Kings and Queens of Spain 1479 – Present Day

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Felipe VI of Spain

This timeline details all Kings and Queens of Spain from 1479 to present day.

Prior to 1479 the separate regions of Spain: Aragon, Asturias, Castile, Galicia, Leon and Navarre had their own monarchs and were independent of each other. Gradually these regions were conquered by Castile or Aragon. After 1479 the houses of Castile and Aragon were jointly ruled marking the beginning of the Kingdom of Spain but remained separate entities until 1716.

 

HOUSE OF TRASTAMARA
Son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Married Isabella of Castile
United Spain under joint rule with Isabella of Castile
Daughter of John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal
Married Ferdinand of Aragon
United Spain under joint rule with Ferdinand of Aragon
Daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
Married Philip of Burgundy
Joanna never ruled due, it was said, to her madness. Instead her husband, father and son ruled as regents for her.
HOUSE OF HABSBURG
Charles I 1516 – 1556
Son of Joanna of Castile and Philip of Burgundy
Married Isabella of Portugal
Was co-ruler with his mother Joanna until her death in April 1555. Abdicated the throne in favour of his son in January 1556.
Son of Charles I and Isabella of Portugal
Married 1 Maria of Portugal 2. Mary I of England 3. Elisabeth of Valois 4. Anna of Austria
Sent an armada to England to avenge the death of Mary Queen of Scots and return England to Catholicism.
Philip III 1598 – 1621
Son of Philip II and Anne of Austria
Married Margaret of Austria
Philip IV 1621 – 1665
Son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Married 1. Elisabeth of France 2. Mariana of Austria
Charles II 1665 – 1700
Son of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria
Married 1. Marie Louise d’Orleans 2. Maria Anna of Neuburg
He did not have children and nominated his sister’s grandson, Philip to be King. However, Philip’s younger brother Charles also had a claim and war broke out. In 1714 it was agreed that Philip would be King.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Philip V 1700 – 1724
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
Married 1. Maria Luisa of Savoy 2. Elisabeth Farnese
Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, Louis in 1724
Louis I 1724
Son of Philip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy
Married Louise Elisabeth of Orleans
Died of smallpox seven months after becoming King. He had no children so his father returned as King
Philip V 1724 – 1746
Son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
Married 1. Maria Luisa of Savoy 2. Elisabeth Farnese
Retook the throne after his son died.
Ferdinand VI 1746 – 1759
Son of Philip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy
Married Barbara of Portugal
Died without children so the crown passed to his half-brother.
Charles III 1759 – 1788
Son of Philip V and Elisabeth Farnese
Married Maria Amalia of Saxony
Charles was a enlightened monarch and promoted science and learning as well as encouraging trade.
Charles IV 1788 – 1808
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married Maria Luisa of Parma
Became King insead of his elder brother who had learning difficulties and epilepsy. Was forced to abdicate in favour of his son following riots.
Ferdinand VII 1808
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married 1. Maria Antonia of Naples 2. Maria Isabel of Braganza 3. Maria Josepha of Saxony 4. Maria Christina of the two Sicilies
Took the throne from his father after seeking support from Napoleon. He in turn was forced to abdicate by Napoleon who did not trust him.
HOUSE OF BONAPARTE
Joseph I 1808 – 1813
Son of Carlo Bonaparte and Letizia Ramolino (brother of Napoleon Bonaparte)
Married Julie Clary
Was installed as King of Spain by his brother Napoleon who did not trust Ferdinand VII. The appointment was not popular with the Spanish and marked the beginning of the Peninsular war against Napoleon. He abicated in 1813 after the French defeat at the Battle of Vitoria.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Ferdinand VII 1813 – 1833
Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Married 1. Maria Antonia of Naples 2. Maria Isabel of Braganza 3. Maria Josepha of Saxony 4. Maria Christina of the two Sicilies
Returned as King after the abdication of Joseph Bonaparte.
Isabella II 1830 – 1868
Daughter of Ferdinand VII and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
Married Francis Duke of Cadiz
She became Queen at three years old. Her reign was not popular and she was deposed in 1868 and exiled to France
INTERREGNUM
1868 – 1870
After Isabella II was deposed Spain wasruled by a provisional government and regency led by Francisco Serrano y Dominiguez.
HOUSE OF SAVOY
Amadeo I 1870 – 1873/div>

Son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Adelaide of Austria (Great great grandson of Charles III)
Married Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo 2. Maria Letizia Bonaparte
Was chosen to be King of Spain by the Cortes but there were continual rebellions against his rule so he abdicated and returned to Italy.
FIRST SPANISH REPUBLIC
1873 – 1874
Spain was proclaimed a republic and a new constitution was drawn up. However, different factions did not agree and the country became unstable with civil war breaking out. By 1874 the government had collapsed and the monarchy was restored.
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Alfonso XII 1874 – 1885
Son of Isabella II and Francis of Cadiz
Married 1. Mercedes of Orleans 2. Maria Christina of Austria
Became King after the monarchy was restored.
Alfonso XIII 1886 – 1931
Posthumous son of Alfonso XII and Maria Christina of Austria
Married Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Was King from birth and his mother acted as regent until he came of age. His reign was fraught with rebellions. A plebiscite was held to decide between monarchy and republic. After the election Alfonso left Spain voluntarily.
SECOND SPANISH REPUBLIC
1931 – 1939
The second Spanish republic was declared after Alfonso XIII was deposed. However, the country was not stable as both the Republicans and Nationalists wanted control. This ultimately led to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 when the Nationalists proclaimed General Francisco Franco as leader of Spain. The war was won in 1939 by the Nationalists.
SPANISH STATE
1936 – 1975
General Francisco Franco was declared leader of Spain by Nationalists in 1936. After winning the Spanish Civil War he ruled Spain as a dictatorship until his death in 1975
HOUSE OF BOURBON
Juan Carlos I 1975 – 2014
Son of Juan, Count of Barcelona and Maria de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (Grandson of Alfonso XIII)
Married Sophia of Greece and Denmark
Became King after the death of General Franco in 1975. Abdicated in favour of his son in 2014.
Felipe VI 2014 –
Son of Juan Carlos and Maria de las Mercedes
Married Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano
Became King after his father abdicated in his favour in 2014

 

Published Sept 05, 2018 @ 7:25 pm – Updated –¬†Sep 5, 2018 @ 8:06 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Kings and Queens of Spain 1479 – Present Day. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/kings-and-queens-of-spain-1479 Last accessed November 8th, 2018

 

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