Marcus Junius Brutus 85 BCE – 42 BCE

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Marcus Junius Brutus

 

Father – Marcus Junius Brutus
Mother – Servillia
Spouse – Claudia, Porcia
Children – son, name unknown

 

 

85 BCE (around)
A son, Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio was born to the Roman politician Marcus Junius Brutus and Servilia.
78 BCE (during)
Marcus’ father took part in the unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the government of Sulla. For his part in the plot he was killed by Gnaeus Pompey.
78 BCE (after)
Marcus was adopted by his uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, and took the name Quintus Caepio Brutus, known as Brutus
77 BCE (around)
Brutus was educated by Marcus Porcius Cato, his mother’s half-brother.
60 BCE (during)
It is likely that Brutus had been engaged to Julius Caesar’s daughter Julia. Brutus’s mother, Servilia was the lover of Caesar. The engagement was broken when Julius gave Julia to Pompey as part of the agreement between Julius, Pompey and Crassus known as the First Triumvirate. Brutus allied himself with the opponents of the Triumvirate known as the Optimates.
59 BCE (during)
Marcus was falsely accused of being part of a conspiracy to kill Pompey.
58 BCE (during)
Marcus went to Cyprus with Cato. Cyprus had been annexed by Pompey. Marcus made a loan to the city of Salamis with an interest rate of 48%.
56 BCE (around)
Marcus returned to Rome a wealthy man.
56 BCE (around)
Marcus married Claudia Pulchra, daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher who had been praetor in 57BC.
53 BCE (during)
Marcus was appointed quasetor and was responsible for the collection of taxes in Cilicia.
50 BCE (around)
Marcus allied himself with Cicero and Cato intent on defending the Senate against the increasing power of the generals Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey.
49 BCE (January)
Civil war broke out between Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey. Brutus sided with Pompey and fled Rome.
48 BCE (9th August)
Battle of Pharsalus
This decisive battle saw the forces of Gnaeus Pompey defeated by those of Julius Caesar. Although he had sided with Pompey, Julius Caesar gave Brutus an amnesty and Brutus allied himself with Caesar.
46 BCE (during)
Julius Caesar appointed Brutus governor of Cisalpine Gaul.
45 BCE (June)
Brutus divorced Claudia and married Cato’s daughter, Porcia Catonis. This caused a scandal because Brutus did not give a valid reason for the divorce.
44 BCE (around)
A son was born to Brutus and Porcia. He died in 43BC.
44 BCE (during)
Brutus was appointed praetor.
44 BCE (February)
Julius Caesar made it clear that he would not restore the republic and saw himself as king of Rome. He was proclaimed dictator for life.
44 BCE (February)
Brutus was one of the leaders of a plot to assassinate Julius Caesar and restore the republic. The conspirators called themselves the Liberators.
44 BCE (15th March)
When Julius Caesar entered the Senate he was immediately surrounded by the assassin senators. Caesar initially believed they were wishing to pay their respects and was shocked when he was stabbed for the first time. When he realised what was happening and that he was powerless to stop the violence he covered his head with his toga. He was stabbed 23 times with the final wound being inflicted by Brutus.
44 BCE (16th March)
Consul Marc Antony took control of Caesar’s money and papers.
44 BCE (17th March)
Marc Antony called a meeting of the Senate. He offered the assassins an amnesty in exchange for recognition of himself as leader of Rome.
44 BCE (19th March)
Julius Caesar’s will was read. It revealed that he had chosen to posthumously adopt Octavian and make him his heir.
44 BCE (20th March)
Julius Caesar’s body was burned in the forum. Marc Antony made an inflammatory speech to the citizens of Rome blaming the liberators for Caesar’s death.
44 BCE (April)
Following Marc Antony’s speech to Rome, Brutus was forced to leave Rome. He chose to go East with Cassius. Brutus’s wife remained in Italy.
44 BCE (May)
When he learned that his great-uncle had been assassinated, Octavian returned to Italy. He landed at Lupiae near Brundisium. Here he learned that he had been adopted by Julius Caesar and made his heir. Octavian changed his name to Gaius julius Caesar Octavianus to reflect his adoption.
44 BCE (May)
Octavian decided that as his great-uncle’s heir he would take control of Rome. In order to do this he needed to enter Rome with an army. His great-uncle had been planning a war against the Parthian Empire and had money and troops stationed at Brundisium. Octavian took control of that money and those troops that wished to follow him, around 3,000 men.
44 BCE (6th May)
Octavian and his army reached Rome. Octavian learned of Marc Antony’s truce with the Senate and the amnesty for the Liberators. He was further angered when Marc Antony refused to hand over Julius Caesar’s money.
44 BCE (Summer)
Octavian began to win over a number of senators, mostly those that had been opposed to Caesar, including Cicero.
44 BCE (November)
Marc Antony lost control of Rome to Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian after Octavian bought off two of his legions. Marc Antony fled to Cisalpine Gaul which he had been granted by the Senate but which was held by Decimus Brutus, one of the Liberators.
44 BCE (December)
Decimus Brutus refused to give up Cisalpine Gaul so Marc Antony lay siege to him at Mutina.
43 BCE (1st January)
Octavian was made a senator with the power to vote with the consuls. He was also made propraetor imperium which gave him control of troops.
43 BCE (February)
Marcus Brutus was recognised as governor of Macedonia by the Senate. He had coins minted with his own likeness on the reverse.
43 BCE (March)
Octavian was sent at the head of an army controlled by the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa, to break Marc Antony’s siege of Mutina.
43 BCE (14th April)
Battle of Forum Gallorum
This battle saw Marc Antony defeat the forces controlled by Consul Pansa. Pansa was mortally wounded and died 8 days later.
43 BCE (21st April)
Battle of Mutina
This battle, between forces commanded by consul Hirtius and led by Octavian saw consul Hirtius killed, leaving Octavian in charge of the forces against Marc Antony. Octavian chose to make peace with Marc Antony knowing that together they could destroy the republic and destroy the assassins of Julius Caesar.
43 BCE (Spring)
Brutus and Cassius began to raise forces to take Rome from Octavian and restore the Senate.
43 BCE (27th November)
Second Triumvirate
This was an agreement between Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus to kill the assassins of Julius Caesar, destroy the republic and take control of Rome.
42 BCE (1st January)
The Senate formally recognised Julius Caesar as Divus Lulius, a god of the Roman state. This enabled Octavian to add Divi filius, son of God, to his name.
42 BCE (during)
Octavian was appointed consul of Rome. He declared the amnesty granted to the Liberators to be illegal and proclaimed the assassins of Julius Caesar to be outlaws – their estates were to be sold and proceeds used to fund troops to destroy Brutus and Cassius.
42 BCE (Autumn)
Marc Antony and Octavian crossed the Adriatic sea with 28 legions to meet the forces of Brutus and Cassius.
42 BCE (3rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this first engagement of the battle, Brutus managed to overrun Octavian’s camp. However, Marc Antony had defeated the forces of Cassius and Cassius committed suicide rather than be captured.
42 BCE (23rd October)
Battle of Philippi
In this second engagement Octavian and Marc Antony defeated Brutus. Brutus fled the battlefield.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marcus Brutus committed suicide rather than face capture by Octavian and Marc Antony. Marc Antony found Brutus’s body and wrapped it in cloth and took it back to camp for cremation. Octavian insisted that the corpse be beheaded and the head displayed.
42 BCE (after 23rd October)
Marc Antony sent Brutus’s ashes to his mother Servilia.

 

Published Apr 15, 2018 @ 10:55 am – Updated – Apr 17, 2018 @ 2:14 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Marcus Junius Brutus 85 BCE – 42 BCE. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/marcus-junius-brutus-85bce-42bce Last accessed November 8th, 2018

 

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