Kings and Queens of England 827 – Present Day

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Elizabeth IIThis timeline details all Kings and Queens of England from 827 to present day

Since 1327 England and Wales have shared a monarch

Since 1603 England, Wales and Scotland have shared a monarch 

England and Ireland shared a monarch from 1254 to 1936 when the Republic of Ireland broke from the monarchy, Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom retained the monarchy.

See also Kings and Queens of Scotland 843 – Present Day

HOUSE OF WESSEX
Son of Ealhmund of Kent
Married to Redburga, daughter of Charlemagne, King of the Franks (this may be legend)
Noted for being the first King to have the submission of all Kingdoms of England.
Son of King Egbert
Married to 1. Osburgh, the mother of his 6 children; 2. Judith of France
Son of King Aethelwulf and Osburgh
Married to Judith of France (his father’s wife)
Son of King Aethelwulf and Osburgh
Did not marry
Son of King Aethelwulf and Osburgh
Married to Wulfthryth
His sons Aethelhelm and Aethelwold were considered too young to rule when Aethelwulf died.
Son of King Aethelwulf and Osburgh
Married to Ealhswith
Drove the Vikings out of Wessex and began to unite England.
Son of King Alfred the Great and Ealhswith
Married 1. Ecgwynn, 2. Aelfflaed, 3. Eadgifu
Continued to drive out the Vikings and work towards uniting England.
Son of King Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn
Did not marry
United England and is recognised as the first King of all England
Son of King Edward the Elder and Eadgifu
Married 1. Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury, 2. Aethelflaed of Damerham
His two sons, Eadwig and Edgar did not immediately succeed as they were too young to rule.
Son of King Edward the Elder and Eadgifu
Did not marry
Eldest son of King Edmund and Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury
Married Aelfgifu
He did not have any children
Youngest son of King Edmund and Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury
Married 1. Aethelflaed, 2. Wulfthryth, 3. Aelfthryth
Edgar was known as ‘the Peaceful’.
Son of King Edgar and Aethelflaed
Did not marry
Murdered at Corfe Castle by supporters of his younger half-brother, Aethelred
Son of King Edgar and Aelfhryth
Married 1. Aelfgifu of York, 2. Emma of Normandy
He was known as the Unready, the word ‘unread’ meaning poor counsel. Faced with new Viking invasions he chose to pay them vast sums of money to leave England. He was deposed by Sweyn Forkbeard but returned after Sweyn’s death
Sweyn Forkbeard 1013 – 1014
Son of Harald Bluetooth and Gyrid
Married to 1. Gunhilda, 2. Sigrid
After conquering much of the country he was declared King of England in December 1013. On his death he left the throne to his son, Cnut but the people chose to allow Aethelred II to return as their King.
Son of King Aethelred the Unready and Aelfgifu of York
Married Ealdgyth
Known as Ironside because of his bravery fighting successive Danish invasions, succeeded his father, Aethelred the Unready. Died soon after agreeing to split the Kingdom with Canute of Denmark. His son Edward the Exile was later summoned to return to England by Edward the Confessor. 
ANGLO SAXON AND DANISH
Son of the Danish King, Sweyn Forkbeard and Gunhilda
Married 1. Aelfgifu of Northampton, 2. Emma of Normandy
Had ruled northern England as part of peace terms since 1015 and took throne following death of Edmund II
Son of King Cnut and Aelfgifu of Northampton
Married Aelfgifu
Known as Harefoot because of his speed on the battlefield. He took the throne of England because Cnut’s nominated successor, his half-brother Harthacnut, was in Denmark.
Son of King Cnut and Emma of Normandy
Did not marry
Took the throne after the death of his half-brother King Harold I.
Son of King Aethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy
Married Edith of Wessex
Was sent to Normandy to live with his mother’s family after King Canute took the throne. He allegedly took a vow of celibacy and had no children. His childlessness led to the Norman Conquest as William of Normandy believed he had been promised the throne.
Son of Earl Godwin of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdottir
Married 1. Edyth Swanneck (may not have been married) 2. Edith of Mercia
Harold claimed that Edward the Confessor had given him the throne on his deathbed.
HOUSE OF NORMANDY
Son of Robert of Normandy and Herleva
Married Matilda of Flanders
Nicknamed the Conqueror after defeating King Harold II at Battle of Hastings. Commissioned the Domesday Survey.
Son of King William I and Matilda of Flanders
Did not marry
Died while hunting in New Forest in mysterious circumstances.
Son of King William I and Matilda of Flanders
Married Edith of Scotland.
Used a large chequered cloth to count income leading to finance being known as the Exchequer. His eldest son, William Aetheling drowned in the White Ship Disaster which led to a succession crisis.
Son of Stephen of Blois and Adela of Normandy (William I’s daughter)
Married Matilda of Boulogne
Appointed King over Henry I’s daughter Matilda – a move that led to civil war
HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET
Son of King Henry I’s daughter Matilda and Geoffrey of Anjou
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine
His views on church reform came into conflict with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury who was assassinated in 1170.
Son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Married Berengaria of Navarre
He was nicknamed Lionheart due to his involvement in the crusades.
Youngest son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Married 1. Isabella of Gloucester, 2. Isabella of Angouleme
Known as Lackland because his father did not grant him any land.
Son of King John and Isabella of Angouleme
Married Eleanor of Provence
Became King at the age of 9 years and ruled for 56 years.
Son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence
Married 1. Eleanor of Castile, 2. Margaret of France
Nicknamed Longshanks because he was tall and the Hammer of the Scots because he fought in Scotland. He conquered Wales and built many castles. When his wife, Eleanor, died, Edward erected crosses along her funeral route including at Charing Cross in London.
Son of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile
Married Isabella of France
He was created the first Prince of Wales and eldest sons of the reigning monarch have been created Prince of Wales ever since. He was deposed in favour of his son and imprisoned where he died.
Son of King Edward II and Isabella of France
Married Philippa of Hainault
Edward’s reign was dominated with the Hundred Years War with France. Edward eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince, died fighting in the war. Rivalry between Edward’s sons led to the Wars of the Roses.
Son of the Edward the Black Prince and Joan of Kent
Married 1. Anne of Bohemia, 2. Isabella of Valois
Became King at the age of 10 years when he succeeded his grandfather to the throne. He was deposed and imprisoned in Pontefract Castle where he died.
HOUSE OF LANCASTER
Son of King Edward III’s son John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster
Married 1. Mary de Bohun, 2. Joan of Navarre
Henry took the throne from Richard II.
Son of King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun
Married Catherine of Valois
Continued the Hundred Years War and saw victory at Agincourt. He died from a wound sustained while fighting.
Son of King Henry V and Catherine of Valois
Married Margaret of Anjou
Suffered bouts of madness that led to challenges to the throne known as the Wars of the Roses
HOUSE OF YORK
Son of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville
Married Elizabeth Woodville
Took the throne from Henry VI. Alienated Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick by marrying Elizabeth Woodville and raising her family.
Son of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville
Did not marry
Aged 12 when his father died. Edward and his brother Richard mysteriously died in the Tower of London and are referred to as the Princes in the Tower.
Son of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville
Married Anne Neville
Appointed regent for young Edward V and became King after declaring the sons of Edward IV to be illegitimate.
HOUSE OF TUDOR
Son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort
Married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV
Defeated Richard III at Battle of Bosworth Field and claimed the throne founding the Tudor dynasty. His marriage to Elizabeth of York ended the Wars of the Roses.
Son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
Married 1. Catherine of Aragon, 2. Anne Boleyn, 3. Jane Seymour, 4. Anne of Cleves, 5. Kathryn Howard, 6. Katherine Parr
Famously married six times and beheaded two of his queens. He broke with Rome and made himself Head of the Church of England in order to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon and changed religion to Anglican.
Son of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
Did nor marry
Became King at the age of 10 years. Was a committed Protestant and introduced the Book of Common Prayer. He died after 6 years as King.
Daughter of Henry Grey and Frances Brandon, daughter of Henry VIII’s younger sister, Mary
Married Guildford Dudley
Queen for just 9 days. She was given throne by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland to avoid a return to Catholicism.
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Married Philip II of Spain
Nicknamed Bloody Mary for killing Protestants. She lost Calais, England’s last possession in France.
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Did not marry
Nicknamed the Virgin Queen because she never married. Ruled for 45 years, saw English victory in the Spanish Armada and had the American state of Virginia named after her by Walter Raleigh.
HOUSE OF STUART
Son of Henry Stuart and Mary Queen of Scots
Married Anne of Denmark
Grandson of Henry VIII’s elder sister Margaret was also King James VI of Scotland. He survived the Gunpowder Plot attempt to assassinate him and the government.
Son of King James I and Anne of Denmark
Married Henrietta Maria of France
Caused conflict with the Church and Parliament due to his leanings towards Catholicism and his insistence on the Divine Right of Kings. His refusal to grant concessions led to the English Civil War He was executed by Parliament at the end of the war.
INTERREGNUM
Son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward
Married Elizabeth Bourchier
There was no monarch following execution of Charles I. Britain was declared a Commonwealth and Cromwell was its Head. Cromwell was a strict Puritan and imposed Puritanism on the country.
Son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier
Married Dorothy Maijor
Richard succeeded his father as head of the Commonwealth. However he was not a leader like his father and the monarchy was restored.
HOUSE OF STUART
Charles II 1660 – 1685
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married Catherine of Braganza
Nicknamed the Merry Monarch for restoring music and dancing which had been banned by Oliver Cromwell. His reign saw the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London.
James II 1685 – 1688
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married 1. Anne Hyde, 2. Mary of Modena
Showed openly Catholic tendencies and was replaced by his daughter and son-in-law.
William III and Mary II 1688 – 1702
William was the son of William of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I; Mary was the daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
William and Mary were married
Ruled as joint monarchs until 1694 when Mary died. William then ruled alone until his death in 1702
Queen Anne 1702 – 1714
Daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
Married Prince George of Denmark
Anne had seventeen pregnancies and her only surviving son died in 1700 so on her death the crown passed to the Hanoverians
HOUSE OF HANOVER
George I 1714 – 1727
Son of Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Sophia of the Palatinate, granddaughter of James I
Married Sophia of Brunswick
German George inherited the throne as the closest living Protestant relative of Queen Anne (Catholics had been barred from the succession by the Act of Settlement 1701). George was the grandson of James I’s daughter Elizabeth and could not speak a word of English. Catholics believed that James Stuart, son of King James II and Mary of Modena should be King and rallied behind his and later his son Bonnie Prince Charlie’s cause.
George II 1727 – 1760
Son of King George I and Sophia of Brunswick
Married Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
George was the last King to personally lead troops into battle during the Seven Years War.
George III 1760 – 1820
Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe Gotha
Married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Ruled for 60 years longer than any other monarch at the time and 3rd longest reign to date. He suffered from bouts of insanity which have been attributed to the condition porphyria. He was very reluctant to concede defeat in the American War of Independence. In his later years his son took over as regent. The period is known as the Regency.
George IV 1820 – 1830
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Caroline of Brunswick
George lived a flamboyant lifestyle and was fond of entertaining, racing and gambling. He ordered the construction of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton.
William IV 1830 – 1837
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Adeleide of Saxe-Meiningen
Nicknamed Sailor Billy after his time served in the navy. He had no surviving legitimate children to succeed him.
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (son of King George III) and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria acceded the throne 3 weeks before her 18th birthday and reigned for 64 years, longer than any monarch at the time and 2nd longest reign to date. She is known as the Grandmother of Europe because she married her children to many European prince and princesses. She was devastated when her husband, Albert, died in 1861 and spent the rest of her life dressed in black.
HOUSE OF SAXE COBURG GOTHA
Son of Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Married Alexandra of Denmark
Edward was the only monarch of house Saxe Coburg Gotha. He was the longest serving Prince of Wales by the time of his accession and second longest serving Prince of Wales to date. His good relationship with the French President helped pave the way for the signing of the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1904.
HOUSE OF WINDSOR
Son of King Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Married Mary of Teck
Changed the royal name to Windsor during World War One to distance the monarchy from its German heritage.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Wallis Simpson
Abdicated the throne in 1936 to marry Wallis Simpson – a divorcee. He and his wife were exiled to France.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Reluctantly became King after the abdication of his brother. He suffered from a stammer and found public speaking difficult, though he was helped by therapist Lionel Logue. Remained in London during World War Two to show solidarity with the people during the Blitz.
Daughter of King George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Married Prince Philip of Greece
Succeeded her father at the age of 26 years and became the longest reigning monarch in 2015. To date she has been served by 12 different Prime Ministers of Britain.

 

Published Jul 23, 2016 @ 13:40 – Updated –¬†Sep 12, 2018 @ 12:46 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2015-2018). Kings and Queens of England 827 – Present Day. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/kings-and-queens-of-england-871-present-day Last accessed September 17th, 2018

 

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