1819 (26th August)
Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha was born to Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg at Schloss Rosenau. He was the couple’s second son; Ernest had been born in 1818.
1819 (19th September)
Albert was christened Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel at Schloss Rosenau.
Albert’s father divorced his mother for adultery and sent her to live in Switzerland. She was forbidden access to her children.
Albert’s father became duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha after the Duchies of Saxony were re-aligned.
1831 (21st July)
Albert’s uncle Leopold became King of the Belgians.
1832 (23rd December)
Albert’s father married Marie of Wurttemberg, daughter of his sister.
1836 (18th May)
Albert, his brother Ernest and his father were invited to England by his aunt who was Victoria’s mother.
1837 (24th May)
Victoria celebrated her eighteenth birthday. Her coming of age also meant that she would not need a regent to rule in her stead when she became queen.
1837 (20th June)
William IV died without children and Victoria became Queen.
Albert attended the University of Bonn where he studied law, economics, philosophy and the history of art.
1838 (28th June)
Queen Victoria was crowned at Westminster Abbey. More than 400,000 people lined the streets to see the young queen.
Albert made a visit to Italy accompanied by Baron Stockmar.
Albert and his brother Ernest visited Queen Victoria.
1839 (15th October)
Victoria proposed to her cousin, Albert of Saxe Coburg and Gotha and he accepted her proposal.
1839 (16th December)
Albert was made a Knight of the Garter.
1840 (10th February)
Victoria married Albert in the Chapel Royal at St James’ Palace.
1840 (10th June)
Assassination attempt failed
Edward Oxford fired two shots at Albert and Queen Victoria as they were travelling in their carriage along Constitution Hill. Oxford was overpowered by spectators and handed to the police. He was tried for High Treason and found guilty but escaped execution on the grounds of insanity.
1840 (21st November)
A daughter Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
This act, which made Prince Albert regent if Victoria died before her heir was 18 years old, was passed by Parliament.
Albert took control of the education of the royal children from Baroness Lehzen, Victoria’s former governess.
1841 (22nd July)
Lord Melbourne’s Whig party were defeated in the General Election and Tory Robert Peel became Prime Minister.
Robert Peel made Albert chairman of a Royal Commission tasked with redecorating the Palace of Westminster.
1841 (9th November)
A son, Albert Edward
(known as Bertie), was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace. He was created Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Eatrl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Baron Renfrew from birth.
1841 (8th December)
Albert’s son, Albert Edward, was created Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester.
Albert and Victoria made a tour of Scotland.
1842 (30th May)
Assassination attempt failed
John Francis fired a shot at Prince Albert and Queen Victoria while they were travelling in a carriage. He was arrested at the scene. He was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death. Queen Victoria commuted the sentence to transportation to Australia.
1842 (3rd July)
Assassination attempt failed
John William Bean, armed with a pistol, pushed his way to the front of a crowd waiting to see the Queen pass. He was seized by another spectator and handed to the police. He was charged with attempted assault and found guilty and sentenced to 18 months in jail.
Albert and Victoria visited King King Louis Philippe I of Fance in Normandy.
Albert became President of the Society of Arts.
1843 (25th April)
A daughter, Alice Maud Mary, was born to Albert and Victoria.
1844 (29th January)
Albert’s father, Ernest of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, died.
1844 (late January)
Albert returned to Coburg following the death of his father.
1844 (6th August)
A son, Alfred Ernest Albert, was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
Albert and Victoria bought Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
1846 (23rd May)
A daughter, Helena Augusta Victoria, was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
Albert was strongly criticised after he attended a House of Commons debate on the Corn Law to show his support for Robert Peel.
Robert Peel resigned as Prime MInister after failing to gain support for a repeal of the Corn Laws. Whig Lord John Russell took over as Prime Minister.
Albert was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. As Chancellor he campaigned for a more modern curriculum.
Albert leased Balmoral Castle in Scotland after the former tenant died.
1847 (26th August)
The Conservatives won the General Election and Whig Lord John Russell remained as Prime Minister.
A daughter, Louise Caroline Alberta, was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
Fearful that the revolution in France which had led to the deposing of the French monarchy would spread to England, Albert, Victoria and their children moved to Osborne House on the Isle of Wight for safety.
Albert and Victoria made an official visit to Ireland.
1850 (17th January)
Albert’s son, Albert Edward, was created Earl of Dublin.
1850 (1st May)
A son, Arthur William Patrick Albert, was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
1851 (1st May)
The Great Exhibition, which was the idea of Prince Albert, was opened at Crystal Palace in London to celebrate art, science, trade and industry. It was a great success.
Albert and Victoria purchased Balmoral Castle.
1852 (23rd February)
Edward Stanley, Earl of Derby won the General Election and became Prime Minister of a Conservative government.
1852 (19th December)
The Conservative government collapsed when the House of Commons failed to pass the Chancellor’s budget. George Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen became Prime Minister of a Peelite-Whig Coalition.
1853 (7th April)
A son, Leopold George Duncan Albert at Buckingham Palace, was born to Albert and Victoria.
1853 (16th October)
War broke out in the Crimea after Russia took control of Turkish-controlled Romania.
Britain and France, fearing Russian expansion south, joined with Turkey to push the Russians back. Albert’s idea to lay siege to Sevastopol was adopted by the British military.
1854 (20th September)
Crimean War – Battle of the Alma
This battle was a decisive victory for the allies.
1854 (17th October)
Crimean War – Siege of Sevastopol
The city of Sevastopol was placed under siege.
1854 (25th October)
Crimean War – Battle of Balaclava
The allied hoped to gain control of the port and fortress of Sevastopol but were hampered by the Russian Army. During this indecisive battle a misinterpreted order led to the Charge of the Light Brigade which saw the Brigade decimated by the Russians.
1855 (30th January)
George Gordon, Prime Minister, resigned over the investigation into the Crimean War.
1855 (6th February)
Henry Temple, Viscount Palmerston, took over as Prime Minister of a minority government after George Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen resigned.
Crimean War – Siege of Sevastapol
The Russians evacuated Sevastapol allowing the allies to take control.
1856 (30th March)
Treaty of Paris
This formally ended the Crimean War.
1857 (14th April)
A daughter, Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore, was born to Albert and Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
1857 (26th June)
1858 (25th January)
Albert’s daughter, Princess Victoria married Prince Frederick of Prussia at the Chapel Royal, St James’ Palace, London.
1858 (20th February)
Edward Stanley, Earl of Derby became Prime Minister of a Conservative government when the Whig government collapsed.
1858 (9th November)
Albert’s son, Albert Edward, was made a Knight of the Garter.
1859 (12th June)
Henry Temple, Viscount Palmerston won the General Election and became Prime Minister of a Liberal government.
Albert was taken ill with stomach cramps but recovered.
Albert narrowly escaped death after the horses pulling his carriage bolted towards a railway crossing. He jumped from his carriage just in time.
Albert took over many of Victoria’s royal duties when she went into mourning following the death of her mother.
The Trent Affair
Albert intervened after the ship RMS Trent which was carrying two Confederate commissioners to Europe, was intercepted by a US warship and the commissioners removed. The unionist Americans claimed that the Confederates were enemies. Albert wrote a letter stating that war would be declared unless the commissioners were released within seven days. War was averted after the men were released in January 1862.
1861 (late November)
Albert and Victoria learned that their eldest son, Bertie, heir to the throne, had had a liaison with Nellie Clifton and were furious. Although he was ill, Prince Albert visited Bertie at Cambridge to reprimand him.
1861 (14th December)
Prince Albert died of Typhoid fever. Victoria was devastated by his death which she blamed on her eldest son’s bad behaviour.