Mary of Guise 1515 – 1560

Mary of Guise

Father – Claude, Duke of Guise
Mother – Antoinette de Bourbon
Spouse – Louis II Duke of Orleans, King James V of Scotland
Children – by Louis – Francois, Louis; by James – Mary Queen of Scots

1515 (8th December)
Mary of Guise (Marie) was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine.
1519 (17th February)
Mary’s brother Francis was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1520 (10th January)
Mary’s sister, Louise was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1521 (around)
Mary was sent to the convent of the Poor Clares at Pont-a-Mousson. Her paternal grandmother had retired to the convent after the death of her husband Rene.
1522 (2nd September)
Mary’s brother Francis was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1524 (17th February)
Mary’s brother Charles was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1526 (18th August)
Mary’s brother Claude was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1527 (21st October)
Mary’s brother Louis was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1529 (around)
Mary left the convent of the Poor Clares and was placed in the care of her uncle Antoine, Duke of Lorraine to prepare for a life at court.
1529 (3rd September)
Mary’s brother Philip was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane. He lived for just 21 days.
1530 (3rd April)
Mary’s brother Peter was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane. He died at a young age.
1530 (7th June)
Mary attended the wedding of King Francis I to Eleanor of Austria.
1534 (18th April)
Mary’s brother Francis was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1534 (4th August)
Mary married Louis II d’Orleans, Duke of Longueville at the Chateau du Louvre.
1535 (30th October)
A son, Francis was born to Mary and Louis II d’Orleans.
1536 (14th August)
Mary’s brother Rene was born to Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon at Bar-le-Duc, Lorriane.
1537 (1st January)
Madeleine, daughter of King Francis I, married King James V of Scotland at Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris. Mary and her husband, Louis, were guests at the wedding.
1537 (9th June)
Mary’s husband, Louis, was taken ill and died at Rouen.
1537 (7th July)
Madeleine of Valois, wife of King James V of Scotland, died.
1537 (4th August)
A son, Louis was born to Mary and posthumously to Louis II d’Orleans.
1537 (22nd October)
King James V of Scotland was keen to have Mary as his second wife and sent David Beaton to France to negotiate terms.
1537 (December)
King Henry VIII of England showed interest in marrying Mary but she declined the offer.
1538 (January)
A contract for the marriage of King James V to Mary of Guise was finalised. Although she was reluctant to leave France, Mary accepted the offer.
1538 (9th May)
Mary of Guise married King James V by proxy in the chapel of Chateau de Chateaudun.
1538 (10th June)
Mary left France for Scotland. She was not allowed to take her son, Francis with her as he was the Duke of Longueville. He remained in the care of Mary’s mother, Antoinette.
1538 (16th June)
Mary landed n Scotland at Crail, Fife.
1538 (18th June)
Mary of Guise married King James V of Scotland at St Andrew’s Cathedral, Fife, Scotland.
1540 (22nd February)
Mary was crowned Queen Consort of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey.
1540 (22nd May)
A son, James, was born to Mary of Guise and King James V at St Andrews. He was styled Duke of Rothesay.
1541 (12th April)
A son, Robert (some sources name him as Arthur), was born to Mary of Guise and King James V at St Andrews. He was styled Duke of Rothesay.
1541 (20th April)
Mary’s son, Robert, died at Falkland Palace.
1541 (21st April)
Mary’s son, James, died at Falkland Palace.
1541 (18th October)
Margaret Tudor, Mary’s mother-in-law died of a stroke at Methven Castle. She was buried in the Carthusian Abbey at Perth.
1542 (during)
Following the death of his mother, King James had no reason to maintain peace with England and war broke out. Henry VIII of England had broken with Rome and wanted Scotland to follow suit but James, who was a Catholic, refused.
1542 (August)
Battle of Haddon Rig
The English made a substantial border raid but the Scots were able to resist and defeated the English.
1542 (31st October)
James V wanted to launch a full attack on England but his nobles were reluctant to invade. James, who was feeling unwell, left the army and returned to Edinburgh.
1542 (18th October)
Mary’s sister, Louise, died.
1542 (24th November)
Battle of Solway Moss
The Scots, led by Oliver Sinclair, were heavily defeated at this battle with the English. More than a thousand Scots were taken prisoner.
1542 (late November)
When James V was informed of the defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss his condition worsened.
1542 (8th December)
A daughter, Mary, was born to James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland.
1542 (14th December)
King James V of Scotland died at Falkland Palace. It is thought that he may have died from cholera. He was succeeded by his baby daughter who became known as Mary Queen of Scots.
1542 (after 13th December)
James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, great-grandson of James II, was nominated as regent for the infant queen.
1543 (1st July)
Treaty of Greenwich
This treaty between Scotland and England was sealed with an agreement that Prince Edward of England would marry Mary when they came of age.
1543 (27th July)
Mary and her daughter were moved to Stirling Castle which was inland. There were concerns that Mary could take the young Queen of Scots overseas.
1543 (9th September)
The infant Mary was crowned Queen of Scotland at the Chapel Royal in Stirling Castle. The ceremony was performed by Cardinal David Beaton.
1543 (December)
The Earl of Arran renounced the Treaty of Greenwich. Henry VIII was unhappy with Scotland’s rejection of the treaty and began making a series of attacks on Scotland to force Scotland to agree to the marriage of Mary to Edward. This aggressive treatment of Scotland is often known as the ‘Rough Wooing’.
1544 (during)
Mary attempted to remove the Earl of Arran and have herself proclaimed regent of Scotland, but the venture failed.
1544 (May)
Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, raided Edinburgh.
1546 (1st March)
Catholic Cardinal Beaton ordered the arrest and execution of the Protestant reformer George Wishart. Wishart was burnt at the stake.
1546 (29th May)
Cardinal Beaton was assassinated by the Protestant supporters of George Wishart who whad been executed on Beaton’s orders.
1547 (28th January)
Henry VIII, King of England died. He was succeeded by his son Edward as King Edward VI. However, Edward was still a minor so his uncle Edward Seymour acted as regent. Seymour continued to press for Scotland to adhere to the terms of the Treaty of Greenwich and allow the marriage of Edward to Mary.
1547 (9th September)
Battle of Pinkie
The Scots were defeated by the English.
1548 (23rd February)
The English took the town of Haddington.
1548 (late February)
Siege of Haddington
The Scots placed the English at Haddington under siege.
1548 (7th July)
Treaty of Haddington
This treaty between Scotland and France agreed that France would provide military aid to Scotland against any English attack. The treaty also agreed that the infant Queen Mary would marry the French King’s son, Francis, heir to the French throne.
1548 (7th August)
Mary was very worried that the English would force her daughter to marry King Edward of England. She therefore sent her daughter, Mary to France to live with the French royal family.
1549 (September)
Siege of Haddington
The English abandoned the town.
1550 (24th March)
Treaty of Boulogne
This treaty negotiated a peace between England, France and Scotland. Mary’s brother, Claude, was one of the French hostages sent to England.
1550 (12th April)
Mary’s father, Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, died.
1550 (6th September)
Mary made a visit to France to see her family.
1550 (1st October)
Mary rode in procession with her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, during a festival in Rouen.
1551 (September)
Mary’s son, Francis, who had been taken ill, died.
1551 (October)
Mary left France to return to Scotland. She travelled overland through England and met with King Edward VI in London.
1553 (6th July)
In England, Protestant King Edward VI died. He nominated his Protestant cousin, Jane Grey to be Queen rather than his Catholic half-sister, Lady Mary.
1553 (10th July)
Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England.
1553 (19th July)
In England, the brief reign of Jane Grey ended after people rallied to support Mary as rightful Queen. Mary immediately began restoring the Catholic faith to England.
1554 (12th April)
Mary of Guise, supported by French troops, managed to take the regency from James Hamilton, Earl of Arran. She sought advice from her brothers, Francis, Duke of Guise and Louis, Cardinal of Guise and appointed French or pro-French ministers.
1557 (during)
Mary, a Catholic, was aware of a rising Protestant movement in Scotland. A group of Protestants known as the Lords of the Congregation, established Congregationalism, a form of the Protestant religion.
1558 (during)
Support for a Protestant Reformation in Scotland was growing. Many Catholic churches were desecrated.
1558 (24th April)
Mary’s daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, married Francis, heir to the French throne at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
1558 (17th November)
Queen Mary I of England died and was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth who was a Protestant. Many Catholics believed that Elizabeth was illegitimate and that Mary Queen of Scots, as the legitimate granddaughter of Henry VIII’s sister Margaret, was the rightful Queen of England. Henri II of France proclaimed that his son Francis and daughter-in-law Mary were the rightful King and Queen of England.
1559 (May)
Mary requested that reformed preachers appear before her on 10th May to answer charges of destroying church property and harassing friars and abbots.
1559 (4th May)
Reformed preacher, John Knox, who had recently arrived in Scotland, spoke against Catholicism. As a result many people destroyed church property.
1559 (May)
In an attempt to stop the spread of anti-Catholic feeling, Mary sent French soldiers to Perth. This unpopular move alienated the Earl of Argyll and the Earl of Moray, who, despite being Protestants, had supported Mary’s regency to this point.
1559 (June)
Mary’s father-in-law, King Henri II of France, was fatally wounded during a tournament held to celebrate the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, which ended the Italian War between France and Spain.
1559 (10th July)
King Henri II of France died. His son, Francis became King Francis II of France and Mary Queen of Scots became Queen Consort of France.
1559 (25th July)
Articles of Leith
Mary had no choice but to sign this document which guaranteed religious tolerance.
1559 (September)
Former regent, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran. became leader of the Lords of the Congregation. He set up a provisional government to replace the French dominated government of Mary of Guise.
1559 (late)
Mary had resisted the challenge of James Hamilton and used her French soldiers to push the rebels back.
1560 (during)
Elizabeth sent troops to Scotland to support the Lords of the Congregation in establishing Protestantism as the religion of Scotland.
1560 (27th February)
Treaty of Berwick
This was a treaty between England and the Scottish Lords of the Congregation. It was agreed that they would work together to rid Scotland of French troops which would then allow the establishment of Protestantism.
1560 (March)
A Protestant Huguenot uprising in France meant that French troops could no longer be sent to Scotland.
1560 (May)
Mary continued to resit the challenge from the Lords of the Congregation. There had been some discussion to try to effect a settlement but the talks had broken down.
1560 (early June)
Mary was taken ill.
1560 (11th June)
Mary of Guise, regent of Scotland, died of dropsy (oedema) caused by heart failure at Edinburgh Castle.
1561 (18th March)
Mary’s body was smuggled out of Scotland and taken to France where she was buried in the church at the Convent of Saint Pierre, Reims.

 

Published May 21, 2020 @ 1:35 pm – Updated – Sep 14, 2020 @ 9:37 pm

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2020). Mary of Guise 1515 – 1560. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/mary-of-guise-1515-1560. Last accessed October 20th, 2020