Kings and Queens of Spain 1479 – Present Day

This timeline details all Kings and Queens of Spain from 1479 to present day.

Felipe VI of Spain

Prior to 1479 the separate regions of Spain: Aragon, Asturias, Castile, Galicia, Leon and Navarre had their own kings and queens and were independent of each other. Gradually these regions were conquered by Castile or Aragon. After 1479 the houses of Castile and Aragon were jointly ruled marking the beginning of the Kingdom of Spain. They remained separate entities until 1716.

HOUSE OF TRASTAMARA
Son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Married Isabella of Castile
United Spain under joint rule with Isabella of Castile
Daughter of John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal
Married Ferdinand of Aragon
United Spain under joint rule with Ferdinand of Aragon
Daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
Married Philip of Burgundy
Joanna never ruled, due, it was said, to her madness. Instead her husband, father and son ruled as regents for her.
HOUSE OF HABSBURG
Charles I – 14th March 1516 – 16th January 1556
Son of Joanna of Castile and Philip of Burgundy
Married Isabella of Portugal
Was co-ruler with his mother Joanna until her death in April 1555. Abdicated the throne in favour of his son in January 1556.
Son of Charles I and Isabella of Portugal
Married 1 Maria of Portugal 2. Mary I of England 3. Elisabeth of Valois 4. Anne of Austria
Sent an armada to England to avenge the death of Mary Queen of Scots and return England to Catholicism.
Philip III – 13th September 1598 – 31st March 1621
Son of Philip II and Anne of Austria
Married Margaret of Austria
Was known as Philip the Pious. Took Spain into the Thirty Years War.
Philip IV – 31st March 1621 – 17th September 1665
Son of Philip III and Margaret of Austria
Married 1. Elisabeth of France 2. Mariana of Austria
Philip was a lover of the arts and supported the Spanish artist Velazquez. The Spanish Empire had begun to decline due to his not implementing reforms.
Charles II – 17th September 1665 – 1st November 1700
Son of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria
Married 1. Marie Louise d’Orleans 2. Maria Anna of Neuburg
Charles suffered from multiple disabilities. He became King at the age of three and his mother acted as regent. After her death Charles ruled alone but was heavily influenced by advisers. He did not have children and nominated his sister’s grandson, Philip to be his successor.   
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Philip V – 1st November 1700 – 15th January 1724
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
Married 1. Maria Luisa of Savoy 2. Elisabeth Farnese
He was nominated as heir to the childless Philip V but his younger brother Charles challenged his succession. This led to the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1714 it was agreed that Philip would be King. He abdicated the throne in favour of his son, Louis in 1724.
Louis I – 15th January – 31st August 1724
Son of Philip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy
Married Louise Elisabeth of Orleans
Died of smallpox seven months after becoming King. He had no children so his father returned as King
Philip V – 31st August 1724 – 9th July 1746
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
Married 1. Maria Luisa of Savoy 2. Elisabeth Farnese
Philip had abdicated the throne in favour of his son Louis. After Louis died of smallpox without an heir, he retook the throne.
Ferdinand VI – 9th July 1746 – 10th August 1759
Son of Philip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy
Married Barbara of Portugal
Became King after the death of his father. Died without children so the crown passed to his half-brother.
Charles III – 10th August 1759 – 14th December 1788
Son of Philip V and Elisabeth Farnese
Married Maria Amalia of Saxony
Charles was a enlightened monarch and promoted science and learning as well as encouraging trade.
Charles IV – 14th December 1788 – 19th March 1808
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married Maria Luisa of Parma
Became King instead of his elder brother who had learning difficulties and epilepsy. Was forced to abdicate in favour of his son following riots.
Ferdinand VII 19th March – 6th May 1808
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married 1. Maria Antonia of Naples 2. Maria Isabel of Braganza 3. Maria Josepha of Saxony 4. Maria Christina of the two Sicilies
Took the throne from his father after seeking support from Napoleon. He in turn was forced to abdicate by Napoleon who did not trust him.
HOUSE OF BONAPARTE
Joseph I – 6th June 1808 – 11th December 1813
Son of Carlo Bonaparte (brother of Napoleon) and Letizia Ramolino 
Married Julie Clary
Was installed as King of Spain by his brother Napoleon who did not trust Ferdinand VII. The appointment was not popular with the Spanish and marked the beginning of the Peninsular War against Napoleon. He abdicated in 1813 after the French defeat at the Battle of Vitoria.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Ferdinand VII – 11th December 1813 – 29th September 1833
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married 1. Maria Antonia of Naples 2. Maria Isabel of Braganza 3. Maria Josepha of Saxony 4. Maria Christina of the two Sicilies
Returned as King after the abdication of Joseph Bonaparte.
Isabella II – 29th September 1833 – 30th September 1868
Daughter of Ferdinand VII and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
Married Francis Duke of Cadiz
She became Queen at three years old. Her reign was not popular and she was deposed in 1868 and exiled to France.
INTERREGNUM
30th September 1868 – 16th November 1870
After Isabella II was deposed Spain was ruled by a provisional government and regency led by Francisco Serrano y Dominiguez.
HOUSE OF SAVOY
Amadeo I – 16th November 1870 – 11th February 1873
Son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Adelaide of Austria (Great great grandson of Charles III)
Married Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo 2. Maria Letizia Bonaparte
Was chosen to be King of Spain by the Cortes but there were continual rebellions against his rule so he abdicated and returned to Italy.
FIRST SPANISH REPUBLIC
11th February 1873 – 29th December 1874
Spain was proclaimed a republic and a new constitution was drawn up. However, different factions did not agree and the country became unstable with civil war breaking out. By 1874 the government had collapsed and the monarchy was restored.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Alfonso XII – 29th December 1874 – 25th November 1885
Son of Isabella II and Francis of Cadiz
Married 1. Mercedes of Orleans 2. Maria Christina of Austria
Became King after the monarchy was restored. At the time of his death his wife was pregnant with their son Alfonso.
Alfonso XIII – 17th May 1886 – 14th April 1931
Posthumous son of Alfonso XII and Maria Christina of Austria
Married Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Was King from birth and his mother acted as regent until he came of age. His reign was fraught with rebellions. A plebiscite was held to decide between monarchy and republic. After the election decided to make Spain a republic, Alfonso left Spain voluntarily.
SECOND SPANISH REPUBLIC
14th April 1931 – 1st April 1939
The second Spanish republic was declared after Alfonso XIII was deposed. However, the country was not stable as both the Republicans and Nationalists wanted control. This ultimately led to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 when the Nationalists proclaimed General Francisco Franco as leader of Spain. The war was won in 1939 by the Nationalists.
SPANISH STATE
1st October – 1936 – 20th November 1975
General Francisco Franco was declared leader of Spain by Nationalists in 1936. After winning the Spanish Civil War he ruled Spain as a dictatorship until his death in 1975.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Juan Carlos I – 22nd November 1975 – 18th June 2014
Son of Juan, Count of Barcelona and Maria de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (Grandson of Alfonso XIII)
Married Sophia of Greece and Denmark
Became King after the death of General Franco in 1975. Abdicated in favour of his son in 2014.
Felipe VI – 18th June 2014 –
Son of Juan Carlos and Maria de las Mercedes
Married Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano
Became King after his father abdicated in his favour in 2014. 

 

Published Sept 05, 2018 @ 7:25 pm – Updated – Nov 24, 2019 @ 10:50 am

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018 – 2019). Kings and Queens of Spain 1479 – Present Day. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/kings-and-queens-of-spain-1479 Last accessed December 7th, 2019