Kings and Queens of Scotland 843 to Present Day

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Kings and Queens of Scotland

 

This timeline details all Kings and Queens of Scotland from 843 to present day

Since 1603 England, Wales and Scotland have shared a monarch

See also – Kings and Queens of England 827 – Present Day

 

 

HOUSE OF ALPIN
Kenneth I – 843 – 13th February 858
Son of Alpin, King of Dal Riata
Identity of wife not known
Kenneth united the kingdoms of Scotland after defeating other rivals for the position.
Donald I – 13th February 858 – 13th April 862
Son of Alpin, King of Dal Riata
Did not marrry
Succeeded his brother Kenneth as King of Scotland.
Constantine I – 13th April 862 – 877
Son of Kenneth I
Identity of wife not knwon
Succeeded his uncle as King. He faced increasing Viking raids and died in battle against the Vikings at Inverdorat, Angus. The exact date of his death is not known.
Aedh – 877 – 878
Son of Kenneth I
Identity of wife not known
Became King after his brother’s death. He was killed at Strathallan in 878, the exact date is unknown.
Eochaid – 878 – 889
Son of Run Macarthagail, King of Strathclyde and a daughter of Kenneth I
Unmarried
Became King after the death of Aedh. He is linked with a man named Giric who may have ruled with him, sharing the Kingdom or may have opposed his rule. The exact dates of his reign are not known. He was deposed and possibly murdered by his cousin Donald.
Donald II – 889 – 900
Son of Constantine I
Identity of wife not known
Donald became King of Scotland after deposing and/or murdering Aedh. He was killed, possibly in battle, at Dunnattar. The exact dates of his reign are not known.
Constantine II – 900 – 943
Son of King Aedh
Identity of wife not known
Succeeded his cousin Donald as King. He faced continual invasions by the Vikings. Scotland was also invaded by King Aethelstan of England who forced Constantine to submit to him. In 937 he invaded England but was defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh. He abdicated the throne in 943. The exact dates of his reign are not known.
Malcolm I – 943 – 954
Son of King Donald II
Identity of wife not known
Succeeded his father’s cousin as King, since Constantine II’s son, Indulf, was considered too young to rule. He made peace with the English King Edmund. He died in battle against the English or Eric Bloodaxe. Exact dates of his reign are not known.
Indulf 954 – 962
Son of King Constantine II
Identity of wife not known
Indulf succeeded following the death of Malcolm I. He died in battle against the Vikings.
Duff – 962 – 967
Son of King Malcolm I
Identity of wife not known
He faced a continual challenge to his place on the throne from the son of King Indulf.
Colin – 967 – 971
Son of King Indulf
Identity of wife not known
Became King after the death of Duff. Much of his short reign was spent trying to maintain control of Strathclyde. He was murdered by the brother of the King of Strathclyde who Colin had murdered. The exact dates of his reign are not known.
Kenneth II – 971 – 995
Son of Malcolm I
Married a princess of Leinster
Kenneth became King after the murder of Indulf. He strengthened ties with Ireland through his marriage to help fend off attacks by the Vikings. He was murdered after ruling for 24 years, the exact dates of his reign are not known.
Constantine III – 995 – 997
Son of King Colin
Identity of wife not known
Succeeded following the murder of his third cousin, Kenneth II. He was killed after at Rathinveramon either by or on the orders of Kenneth III.
Kenneth III 997 – 25th March 1005
Son of King Duff
Identity of wife not known
Succeeded following the death of Constantine III. He was killed in battle at Monzievaird, Perth, by his cousin, Malcolm.
Malcolm II 25th March 1005 – 25th November 1034
Son of Kenneth II
Identity of wife not known
Became King following the death of Kenneth III. He tried to take land in England but was beaten at Durham by Uhtred the Bold in 1016. Two years later he secured victory at Carham to take land in Northumbria. He ordered the murder of the grandson of Kenneth III so that his own grandson could succeed.
HOUSE OF DUNKELD
Duncan I – 25th November 1034 – 14th August 1040
Son of Crinan of Dunkeld and Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II
Married Sybilla of Northumbria
He succeeded his grandfather to the throne following the murder of the heir and was the first of the Dunkeld Kings of Scotland . He consolidated rule over Strathclyde. He was either murdered in 1040 by Macbeth or died of injuries sustained in battle against Macbeth.
Macbeth – 14th August 1040 – 15th August 1057
Son of Finlay MacRory and Donada, daughter of Kenneth II or Malcolm II
Married Gruoch, grandaughter of Kenneth II
Took the throne after the death of Duncan I. Macbeth ruled peacefully for most of his reign. In 1054 he was defeated by English and Norse forces led by Siward, Earl of Northumberland at Dunsinane. Three years later he was killed in the Battle of Lumphanan.
Lulach – 15th August 1057 – 17th March 1058
Son of Gillacomagain of Moray and Gruoch, stepson of Macbeth 
Married Finnghuala
Ruled for just 8 months. Killed at Essie in Strathbogie by his cousin Malcolm.
Malcolm III – 17th March 1058 – 13th November 1093
Son of Duncan I and Sybilla of Northumbria
Married 1. Ingibiorg of Halland 2. Margaret daughter of Edward the Exile of England
He was known as Malcolm Canmore. He supported the Anglo-Saxons against the Normans and William I, but was beaten back to Scotland.  He died in battle against the forces of King William II of England near Alnwick.
Donald III – 13th November 1093 – May 1094
Son of King Malcolm III and Ingibiorg of Halland
Married Bethoc
Took the throne after the death of  his father. Was known as Donald Bane and was deposed in 1094 by his nephew who was backed by King William II of England.
Duncan II – May – 12th November 1094
Son of Malcolm III and Ingibiorg of Halland
Married Ethelreda of Northumbria
Became King after deposing his uncle Donald III. He was killed at the Battle of Monthechin and his uncle re-took the throne.
Donald III – 12th November 1094 – October 1097
Son of King Duncan I and Sybilla of Northumbria
Married Bethoc
Re-took the throne from his nephew Duncan II. It is likely that he ruled with his nephew’s half-brother Edmund. Edmund’s brother, Edgar, deposed Donald and Edmund during 1097.
Edgar – October 1097 – 8th January 1107
Son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex
Did not marry
He took the throne from Donald III with support from his uncle Edgar Aetheling. He gave the Western Isles to Magnus Barefoot of Norway.
Alexander I – 8th January 1107 – 23rd April 1124
Son of King Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex
Married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of King Henry I of England
He was allied to King Henry I through marriage. He fiercely dealt with those who did not submit to his rule. He died childless.
David I – 23rd April 1124 – 24th May 1153
Son of King Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex
Married Matilda of Huntingdon
Became King after the death of his brother Alexander. He took advantage of the civil war between Stephen and Matilda in England to extend his land into northern England.
Malcolm IV – 24th May 1153 – 9th December 1165
Son of Henry of Huntingdon (son of David I) and Ada de Warenne
Did not marry
Malcolm succeeded his grandfather, David to the throne aged 12 years. The English King Henry II took advantage of there being a minor on the Scottish throne and reclaimed English land taken by David I. He was very religious and had taken a vow of chastity so did not marry.
William I – 9th December 1165 – 14th December 1214
Son of Henry of Huntingdon (son of King David I) and Ada of Warenne
Married Ermengarde
Succeeded his brother to the throne of Scotland. He was nicknamed William the Lion. He tried to reclaim Northumbria from King Henry II but was defeated, captured and imprisoned in Normandy. He was released after submitting to the overlordship of Henry II of England. In 1189 he purchased the sovereignty of Scotland from Richard I.
Alexander II – 14th December 1214 – 6th July 1249
Son of King William I and Ermengarde
Married 1. Joan, daughter of King John of England, 2. Mary of Coucy
Succeeded his father as King of Scotland. He tried to gain land in the north of England for Scotland but eventually made peace sealed by marrying King John’s daughter. The Scottish parliament was established during his reign. He had planned to retake the Western Isles but died before this could be completed.
Alexander III – 6th July 1249 – 19th March 1286
Son of King Alexander II and Mary of Coucy
Married 1. Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England 2. Yolande of Dreux
Succeeded his father as king aged 7 years. He was known as the Glorious and managed to regain control of the Western Isles. He maintained peace with England. He died after being thrown from his horse during a storm and falling off a cliff.
Daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland (daughter of King Alexander III)
She was heir to her grandfather, Alexander III. When the King died his wife was pregnant. Margaret became Queen after Alexander’s wife was delivered of a stillborn child. Margaret remained in Norway due to her young age and died while travelling to Scotland sparking a succession crisis.
INTERREGNUM
26th September 1290 – 17th November 1292
The death of Margaret of Norway left around 13 claimants to the throne. King Edward I of England was asked to arbitrate and decide who should take the throne.
HOUSE OF BALLIOL
John Balliol – 17th November 1292 – 10th July 1296
Son of Hugh Balliol and Devorguilla
Married Isabella daughter of John de Warenne
Balliol was chosen to be King of Scotland by King Edward I of England but was not fully accepted by the Scottish nobility. He made a treaty with France which angered King Edward I of England who invaded Scotland in 1296 and forced Balliol to abdicate.
INTERREGNUM
10th July 1296 – 10th February 1306
After forcing Balliol to abdicated, Edward I of England took control of Scotland. Edward took the Stone of Scone to Westminster.
HOUSE OF BRUCE
Robert I – 10th February 1306 – 7th June 1329
Son of Robert le Brus and Marjorey of Carrick
Married 1. Isabella of Mar 2. Elizabeth de Burgh
Known as Robert the Bruce he took the throne as great-great grandson of David I. He worked to drive the English out of Scotland. He secured a major victory over the English at Bannockburn in 1314. In 1328 King Edward III of England recognised Scottish independence.
David II – 7th June 1329 – 22nd February 1371
Son of King Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh
Married 1. Joan, daughter of King Edward II of England 2. Margaret Drummond
Succeeded at the age of 5 years following the death of his father. In September 1332 he was deposed by Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, but managed to regain the throne by December. In 1333 Balliol returned and David and his wife fled to France. By 1341 his supporters had gained control in Scotland and he returned as King. In 1346 he invaded England and was taken prisoner until his release in 1357. He then ruled Scotland until his death.
HOUSE OF STUART
Robert II – 22nd February 1371 – 19th April 1390
Son of  Walter Stewart and Marjorie Bruce (daughter of Robert Bruce)
Married 1. Elizabeth Mure, 2. Euphemia de Ross
Succeeded his uncle as King of Scotland and was the first Stuart King of Scotland. Scotland was in conflict with England throughout his reign.
Robert III – 19th April 1390 – 4th April 1406
Son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure
Married Anabella Drummond
Succeeded his father as King of Scotland. His son, James was captured by the English. Robert III was very badly injured in a riding accident and died soon afterwards. He was possibly murdered.
James I – 4th April 1406 – 21st February 1437
Son of King Robert III and Anabella Drummond
Married Joan Beaufort
Succeeded his father as King but was not crowned as he was imprisoned in London until 1423 when he was released following the payment of a large ransom. He was assassinated in 1437.
James II – 21st February 1437 – 3rd August 1460
Son of King James I and Joan Beaufort
Married Mary of Guelders
Succeeded his father at the age of 6 years.  He took advantage of the Wars of the Roses in England and invaded the northern counties. He was killed by an exploding cannon during the Siege of Roxborough.
James III – 3rd August 1460 – 11th June 1488
Son of James II and Mary of Guelders
Married Margaret of Denmark
Succeeded his father as King of Scotland at the age of 8 years. His mother acted as regent until he came of age. He was a weak King and faced challenges from his brothers the Dukes of Albany and Mar. He was killed at the Battle of Sauchie Burn.
Son of King James III and Margaret of Denmark
Married Margaret Tudor daughter of King Henry VII of England
James became King aged 15 years. After supporting the pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck, he made peace and married Henry VII’s daughter. When  King Henry VIII invaded France in 1513, James invaded England. He was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field.
Son of King James IV and Margaret Tudor
Married 1. Madeleine of Valois 2. Mary of Guise
Became King as an infant. His mother became regent but was deposed by his uncle, the Duke of Albany, after she remarried. His stepfather, the Earl of Angus regained power and held James captive. James eventually broke free and took control of Scotland. He was killed fighting the English at the Battle of Solway Moss.
Daughter of King James V and Mary of Guise
Married 1. Francis II King of France 2. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley 3. James Hepburn Earl Bosworth
Became Queen while an infant and was known as Mary Queen of Scots. Returned to Scotland after the death of her husband King Francis II of France but as a Catholic in Protestant Scotland her position was difficult. She then made two disastrous marriages, was implicated in the murder of her second husband and was forced to abdicate in favour of her son. Afterwards, she fled to England. She was executed by Queen Elizabeth I in 1587.
Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Married Anne of Denmark
Became King of Scotland as an infant after his mother was forced to abdicate. He became King James I of England after Elizabeth I died childless. He survived the Gunpowder Plot attempt to assassinate him and the English government and ruled until his death.
Son of King James VI and Anne of Denmark
Married Henrietta Maria of France
From the beginning of his reign he was in conflict with the Church and Parliament due to his leanings towards Catholicism and his insistence on the Divine Right of Kings. His refusal to grant concessions led to the English Civil War He was executed by Parliament at the end of the war.
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married Catherine of Braganza
After the execution of his father, the Scots recognised Charles as King Charles II. After being defeated at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, Charles fled to the continent. 
INTERREGNUM
Son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward
Married Elizabeth Bourchier
Oliver Cromwell managed to defeat the Royalists in Scotland and took over rule of Scotland as part of the Commonwealth. Cromwell was a strict Puritan and imposed Puritanism on the country.
Son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier
Married Dorothy Maijor
Richard succeeded his father as Head of the Commonwealth but he had little support from the military because he had never served in the army. Furthermore was not a leader like his father and was persuaded to resign the title by Parliament.
HOUSE OF STUART
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married Catherine of Braganza
The monarchy was restored and Charles returned as King. He was nicknamed the Merry Monarch for restoring music and dancing which had been banned by Oliver Cromwell. His reign saw the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London. The Test Act, passed during Charles II’s reign, prevented Catholics from becoming MPs or holding public office.
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Married 1. Anne Hyde, 2. Mary of Modena
Despite being a Catholic, James succeeded his brother Charles as King of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. The birth of his son, James Francis, meant a strong likelihood that Catholicism would return. In 1688 a number of MPs invited James’s son-in-law, William of Orange to Britain and take the throne with his wife Mary, an act that is known as the Glorious Revolution.
William III and Mary II – 6th February 1689 – 8th March 1702
William was the son of William of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I; Mary was the daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
William and Mary were married
William and Mary ruled as joint monarchs until 28th December 1694 when Mary died. William then ruled alone until his death in 1702. Most of their reign was spent in conflict with those Catholic supporters of James II and his son, known as Jacobites. In Ireland the Battle of the Boyne saw the defeat of the Jacobite forces. In Scotland all highland chiefs were required to swear an oath of allegiance to William and Mary. When the Glencoe MacDonald clan chief missed the deadline the clan were massacred. William and Mary did not have any children to succeed them.
Daughter of King James II and Anne Hyde
Married Prince George of Denmark
Anne succeeded following the death of her brother-in-law. In 1707 the Act of Union formally united England, Wales and Scotland as Great Britain. Anne had seventeen pregnancies and her only surviving son had died in 1700. She was the last Stuart monarch.
HOUSE OF HANOVER
Son of Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Sophia of the Palatinate, grandaughter of James I
Married Sophia Dorothea of Celle
German George inherited the throne as the closest living Protestant relative of Queen Anne (Catholics had been barred from the succession by the Act of Settlement 1701). George was the grandson of James I’s daughter Elizabeth and could not speak a word of English. Catholics believed that James Stuart, son of King James II and Mary of Modena should be King and rallied behind his Jacobite cause.
Son of King George I and Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Married Caroline of Ansbach
George succeeded his father as King of Great Britain. He was the last King to personally lead troops into battle during the Seven Years War. His reign saw another Jacobite uprising for Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, which was put down at the Battle of Culloden.
Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
George succeeded his grandfather as King. He ruled for 60 years, longer than any other monarch at the time and 3rd longest reign to date. He suffered from bouts of insanity which have been attributed to the condition porphyria. He was very reluctant to concede defeat in the American War of Independence. In his later years his mental state led to his son taking over as regent. The period is known as The Regency.
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Caroline of Brunswick
George lived a flamboyant lifestyle and was fond of entertaining, racing and gambling. He ordered the construction of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. When his father was considered mentally unfit to rule he became regent. The Catholic Relief Bill, passed at the end of his reign, allowed Catholics to become MPs and hold public office.
Son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
William succeeded his brother George as King. He was nicknamed Sailor Billy after his time served in the navy. His reign saw the passing of the First Reform Bill in 1832. He had no surviving legitimate children to succeed him.
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (son of King George III) and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria acceded the throne 3 weeks after her 18th birthday and reigned for 64 years, longer than any monarch at the time and 2nd longest reign to date. She is known as the Grandmother of Europe because she married her children to many European prince and princesses. She was devastated when her husband, Albert, died in 1861 and spent the rest of her life dressed in black.
HOUSE OF SAXE COBURG GOTHA
Son of Queen Victoria and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Married Alexandra of Denmark
Edward was the only monarch of house Saxe Coburg Gotha. He was the longest serving Prince of Wales by the time of his accession and second longest serving Prince of Wales to date. His good relationship with the French President helped pave the way for the signing of the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1904.
HOUSE OF WINDSOR
Son of King Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Married Mary of Teck
George V changed the royal name to Windsor during World War One to distance the monarchy from its German heritage. He refused to allow the Russian Royal Family sanctuary in Britain for fear of sparking a revolution. Ireland was partitioned and southern Ireland became a republic while northern Ireland became part of the United Kingdom.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Wallis Simpson
Abdicated the throne in 1936 to marry Wallis Simpson – a divorcee. He and his wife were exiled to France.
Son of King George V and Mary of Teck
Married Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Reluctantly became King after the abdication of his brother. He suffered from a stammer and found public speaking difficult, though he was helped by therapist Lionel Logue. Remained in London during World War Two to show solidarity with the people during the Blitz. He died of lung cancer at the age of 57 years.
Daughter of King George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Married Prince Philip of Greece
Succeeded her father at the age of 26 years and became the longest reigning monarch in 2015. To date she has been served by 12 different Prime Ministers of Britain and is the World’s most recognised woman.

 

Published Mar 18, 2018 @ 3:27 – Updated – Oct 22, 2019 @ 4:27 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018 – 2019). Kings and Queens of Scotland 843 – Present Day. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/kings-and-queens-of-scotland-843-present-day Last accessed October 23rd, 2019

 

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