Kings and Queens of Scotland 843 to Present Day


Kings and Queens of Scotland


This timeline details all Kings and Queens of Scotland from 843 to present day

Since 1603 England, Wales and Scotland have shared a monarch

See also – Kings and Queens of England 827 – Present Day



Kenneth I 843 – 858
Son of Alpin, King of Dal Riata
Identity of wife not known.
Donald I 858 – 862
Son of Alpin, King of Dal Riata
Did not marrry
Constantine I 862 – 877
Son of Kenneth I
Identity of wife not knwon
Aedh 877 – 878
Son of Kenneth I
Identity of wife not known
Eochaid 878 – 889
Son of Run Macarthagail, King of Strathclyde and a daughter of Kenneth I
Was deposed
Donald II 889 – 900
Son of Constantine I
Identity of wife not known
Constantine II 900 – 943
Son of King Aedh
Identity of wife not known
Malcolm I 943 – 954
Son of King Donald II
Identity of wife not known
Indulf 954 – 962
Son of King Constantine II
Identity of wife not known
Duff – 962 – 967
Son of King Malcolm I
Identity of wife not known
Colin 967 – 971
Son of King Indulf
Identity of wife not known
Kenneth II 971 – 995
Son of Malcolm I
Married a princess of Leinster
Constantine III 995 – 997
Son of King Colin
Identity of wife not known
Kenneth III 997 – 1005
Son of King Duff
Identity of wife not known
Malcolm II 1005 – 1034
Son of Kenneth II
Identity of wife not known
Duncan I 1034 – 1040
Son of Crinan of Dunkeld and Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II
Married Sybilla of Northumbria
Murdered in 1040 by Macbeth
Macbeth 1040 – 1057
Son of Finlay MacRory and Donada daughter of Kenneth II or Malcolm II
Married Gruoch, grandaughter of Kenneth II
Took the throne after the death of Duncan I. Was killed in the Battle of Lumphanan.
Lulach 1057 – 1058
Son of Gillacomagain of Moray and Gruoch
Married Finnghuala
Killed at Essie in Strathbogie by his cousin Malcolm.
Malcolm III 1058 – 1093
Son of Duncan I and Sybilla of Northumbria
Married 1. Ingibiorg of Halland 2. Margaret daughter of Edward the Exile of England
He was known as Malcolm Canmore and died in battle near Alnwick.
Donald III 1093 – 1094 1094 – 1097
Son of King Malcolm III and Ingibiorg of Halland
Married Bethoc
Took the throne after the death of Malcolm III. Was known as Donald Bane and was deposed in 1097.
Duncan II 1094
Son of Malcolm III and Ingibiorg of Halland
Married Ethelreda of Northumbria
Became King after deposing his uncle Donald III. He was killed in the Battle of Monthechin and his uncle re-took the throne.
Edgar 1097 – 1107
Son of Malcolm III and Margaret
Did not marry
Alexander I 1107 – 1124
Son of King Malcolm III and Margaret
Married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of King Henry I of England
Died childless
David I 1124 – 1153
Son of King Malcolm III and Margaret
Married Matilda of Huntingdon
Took advantage of the civil war in England to extend his land into northern England.
Malcolm IV 1153 – 1165
Son of Henry of Huntingdon (son of David I) and Ada de Warenne
Did not marry and died childless
William I 1165 – 1214
Son of Henry of Huntingdon (son of King David I) and Ada of Warenne
Married Ermengarde
Nicknamed William the Lion
Alexander II 1214 – 1249
Son of King William I and Ermengarde
Married 1. Joan, daughter of King John of England, 2. Mary of Coucy
Alexander III 1249 – 1286
Son of King Alexander II and Mary of Coucy
Married 1. Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England 2. Yolande of Dreux
Known as the Glorious, he died when his horse fell off a cliff.
Margaret 1286 – 1290
Daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland
Became Queen on the death of her grandfather, Alexander III. She died while travelling back to Scotland.
1290 – 1292
The death of Margaret of Norway left around 13 claimants to the throne. Edward I of England was asked to arbitrate and decide who should take the throne.
John Balliol 1292 – 1296
Son of Hugh Balliol and Devorguilla
Married Isabella daughter of John de Warenne
King Edward I of England invaded Scotland in 1296 and forced Balliol to abdicate.
1296 – 1306
After forcing Balliol to abdicated, Edward I of England took control of Scotland. Edward took the Stone of Scone to Westminster.
Robert I 1306 – 1329
Son of Robert le Brus and Margaret
Married 1. Isabella of Mar 2. Elizabeth de Burgh
Took the throne and worked to drive the English out of scotland. In 1328 Edward III recognised Scottish independence.
David II 1329 – 1371
Son of King Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh
Married 1. Joan, daughter of King Edward II of England 2. Margaret
Retained the throne after being deposed by Edward Balliol.
Robert II 1371 – 1390
Son of the Walter Stewart and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce
Married 1. Elizabeth Mure, 2. Euphemia de Ross
Became the first Stuart King of Scotland
Robert III 1390 – 1406
Son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure
Married Anabella Drummond
Died following a riding accident.
James I 1406 – 1437
Son of King Robert III and Anabella Drummond
Married Joan Beaufort
Was imprisoned in London until 1423. Was assassinated in 1437
James II 1437 – 1460
Son of King James I and Joan Beaufort
Married Mary of Guelders
Was killed by an exploding cannon
James III 1460 – 1488
Son of James II and Mary of Guelders
Married Margaret of Denmark
Killed at the Battle of Sauchie Burn
Son of King James III and Margaret of Denmark
Married Margaret Tudor daughter of King Henry VII of England
Was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field.
Son of King James IV and Margaret Tudor
Married 1. Madeleine of Valois 2. Mary of Guise
Became King as an infant. Was killed fighting the English at the Battle of Solway Moss.
Daughter of King James V and Mary of Guise
Married 1. Francis II King of France 2. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley 3. James Hepburn Earl Bosworth
Became Queen while an infant, known as Mary Queen of Scots. Returned to Scotland after the death of her husband King Francis II of France. Made two disastrous marriages and fled to England. She was executed by Queen Elizabeth I in 1587.
Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Married Anne of Denmark
Became King James I of England after Elizabeth I died childless. He survived the Gunpowder Plot attempt to assassinate him and the English government.
Son of King James VI and Anne of Denmark
Married Henrietta Maria of France
Caused conflict with the Church and Parliament due to his leanings towards Catholicism and his insistence on the Divine Right of Kings. His refusal to grant concessions led to the English Civil War He was executed by Parliament at the end of the war.
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married Catherine of Braganza
After the execution of his father, the Scots recognised Charles as King Charles II.
Son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward
Married Elizabeth Bourchier
Oliver Cromwell managed to defeat the Royalists in Scotland and took over rule of Scotland as part of the Commonwealth. Cromwell was a strict Puritan and imposed Puritanism on the country.
Son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier
Married Dorothy Maijor
Richard succeeded his father as head of the Commonwealth. However he was not a leader like his father and the monarchy was restored.
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married Catherine of Braganza
Nicknamed the Merry Monarch for restoring music and dancing which had been banned by Oliver Cromwell. His reign saw the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London.
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married 1. Anne Hyde, 2. Mary of Modena
James II of England. Showed openly Catholic tendencies and was replaced by his daughter and son-in-law.
William III and Mary II 1688 – 1702
William was the son of William of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I; Mary was the daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
William and Mary were married
Ruled as joint monarchs following the Glorious Revolution until 1694 when Mary died. William then ruled alone until his death in 1702
Daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
Married Prince George of Denmark
Anne had seventeen pregnancies and her only surviving son died in 1700 so on her death the crown passed to the Hanoverians
Son of Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Sophia of the Palatinate, grandaughter of James I
Married Sophia Dorothea of Celle
German George inherited the throne as the closest living Protestant relative of Queen Anne (Catholics had been barred from the succession by the Act of Settlement 1701). George was the grandson of James I’s daughter Elizabeth and could not speak a word of English. Catholics believed that James Stuart, son of King James II and Mary of Modena should be King and rallied behind his and later his son Bonnie Prince Charlie’s cause.
Son of King George I and Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Married Caroline of Ansbach
George was the last King to personally lead troops into battle during the Seven Years War.
Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Ruled for 60 years longer than any other monarch at the time and 3rd longest reign to date. He suffered from bouts of insanity which have been attributed to the condition porphyria. He was very reluctant to concede defeat in the American War of Independence. In his later years his son took over as regent. The period is known as the Regency.
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Caroline of Brunswick
George lived a flamboyant lifestyle and was fond of entertaining, racing and gambling. He ordered the construction of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton.
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Nicknamed Sailor Billy after his time served in the navy. He had no surviving legitimate children to succeed him.
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (son of King George III) and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria acceded the throne 3 weeks after her 18th birthday and reigned for 64 years, longer than any monarch at the time and 2nd longest reign to date. She is known as the Grandmother of Europe because she married her children to many European prince and princesses. She was devastated when her husband, Albert, died in 1861 and spent the rest of her life dressed in black.
Son of Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Married Alexandra of Denmark
Edward was the only monarch of house Saxe Coburg Gotha. He was the longest serving Prince of Wales by the time of his accession and second longest serving Prince of Wales to date. His good relationship with the French President helped pave the way for the signing of the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1904.
Son of King Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Married Mary of Teck
Changed the royal name to Windsor during World War One to distance the monarchy from its German heritage.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Wallis Simpson
Abdicated the throne in 1936 to marry Wallis Simpson – a divorcee. He and his wife were exiled to France.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Reluctantly became King after the abdication of his brother. He suffered from a stammer and found public speaking difficult, though he was helped by therapist Lionel Logue. Remained in London during World War Two to show solidarity with the people during the Blitz.
Daughter of King George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Married Prince Philip of Greece
Succeeded her father at the age of 26 years and became the longest reigning monarch in 2015. To date she has been served by 12 different Prime Ministers of Britain.


Published Mar 18, 2018 @ 3:27 – Updated – Jul 8, 2019 @ 10:07 pm


Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Kings and Queens of Scotland 843 – Present Day. Available: Last accessed July 14th, 2019