1430 (23rd March)
Margaret of Anjou was born to Rene of Anjou and his wife, Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine at Pont-a-Moussson.
1444 (22nd May)
Treaty of Tours
This treaty agreed peace between Henry VI
and Charles VII of France. The peace included a marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.
1444 (24th May)
Margaret was formally betrothed to Henry VI.
Margaret made the journey to England accompanied by William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk.
1445 (23rd April)
Margaret of Anjou married Henry VI at Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire.
1445 (28th May)
Margaret was welcomed into London with a pageant and procession. She stayed in the Tower of London to await her coronation.
1445 (30th May)
1447 (23rd February)
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry VI’s uncle, was accused of treason and was imprisoned in Bury St Edmunds where he died before he could be tried.
1450 (15th April)
Battle of Formigny
The French, having broken the terms of the Treaty of Tours, turned on the English in France. This battle was a major victory for the French who defeated the last English army in Normandy.
1450 (2nd May)
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, Henry’s chief minister, friend to Margaret, was accused and found guilty of treason. However, he was pardoned by the King and sent into exile but he was murdered on his way to his ship.
Suffolk’s death meant there were only two descendants of the Plantagenet line and both wanted positions in the country. The Duke of Somerset was, like the King, of Lancastrian descent. His rival and heir presumptive to the throne was Richard Duke of York
Battle of Dartford
Richard Duke of York wanted to be named as heir to the throne. He raised a force against the King but was defeated by the Royalist army. York was forced to swear an oath that he would not oppose the King again.
1453 (17th July)
Battle of Castillon
This battle was fought between the French and English and was a victory for the French. The English commander, Talbot, was killed. The battle marked the end of the Hundred Years’ War.
Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was unfit to rule. Richard Duke of York as heir presumptive felt he should replace Henry on the throne. Margaret made it clear that she did not support Richard.
1453 (13th October)
A son, Edward
, was born to Margaret and Henry at the Palace of Westminster. He was created Duke of Cornwall. There were widespread rumours that Somerset was the father of the child.
1454 (15th March)
Margaret’s son, Edward, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
King Henry VI recovered and regained control of the country. He publicly acknowledged Prince Edward as his son.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses
First Battle of St Albans
The forces of Richard Duke of York, supported by Richard Neville Duke of Salisbury and his son, Warwick
defeated the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland.
Henry VI became insane again.
Margaret took Henry to Lancastrian strongholds to rally support.
1460 (after 10th July)
Richard of York claimed the throne but the landowners refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
Act of Accord
Richard Duke of York was named successor to the throne over Henry VI’s son, Edward.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
Queen Margaret, unwilling to accept the disinheritance of her son Edward, raised an army in the north. Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian force.
1460 (31st December)
Henry VI was released from captivity but was still mentally unstable and as a consequence was unfit to rule.
Warwick, known as the Kingmaker due to his meddling in matters of the succession, put forward Richard of York’s son, Edward, Earl of March
as claimant to the throne.
1461 (2nd February)
Battle of Mortimer’s Cross
The Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire led an army of Welsh Lancastrians and French mercenaries to join Margaret of Anjou’s advance on London but they were intercepted by a Yorkist army led by Edward Earl of March and defeated.
1461 (17th February)
Second Battle of St Albans
Warwick attempted to block Margaret of Anjou’s southward advance on London but his defensive position was surprised. After a long and bloody battle the Yorkists fled. Henry VI was recaptured but the Lancastrians failed to secure London and returned north.
1461 (4th March)
Henry VI was deposed by Edward Duke of York who took the throne as King Edward IV
1461 (29th March)
Battle of Towton
Edward pursued the Lancastrians north and attacked them near Tadcaster. After a long fight in heavy snowfall, the Lancastrians were defeated having suffered heavy casualties.
Following the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, Margaret and Prince Edward fled to Scotland where they were given refuge before sailing for Brittany. King Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1461 (28th June)
Edward IV was crowned King at Westminster Abbey.
1462 (28th June)
Margaret agreed a treaty with Louis XI of France whereby she agreed to cede Calais to France if Louis helped her to restore Henry VI to the English throne.
1462 (25th October)
Margaret invaded the north of England, near Bamburgh Castle, with a small army. Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh all surrendered to her.
1462 (13th November)
Margaret was forced to flee north to Scotland when Edward IV sent a large army north to intercept Margaret’s force.
Margaret and her son, Edward fled to France.
Edward IV agreed a treaty with France whereby both countries agreed not to give any assistance to the other’s enemies. This was a blow to Margaret who had hoped to gain French support for her cause.
Edward agreed a truce with Scotland at York.
1470 (22nd July)
Louis XI persuaded Warwick and Margaret of Anjou to set aside their differences and remove Edward IV from the throne of England.
1470 (25th July)
As part of the agreement between Warwick and Margaret, Prince Edward was betrothed to Warwick’s daughter, Anne Neville at the Cathedral of Angers.
Warwick and the Duke of Clarence at the head of an army returned to England and defeated Edward who was forced to flee to Burgundy. King Edward’s wife, Elizabeth Woodville
, and her children sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.
1470 (3rd October)
King Henry VI was restored to the English throne.
1470 (13th December)
Margaret’s son, Edward of Lancaster was married to Anne Neville
at the Chateau d’Amboise.
Edward IV returned to England at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army.
1471 (14th April)
Battle of Barnet
Edward set out to attack Warwick’s larger Lancastrian force at dawn. After a three hour fight, two Lancastrian divisions mistakenly attacked each other and the army broke and fled. Warwick was killed in the flight.
1471 (14th April)
Margaret and her son, Edward landed at Weymouth with the intention of supporting Warwick, but they had arrived too late.
1471 (4th May)
Battle of Tewekesbury
Margaret of Anjou’s forces were leaving for Wales when they were attacked by Edward IV and his brother, Richard Duke of Gloucester
. They were defeated and Edward, Prince of Wales, was killed. Margaret of Anjou was captured.
1471 (21st May)
Edward returned triumphant to London. It is believed that Henry was murdered in the Tower of London on the same day. Margaret was placed under house arrest.
Treaty of Picquigny
This was a seven year peace treaty between Louis XI and Edward IV. The treaty agreed that Louis would pay a yearly sum of money to keep the English away from France. Louis also agreed to pay a ransom to free Margaret of Anjou.
1476 (29th January)
Margaret returned to France after King Louis XI paid a ransom for her release. She lived in relative poverty in France in the castle of Dampierre-sur-Loire in Anjou which was owned by Francis de Vignolles.
1482 (25th August)
Margaret died in France.