Oliver Cromwell 1599 – 1658

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Oliver Cromwell

 

Father – Robert Cromwell
Mother – Elizabeth Steward
Spouse – Elizabeth Bourchier
Children – Robert, Oliver, Bridget, Richard, Henry, Elizabeth, James, Mary, Frances
Lord Protector of England and Scotland – 1649 – 1658
Predecessor – King Charles I
Successor – Interregnum – Richard Cromwell Lord Protector

 

1599 (25th April)
Oliver Cromwell was born to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward in Huntingdon.
1599 (29th April)
Oliver Cromwell was christened at St John’s Church.
1601 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s sister, Margaret was born.
1603 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s sister, Anna was born.
1605 (during)
Cromwell began his education.
1606 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s sister, Jane was born.
1609 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s brother, Robert, was born but he died soon after birth.
1610 (during)
Cromwell attended Huntingdon Grammar School.
1616 (during)
Cromwell attended Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
1617 (during)
Cromwell’s father died and he left University to take care of his family’s estate.
1620 (August)
Oliver Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier at St Gile’s Church in Cripplegate, London. They made their home in Huntingdon.
1621 (during)
A son, Robert, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1623 (during)
A son, Oliver, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1624 (during)
A daughter, Bridget, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1626 (4th October)
A son, Richard, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1628 (20th January)
A son, Henry, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1628 (early)
Oliver Cromwell became Member of Parliament for Huntingdon.
1628 (late June)
King Charles I dismissed parliament.
1628 (late)
Cromwell was given treatment for a number of symptoms possibly including depression.
1629 (during)
Cromwell was caught up in a dispute over a new charter for Huntingdon.
1629 (2nd July)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1631 (during)
Cromwell was experiencing financial difficulties so he sold his property in Huntingdon and took a lease on a property in St Ives in Cambridgeshire.
1632 (during)
A son, James, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth. He died in infancy.
1634 (during)
Oliver Cromwell tried to emigrate to Connecticut in America but his application to leave was refused by the government.
1636 (during)
Cromwell and his family moved to Ely after he inherited control of properties in Ely as well as the job of tithe collector for Ely Cathedral. The property and collection of tithes vastly increased his income.
1637 (early)
A daughter, Mary, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1638 (prior to)
Cromwell wrote a letter to his cousin explaining that he had been saved by God and expressing his Puritan belief.
1638 (during)
A daughter, Frances, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1639 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s eldest son, Robert died.
1640 (13th April)
King Charles I recalled parliament. Oliver Cromwell became Member of Parliament for Cambridge.
1640 (5th May)
Charles I dismissed parliament.
1640 (30th November)
King Charles had no money and was forced to recall parliament. Cromwell, as member of parliament for Cambridge moved to London. He frequently spoke in Parliament on the need for Church reform and also called for mandatory yearly sessions of Parliament.
1641 (during)
King charles I refused to make concessions to parliament and the rift between the King and parliament continued to grow.
1642 (during)
The dispute between King Charles and parliament continued to grow and it became clear that the country was heading towards civil war.
1642 (22nd August)
King charles I raised his standard at Nottingham beginning a civil war between his supporters, known as Royalists, and Parliament.
1642 (August)
After the outbreak of civil war, Oliver Cromwell became a captain in the Parliamentarian army.
1642 (6th September)
The Puritan parliament ordered that all theatres be closed.
1642 (October)
Cromwell managed to prevent the colleges of Cambridge University from sending money to King Charles.
1642 (23rd October)
Battle of Edgehill
Cromwell and his force arrived at Edgehill too late to take part in this inconclusive battle.
1643 (28th July)
Battle of Gainsborough
A force led by Oliver Cromwell secured a decisive victory for the Parliamentarians.
1643 (after 28th July)
Following his success at Gainsborough, Oliver Cromwell was promoted to the rank of colonel.
1644 (during)
Cromwell’s son, Oliver died.
1644 (Spring)
Oliver Cromwell was now Lieutenant General of the Earl of Manchester’s army.
1644 (2nd July)
Battle of Marston Moor
Cromwell took part in the Battle of Marston Moor and played a major role in securing victory for the Parliamentarians.
1644 (27th October)
Second Battle of Newbury
Oliver Cromwell and the Earl of Manchester’s army were present at this battle. Cromwell argued with the Earl over the fact that he had not executed anm encircling manouvre properly and had allowed Royalists to slip away.
1644 (November)
Oliver Cromwell spoke in Parliament about the ineffectiveness of the Parliamentary Generals and was critical of the fact that low born good soldiers were not being promoted.
1645 (6th January)
New Model Army
Cromwell put forward many measures that led to the formation of parliament’s new disciplined armed force. It was commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of Cavalry was second in command.
1645 (3rd April)
Self-denying Ordinance
This ordinance, passed by parliament, was part of a move to reform the army. It declared that members of parliament could not be officers in the army. All serving officers that were also members of parliament had to give one role up. Cromwell was exempted from this and continued in both roles.
1645 (14th June)
Battle of Naseby
Oliver Cromwell took part in this battle which saw the Royalist cavalry routed. It was a major victory for the Parliamentarians.
1645 (10th July)
Battle of Langport
Oliver Cromwell played a major part in this battle which saw the the last major Royalist force defeated.
1645 (October)
Cromwell took the Catholic fortress, Basing House. He was later accused of slaughtering 100 Royalists after they had surrendered.
1646 (during)
Cromwell and his family moved to London.
1646 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s daughter Bridget married Henry Ireton, a senior Parliamentarian officer.
1646 (during)
Cromwell’s daughter, Elizabeth married John Claypole
1646 (5th May)
King Charles I surrendered to the Scots.
1646 (June)
The Royalists formally surrendered to Fairfax and Cromwell at Oxford. This ended the civil war.
1647 (early)
Oliver Cromwell argued in parliament that it was important to try to find a settlement with the King that would see the King agreeing to their terms.
1647 (February)
Cromwell was taken ill and was unable to go to parliament for a month.
1647 (March)
Cromwell returned to parliament to find that in his absence parliament had decided to try to find a settlement with Scotland. They agreed to pay off the Scots, disband the army, establish Presbyterianism and restore Charles I.
1647 (April)
The New Model Army was unhappy with parliament’s proposed settlement especially as many soldiers had not received pay they were owed.
1647 (May)
Cromwell was sent to negotiate with the New Model Army and to try to find a settlement but failed to find common ground.
1647 (3rd June)
George Joyce, an officer of the New Model Army, seized King Charles and took him to Newmarket. He was then transferred first to Oatlands and then to Hampton Court.
1647 (June)
Cromwell spoke to Charles and believed that he was willing to try to find a settlement. He asked Henry Ireton to draft a proposed settlement. Although Cromwell was happy with the planned settlement others, particularly the group known as the Levellers, were not.
1647 (June)
The Puritan parliament ordered that Christmas was no longer to be celebrated with carols or feasting.
1647 (28th October)
Putney Debates
These were a series of debates held by different Parliamentarian forces to try to decide on a new constitution. Unfortunately it was impossible to find agreement between the different factions.
1647 (11th November)
Charles I escaped imprisonment and fled to Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight.
1647 (26th December)
Charles made a deal with Scotland whereby the Scots would invade England and help him to retake the throne. In return Charles agreed to change the religion of England to Presbyterianism.
1648 (February)
Second Civil War
War broke out again when John Poyer, former parliamentary soldier and Governor of Pembroke Castle refused to hand over his command to Fairfax. Like many others, he was dissatisfied with the disorder and lack of stability over the last two years.
1648 (25th May)
Cromwell managed to take Chepstow Castle from the Royalists in Wales.
1648 (31st May)
Cromwell took the town of Tenby in Wales.
1648 (8th July)
The Scots invaded England as agreed with Charles.
1648 (11th July)
After a long siege, Cromwell took Pembroke Castle and arrested John Poyer.
1648 (August)
Oliver Cromwell prepared to march north against the Scots who had invaded England.
1648 (17th August)
Battle of Preston
This was a battle between the New Model Army commanded by Oliver Cromwell and a larger combined army of Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton. The two-day battle was won by Cromwell’s forces.
1648 (5th December)
Although Parliament voted to negotiate with Charles, Cromwell and the army refused to negotiate.
1648 (6th December)
Pride’s Purge
Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed all members of Parliament that did not support the army and Cromwell.
1648 (5th December)
Although Parliament voted to negotiate with Charles, Cromwell and the army refused to negotiate.
1648 (7th December)
Cromwell began pushing for Charles to be tried for treason and executed. It was Cromwell’s belief that Charles would never concede to parliament and that the war would drag on indefinitely all the time Charles remained alive.
1649 (during)
Cromwell’s son, Richard, married Dorothy Maijor, daughter of a country gentleman.
1649 (6th January)
Rump Parliament
This parliament was formed from those members that had not been expelled by Thomas Pride in December. All were army loyalists and voted to give parliament the right to make new Acts of Parliament without the king’s approval. They also indicted Charles on a charge of treason.
1649 (20th January)
King Charles was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice specially set up for the trial. Many members of parliament secretly objected to the trial and stayed away.
1649 (26th January)
The court found Charles guilty of using his power for personal interest rather than the good of the country and sentenced him to death.
1649 (30th January)
King Charles I was beheaded in front of the Palace of Whitehall.
1649 (March)
Parliament declared England to be a republic.
1649 (August)
Those Royalists that were against parliament and believed that Charles’s son, Charles was now King, went to Ireland where they raised support among the Irish Catholics. Oliver Cromwell was nominated by parliament to go to Ireland and take control.
1649 (11th September)
Massacre of Drogheda
After an eight-day siege Cromwell took the town of Drogheda in Ireland. His troops massacred thousands of people.
1649 (11th October)
Massacre of Wexford
After a nine-day siege, Cromwell’s troops sacked the town of Wexford killing around 3,500 people.
1650 (around)
Cromwell and his family lived in rooms next to Whitehall Palace.
1650 (26th May)
Having learnt that Charles I’s son, Charles had landed in Scotland and been proclaimed Charles II by the Scottish, Cromwell returned to England.
1650 (late May)
Oliver Cromwell led a campaign to defeat Scottish Royalists. His troops were tired and he wanted to avoid battle so appealed to the Scots to abandon their royal alliance. The Scots ignored his appeal and Cromwell invaded Scotland.
1650 (22nd July)
The Scots ignored Cromwell’s appeal to stop supporting Charles and so he invaded Scotland.
1650 (Summer)
Oliver Cromwell’s Scottish campaign did not go well. It was difficult to obtain supplies for the men and many became sick.
1650 (3rd September)
Battle of Dunbar
Cromwell met the main Scottish army at Dunbar. He secured a decisive victory over the Scots and took control of Edinburgh.
1650 (late)
Oliver Cromwell had taken control of much of southern Scotland.
1651 (1st January)
Charles II was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
1651 (during)
Charles II of Scotland managed to evade Cromwell’s forces in Scotland and invaded England with the intent of capturing London. As soon as Cromwell realised Charles had gone south he left Scotland in pursuit.
1651 (3rd September)
Battle of Worcester
Cromwell met Charles II’s forces at Worcester. Cromwell secured victory and Charles II fled into exile in France.
1651 (after 3rd September)
With the Scots defeated and Charles II in exile, Cromwell took control of Scotland.
1651 (late)
Cromwell returned to England and put forward a motion for the Rump parliament to set dates for an election. He also wanted reforms to religion and taxation passed.
1653 (April)
Cromwell was frustrated that the Rump parliament had not set the date for new elections nor had it made any move towards reforms. Cromwell ordered parliament to nominate a small caretaker government and then resign.
1653 (20th April)
Cromwell was frustrated and annoyed that the Rump parliament was still in existence. He stormed parliament with a force of musketeers and dissolved parliament.
1653 (4th July)
Barebone’s Parliament
This assembley was chosen by Cromwell and attempted to find a stable form of government.
1653 (12th December)
Barebone’s Parliament
Having failed to find a workable system of government this parliament was disbanded.
1653 (16th December)
Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of England for life. The title gave him full control over government and the judiciary.
1654 (Spring)
Cromwell and his family lived in Whitehall Palace and Hampton Court.
1654 (3rd September)
Parliament met for the first time since Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector. It was dominated by those who wanted radical reforms. Cromwell’s son, Richard, served as member for Huntingdon in this Parliament.
1655 (22nd January)
Cromwell felt that parliament was too radical in its demands and so dissolved parliament.
1655 (March)
Oliver Cromwell divided the country into fifteen military districts ruled by Army Generals who answered to him. These Generals were responsible for law and order, collection of taxes and militia in their districts. Commissioners were appointed to work with the Generals.
1656 (17th September)
Cromwell recalled parliament. This second parliament under Cromwell moved that the Generals should be removed as there was a danger of the country becoming a military state. Cromwell’s son, Richard was elected member for Cambridge University.
1657 (23rd February)
Humble Petition and Advice
This was effectively a new constitution of England and offered the crown to Cromwell. It provided for a council to advise the king, for parliament to be called every three years and for the army to be reduced in size.
1657 (23rd March)
Treaty of Paris
Cromwell agreed this treaty with France against Spain. In return for supplying troops and ships to France England would gain control of Dunkirk and Mardyck.
1657 (8th May)
Oliver Cromwell formally refused the crown.
1657 (23rd February)
Humble Petition and Advice
This was now passed by Cromwell. It had been modified to remove the word ‘king’ and to allow Cromwell to continue as Lord Protector but with the ability to nominate his successor.
1657 (26th June)
Cromwell was reinstalled as Lord Protector.
1658 (during)
Oliver Cromwell’s daughter, Elizabeth, died.
1658 (3rd September)
Oliver Cromwell died in the Palace of Whitehall from a fever. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

 

 

Published Aug 22, 2018 @ 9:35 am – Updated – Sep 19, 2018 @ 2:59 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Oliver Cromwell 1599 – 1658. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/oliver-cromwell-1599-1658. Last accessed September 20th, 2018

 

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