Marc Antony 83 BCE – 30 BCE

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Marc Antony

 

Father – Marcus Antonius Creticus
Mother – Julia Antonia
Spouse – Antonia Minor, Fulvia, Octavia Minor, Cleopatra
Children – Antonia Prima, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, Lullus Antonius, Antonia Major, Antonia Minor, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemy Philadelphus

 

 

83 BCE (14th January)
A son, Marcus Antonius was born to Marcus Antonius Creticus and Julia Antonia, a distant cousin of Julius Caesar, in Rome. He is known as Marc Antony or Mark Antony.
80 BCE (around)
Marc Antony’s brother, Gaius Antonius was born to Marcus Antonius Creticus and Julia Antonia.
78 BCE (around)
Marc Antony’s brother, Lucius Antonius was born to Marcus Antonius Creticus and Julia Antonia.
74 BCE (during)
Marc Antony’s father was given the task of defeating the Mediterranean pirates.
71 BCE (during)
Marc Antony’s father died in Crete.
70 BCE (around)
Marc Antony’s mother married Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a politician.
70 BCE (around)
Marc Antony and his brothers spent much of their time roaming the streets of Rome getting drunk, gambling, fighting and spending time with women.
63 BCE (around)
Marc Antony’s stepfather, Publius Cornelius Lentulus, was executed after being involved in the Catiline Conspiracy.
63 BCE (around)
Marc Antony’s lifestyle had left him in debt to a large number of creditors.
60 BCE (during)
First Triumvirate
Julius Caesar made an agreement with Pompey Magnus and Marcus Crassus for mutual support. The agreement was sealed with the marriage of Caesar’s daughter Julia to Pompey.
58 BCE (during)
In a bid to escape his creditors, Marc Antony left Rome and went to Athens where he studied philosophy and rhetoric.
57 BCE (during)
Marc Antony entered the Roman army when he joined Aulus Gabinius, Proconsul of Syria as chief of the cavalry.
55 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was in Egypt with Gabinius who successfully restored Ptolemy XII Auletes who had been deposed by his daughter Berenice IV. Marc Antony met Ptolemy’s daughter, Cleopatra for the first time.
54 BCE (during)
Marc Antony went to Gaul where he joined the military staff of his mother’s cousin, Julius Caesar.
54 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar’s daughter, Julia, wife of Pompey Magnus, died. The First Triumvirate began to break up.
53 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar sent Marc Antony to Rome to begin his political career.
53 BCE (June)
Battle of Carrhae
the Triumvir Crassus was killed during this battle.
52 BCE (during)
With the death of Crassus the division between Julius Caesar and Pompey Magnus had grown deeper. Factions developed in Rome with Clodius supporting Pompey and Milo supporting Caesar. Fights broke out frequently in Rome between the two factions. After Milo assassinated Clodius there was rioting and looting in the streets of Rome. Pompey was given special powers to deal with the violence.
52 BCE (around)
Marc Antony married his cousin, Antonia Hybrida Minor.
52 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was elected Quaestor. He was assigned to assist Julius Caesar and returned to Gaul.
52 BCE (September)
Battle of Alesia
Marc Antony took part in this decisive battle which saw the forces of Julius Caesar defeat the Gauls led by King Vercingetorix of the Arverni. After this battle Gaul became a Roman province.
51 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was created Legate and given command of two legions.
50 BCE (during)
A daughter, Antonia, was born to Marc Antony and Antonia Hybrida Minor in Rome.
50 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar sent Marc Antony to Rome to champion Caesar against Pompey and the Optimates (those who opposed Caesar).
49 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was elected tribue. He was a supporter of Julius Caesar in the Senate.
49 BCE (1st January)
Marc Antony proposed to the Senate that Pompey and Caesar both be ordered to give up their positions and become ordinary citizens again to stop the continuing violence in Rome. His suggestion was popular among the Senators but was vetoed by Cato and the two consuls, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus all of whom were Optimates.
49 BCE (7th January)
Marc Antony introduced another compromise to seal the rift between Pompey and Caesar. Although Pompey was agreeable Cato, Marcellus and Lentulus were not and the latter forcibly expelled Marc Antony from the Senate.
49 BCE (7th January)
Fearing for his life, Marc Antony left Rome and returned to Caesar who, along with his 13th legion was camped on the bank of the Rubicon river.
49 BCE (7th January)
The Senate, now led by Cato, ordered Julius Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome.
49 BCE (10th January)
Civil War between Caesar and Pompey began when Julius Caesar, with Marc Antony as second in command, crossed the Rubicon river and began to march on Rome.
49 BCE (after 10th January)
Pompey and the Optimates left Rome and journeyed to Greece.
49 BCE (after 10th January)
Marc Antony was created Propraetor and appointed governor of Italy while Julius Caesar went to Spain to destroy Pompey’s supporters there.
49 BCE (late)
Julius Caesar had taken control of Italy, Spain, Sicily and Sardinia.
48 BCE (early)
Juius Caesar made plans to transport seven legions to Greece to destroy Pompey and the Optimates. Unable to secure sufficient transport he sailed with two legions and left Marc Antony at Brundisium with orders to bring the remaining legions as soon as he could secure transport.
48 BCE (early)
Pompey mounted a blockade of Brundisium hoping to contain Marc Antony’s troops. However, Marc Antony managed to trick Pompey’s fleet and managed to sail his troops free.
48 BCE (March)
Marc Antony joined Julius Caesar in Greece and lay siege to Pompeys forces at Dyrrhachium.
48 BCE (July)
Juius Caesar attacked Pompey’s camp but was forced to retreat. Surprisingly Pompey failed to pursue Caesar’s army and he was allowed to regroup.
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus
This decisive battle saw the forces of Gnaeus Pompey defeated by those of Julius Caesar. Marc Antony fought on Caesar’s left wing. The battle was a decisive victory for Caesar and Pompey fled to Egypt.
48 BCE (28th September)
Pompey reached Egypt but was immediately assassinated by King Ptolemy XIII.
48 BCE (Autumn)
Juius Caesar and Marc Antony returned to Rome where Caesar was created Dictator with Marc Antony as his second in command.
47 BCE (early)
Juius Caesar resigned his Dictatorship when he was elected consul. He then sailed for Egypt in pursuit of Pompey leaving Marc Antony in control of Rome. However Marc Antony was not a good administrator.
47 BCE (during)
Marc Antony divorced his wife Antonia Hybrida Minor on the grounds that she had an affair with Publius Cornelius Dolabella.
47 BCE (October)
Julius Caesar returned to Rome to deal with the administration mess made by Marc Antony. This led to a cooling of their relationship.
47 BCE (early)
Marc Antony married Fulvia.
47 BCE (during)
A son Marcus Antonius Antyllus was born to Marc Antony and Fulvia.
46 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was given no further positions in the government of Rome becomming an ordinary citizen.
45 BCE (during)
A son Julius Antonius was born to Marc Antony and Fulvia.
45 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was reconciled with Julius Caesar.
44 BCE (during)
Marc Antony was elected Consul with Julius Caesar.
44 BCE (14th February)
Julius Caesar was elected Dictator for life.
44 BCE (15th February)
During the celebrations for the Lupercalia festival Marc Antony offered Caesar a crown which he refused showing that he had no wish to be King of Rome.
44 BCE (15th March)
Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy of Senators who referred to themselves as Liberators. When Julius Caesar entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by a number of senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Marcus Brutus. Marc Antony was supposed to be present at the Senate but was delayed by one of the conspirators.
44 BCE (16th March)
Marc Antony took control of Caesar’s money and papers.
44 BCE (16th March)
Marcus Lepidus, Master of the Horse, marched a large force into Rome.
44 BCE (17th March)
Marc Antony called a meeting of the Senate. He offered the assassins an amnesty in exchange for recognition of himself as leader of Rome.
44 BCE (19th March)
Julius Caesar’s will was read. It revealed that he had chosen to posthumously adopt Octavian and make him his heir.
44 BCE (20th March)
Julius Caesar’s body was burned in the forum. Marc Antony made an inflammatory speech to the citizens of Rome blaming the liberators for Caesar’s death. Many of the liberators fled Rome following the speech.
44 BCE (May)
When he learned that his great-uncle had been assassinated, Octavian returned to Italy. He landed at Lupiae near Brundisium. Here he learned that he had been adopted by Julius Caesar and made his heir. Octavian changed his name to Gaius julius Caesar Octavianus to reflect his adoption.
44 BCE (late Spring)
Octavian decided that as his great-uncle’s heir he would take control of Rome. In order to do this he needed to enter Rome with an army. His great-uncle had been planning a war against the Parthian Empire and had money and troops stationed at Brundisium. Octavian took control of that money and those troops that wished to follow him, around 3,000 men.
44 BCE (6th May)
Octavian and his army reached Rome. Octavian learned of Marc Antony’s truce with the Senate and the amnesty for the Liberators. He was further angered when Marc Antony refused to hand over Julius Caesar’s money.
44 BCE (Summer)
Octavian began to win over a number of senators, mostly those that had been opposed to Caesar, including Cicero.
44 BCE (November)
Marc Antony lost control of Rome to Octavian after two of Marc Antony’s legions defected to Octavian. Marc Antony fled to Cisalpine Gaul which he had been granted by the Senate but which was held by Decimus Brutus, one of the Liberators.
44 BCE (December)
Decimus Brutus refused to give up Cisalpine Gaul so Marc Antony lay siege to him at Mutina.
43 BCE (March)
Octavian was sent at the head of an army controlled by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, to break Marc Antony’s siege of Mutina.
43 BCE (14th April)
Battle of Forum Gallorum
This battle saw Marc Antony defeat the forces controlled by consul Pansa. Pansa was mortally wounded and died eight days later.
43 BCE (21st April)
Battle of Mutina
This battle, between forces commanded by consul Hirtius and led by Octavian saw consul Hirtius killed, leaving Octavian in charge of the forces against Marc Antony. Octavian chose to make peace with Marc Antony knowing that together they could destroy the republic and destroy the assassins of Julius Caesar.
43 BCE (Spring)
In the East, Brutus and Cassius began to raise forces to take Rome from Octavian and restore the Senate.
43 BCE (27th November)
Second Triumvirate
This was an agreement between Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus to kill the assassins of Julius Caesar, destroy the republic and take control of Rome.
43 BCE (late)
Marc Antony’s stepdaughter, Clodia Pulchra, married Octavian sealing the Second Triumvirate.
43 BCE (7th December)
The orator Marcus Cicero was executed as an enemy of the state.
42 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed consul of Rome. He declared the amnesty granted to the Liberators to be illegal and proclaimed the assassins of Julius Caesar to be outlaws – their estates were to be sold and proceeds used to fund troops to destroy Brutus and Cassius.
42 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony and Octavian crossed the Adriatic sea with 28 legions to meet the forces of Brutus and Cassius.
42 BCE (3rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this first engagement of the battle, Brutus managed to overrun Octavian’s camp. However, Marc Antony had defeated the forces of Cassius and Cassius committed suicide rather than be captured.
42 BCE (23rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this second engagement Marc Antony and Octavian defeated Brutus. Brutus fled the battlefield.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marcus Brutus committed suicide rather than face capture by Octavian and Marc Antony. Marc Antony found Brutus’s body and wrapped it in cloth and took it back to camp for cremation. Octavian insisted that the corpse be beheaded and the head displayed.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marc Antony sent Brutus’s ashes to his mother Servilia.
42 BCE (November)
The members of the Second Triumvirate re-negotiated their territories. Marc Antony took control of the Eastern provinces, Octavian took control of Gaul, Hispania and Italy while Lepidus was left with Africa. The eastern provinces included Macedonia, Asia Bythinia, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria and Cyrenaica.
42 BCE (Winter)
Marc Antony spent the Winter months in Athens.
41 BCE (during)
Marc Antony made Epheseus his administrative base.
41 BCE (during)
Octavian divorced his wife, Marc Antony’s stepdaughter, Clodia Pulchra, a move that angered Marc Antony.
41 BCE (during)
Marc Antony’s wife, Fulvia, raised troops to fight with Lucius Antonius against Octavian.
41 BCE (October)
Marc Antony requested Cleopatra meet him at Tarsus in Cilicia.
41 BCE (Winter)
Marc Antony returned to Alexandria with Cleopatra and they spent the Winter together.
40 BCE (early)
Octavian placed the forces of Fulvia and Lucius Antonius under siege at Perusia (Perugia) and forced them to surrender.
40 BCE (15th March)
Octavian executed 300 senetors and equestrians that had allied with Lucius Antonius against him.
40 BCE (during)
Octavian married Scribonia, daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo, a follower of Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey Magnus.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony returned to Italy with a large force to take Rome from Octavian. After landing he lay siege to Brundisium. However, many of his troops refused to fight against Octavian and the two forged a new agreement.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Treaty of Brundisium
This new agreement between Marc Antony and Octavian agreed that Lepidus would remain in Africa, Marc Antony would retain the east and Octavian would keep the west.
40 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony’s wife, Fulvia, had died. Octavian offered him the hand of his sister, Octavia.
40 BCE (late)
Marc Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia.
40 BCE (late)
Twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II were born to Cleopatra and Marc Antony.
39 BCE (during)
Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey Magnus, mounted a blockade of Italian Mediterranean ports to try to remove power from Octavian.
39 BCE (during)
Treaty of Misenium
This treaty was an agreement between Octavian and Sextus Pompeius. Sextus agreed to lift the blockade of Italy in exchange for Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and the Peloponnese. Octavian also promised to make him consul in 35 BCE.
39 BCE (30th October)
A daughter, Julia was born to Scribonia and Octavian.
39 BCE (30th October)
Octavian divorced his wife Scribonia because he wanted to marry Livia Drusilla, wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero. Livia had a son, Tiberius and was pregnant with her second child.
39 BCE (late)
Treaty of Tarentum
This was a renewal of the Triumvirate to last a further 5 years after its expiry in 38 BCE to 33 BCE. Marc Antony agreed to provide ships to help Octavian defeat Sextus Pompey and Octavian promised troops to help Marc Antony fight the Parthathians. The treaty was sealed with the betrothal of Marc Antony’s six year old son Marcus Antonius Antyllus to Octavian’s daughter, Julia.
39 BCE (Spring)
Marc Antony decided to invade Parthia. However, despite the agreement reached at Tarentum, Octavian failed to send the promised troops. Marc Antony called on Cleopatra to help.
38 BCE (during)
With the support of troops from Cleopatra, Marc Antony had managed to collect the largest Roman force ever seen. They were stationed in Antioch. Marc Antony sent Ventidius at the head of an army into Parthia while he took Armenia.
36 BCE (during)
A son, Ptolemy Philadelphus was born to Cleopatra and Marc Antony in Egypt.
36 BCE (during)
Marc Antony ceded control of Roman Cyprus to Cleopatra.
36 BCE (during)
Octavian and Lepidus joined forces against Sextus Pompeius, the son of Pompey Magnus who was blockading Italy.
36 BCE (August)
Marc Antony marched into Parthia. The Parthians made no attempt to stop him and he marched deep inside Parthia. Rather than attacking Antony’s force the Parthians attacked and destroyed his logistics train.
36 BCE (3rd September)
Battle of Naulochus
A naval force led by general Agrippa for Octavian defeated the fleet of Sextus Pompeius. Sextus fled north.
36 BCE (after 3rd September)
Sextus Pompeius was captured and executed.
36 BCE (after 3rd September)
Lepidus attempted to take Sicily but his troops refused to fight and many defected to Octavian. Lepidus was left with little choice but to surrender to Octavian. Octavian spared his life but removed him from the Triumvirate.
36 BCE (October)
With no supplies getting to his army, Marc Antony was forced to retreat to Armenia and then to Syria. The failed campaign had cost the lives of around 80,000 men.
36 BCE (Autumn)
Octavian declared that he would step down as triumvir if Marc Antony would agree to do the same. When Marc Antony refused Octavian used this to convince the Senate that Marc Antony wished to keep power for himself. Octavian also managed to convince many that Marc Antony’s allegiance lay more with the east than with Rome.
34 BCE (during)
Marc Antony invaded Armenia again and this time managed to maintain control. Marc Antony made his son, Alexander, ruler of the land. He also granted Cleopatra the title Queen of Kings.
33 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed Consul of Rome. He used his position to continue to denounce Marc Antony and accuse him of favouring Egypt and the east.
32 BCE (Autumn)
Although a large number of senators left Rome and defected to Marc Antony, others defected to Octavian. Munatius Plancus and Marcus Titus were two defectors from Marc Antony that confirmed that his sentiments were more with the east than with Rome.
32 BCE (Autumn)
Octavian took Marc Antony’s will from the temple of the Vestal Virgins and then publicised the details which revealed he planned to leave Roman territories to his sons with Cleopatra.
32 BCE (late)
Following the revelation of the contents of his will, Marc Antony’s position as Consul was revoked.
31 BCE (early)
Octavian and Agrippa managed to take a large number of troops across the Adriatic Sea to trap Marc Antony’s army in Greece. Many of Antony’s soldiers defected to Octavian.
31 BCE (2nd September)
Battle of Actium
Marc Antony’s forces attempted to break the naval blockade by Octavian’s fleet. Although Octavian was victorious, Marc Antony and Cleopatra managed to escape and fled to Egypt.
30 BCE (1st August)
Octavian defeated the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Alexandria, Egypt. Rather than face capture Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, Marc Antony by falling on his own sword, Cleopatra by poisonous asp or poison.
30 BCE (August)
Octavian ordered the execution of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar’s son, Caesarion and Marc Antony’s eldest son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus.

 

Published Apr 17, 2018 @ 3:15 pm – Updated – Apr 17, 2018 @ 2:10 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Marc Antony 83 BCE – 30 BCE. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/marc-antony-83-bce-30-bce Last accessed December 12th, 2018

 

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