijor
Richard succeeded his father as head of the Commonwealth. However he was not a leader like his father and the monarchy was restored.
Married Catherine of Braganza
Nicknamed the Merry Monarch for restoring music and dancing which had been banned by Oliver Cromwell. His reign saw the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London.
Married 1. Anne Hyde, 2. Mary of Modena
Showed openly Catholic tendencies and was replaced by his daughter and son-in-law.
William and Mary were married
Ruled as joint monarchs until 1694 when Mary died. William then ruled alone until his death in 1702
Married Prince George of Denmark
Anne had seventeen pregnancies and her only surviving son died in 1700 so on her death the crown passed to the Hanoverians
Married Sophia Dorothea of Celle
German George inherited the throne as the closest living Protestant relative of Queen Anne (Catholics had been barred from the succession by the Act of Settlement 1701). George was the grandson of James I’s daughter Elizabeth and could not speak a word of English. Catholics believed that James Stuart, son of King James II and Mary of Modena should be King and rallied behind his and later his son Bonnie Prince Charlie’s cause.
Married Caroline of Ansbach
George was the last King to personally lead troops into battle during the Seven Years War.
Married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Ruled for 60 years longer than any other monarch at the time and 3rd longest reign to date. He suffered from bouts of insanity which have been attributed to the condition porphyria. He was very reluctant to concede defeat in the American War of Independence. In his later years his son took over as regent. The period is known as the Regency.
Married Caroline of Brunswick
George lived a flamboyant lifestyle and was fond of entertaining, racing and gambling. He ordered the construction of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton.
Married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Nicknamed Sailor Billy after his time served in the navy. He had no surviving legitimate children to succeed him.
Married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria acceded the throne 3 weeks after her 18th birthday and reigned for 64 years, longer than any monarch at the time and 2nd longest reign to date. She is known as the Grandmother of Europe because she married her children to many European prince and princesses. She was devastated when her husband, Albert, died in 1861 and spent the rest of her life dressed in black.
Married Alexandra of Denmark
Edward was the only monarch of house Saxe Coburg Gotha. He was the longest serving Prince of Wales by the time of his accession and second longest serving Prince of Wales to date. His good relationship with the French President helped pave the way for the signing of the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1904.
Married Mary of Teck
Changed the royal name to Windsor during World War One to distance the monarchy from its German heritage.
Married Wallis Simpson
Abdicated the throne in 1936 to marry Wallis Simpson – a divorcee. He and his wife were exiled to France.
Married Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Reluctantly became King after the abdication of his brother. He suffered from a stammer and found public speaking difficult, though he was helped by therapist Lionel Logue. Remained in London during World War Two to show solidarity with the people during the Blitz.
Published Jul 23, 2016 @ 13:40 – Updated –
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2015-2018). Kings and Queens of England 827 – Present Day. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/kings-and-queens-of-england-871-present-day Last accessed September 16th, 2019