Queen Anne of Great Britain 1665 – 1714

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Queen Anne of Great Britain

 

Father – King James II of England, VII of Scotland
Mother – Anne Hyde
Spouse – George of Denmark
Children – Mary, Anne Sophia, William

Queen of Great Britain 1702 – 1714
Predecessor – William III
Successor – George I

 

1665 (6th February)
Queen Anne was born to James Duke of York and Anne Hyde at St James’s Palace, London.
1665 (Spring)
Anne was christened at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London.
1665 (June)
New Amsterdam was renamed New York after James, Duke of York.
1665 (July)
The Great Plague of London
A serious outbreak of Bubonic Plague reached London. Most rich people immediately left the city.
1666 (late February)
The Great Plague of London
It was considered safe to return to London and Anne and her family returned to the city.
1666 (4th July)
Anne’s brother, Charles, was born to James Duke of York and Anne Hyde at St James’s Palace.
1666 (2nd September)
Great Fire of London
A fire broke out at a bakers in Pudding Lane. It destroyed more than 13,000 houses and 87 churches including St Paul’s Cathedral. Mary’s father, James, was put in charge of the firefighting operation.
1667 (22nd May)
Anne’s brother, Charles died at St James’s Palace.
1667 (20th June)
Anne’s brother, James died at Richmond Palace.
1667 (14th September)
Anne’s brother, Edgar, was born to James Duke of York and Anne Hyde at St James’s Palace, London.
1668 (around)
Anne’s father, James, converted to Catholicism; Anne’s mother had converted eight years earlier. His conversion was kept secret and James continued to attend the Anglican church. At King Charles’s order Anne and her sister Mary were raised as Protestants.
1668 (around)
Anne and her sister Mary were raised at Richmond Palace by Lady Frances Villiers who was appointed their governess. They was educated by private tutors and studied music, dance, drawing, French and religion.
1669 (during)
Anne, who had visual problems and remained very short-sighted all her life, was sent to an eye doctor in France for treatment. While in France she lived with her grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France.
1669 (13th January)
Anne’s sister, Henrietta, was born to James Duke of York and Anne Hyde at St James’s Palace, London.
1669 (10th September)
Anne’s grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France, died. Anne was staying with her grandmother at the time of her death. She went to live with her aunt, Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans, while she continued to receive treatment for her eye condition.
1669 (15th November)
Anne’s sister, Henrietta, died at St James’s Palace.
1670 (30th June)
Anne’s aunt, Henrietta Anne, died so Anne returned to England where she was placed in the care of Edward and Frances Villiers.
1671 (around)
Anne became friendly with Sarah Jennings.
1671 (9th February)
Anne’s sister, Katherine, was born to James Duke of York and Anne Hyde at St James’s Palace, London.
1671 (31st March)
Anne’s mother, Anne Hyde, died at St James’s Palace, London from breast cancer.
1671 (8th June)
Anne’s brother, Edgar, died at Richmond Palace.
1671 (5th December)
Anne’s sister, Katherine, died at St James’s Palace, London.
1673 (29th March)
Test Act
This act stated that anyone in public office had to swear an oath of allegiance and could not be a Catholic.
1673 (during)
Anne’s father, James, resigned his post as Lord High Admiral rather than take the Test Act. This move made clear that he had converted to Catholicism.
1673 (20th September)
Anne’s father, James, married Italian Mary of Modena by proxy in a Roman Catholic ceremony. Anne’s new step-mother was just six years older than her.
1673 (21st November)
Mary of Modena arrived in England. An Anglican service was held to recognise the proxy marriage.
1677 (during)
There was growing concern over the succession since King Charles II had no legitimate children. Heir to the throne was Anne’s father, James, who had converted to Catholicism. In a bid to persuade people that the royal family were not Catholic, Charles insisted that Anne’s sister, Mary, be married to her cousin William of Orange.
1677 (4th November)
Anne’s sister, Mary, married William of Orange at St James’s Palace in London. Anne was unable to attend the wedding because she was ill with smallpox.
1677 (late November)
Anne’s sister, Mary and her husband William, set sail for the Netherlands where they would make their home.
1677 (late)
Anne’s friend, Sarah Jennings, married John Churchill. The marriage was kept secret so that Sarah could continue to be Maid of Honour to Anne.
1678 (September)
Popish Plot
Titus Oates claimed that there was a plot to assassinate Charles II and replace him with Anne’s father, James, who had converted to Catholicism. The rumour sparked a wave of anti-Catholic hysteria and supposed conspirators were executed.
1679 (March)
Anne’s father, James, was ordered by King Charles II to leave England and go to Brussels. It was felt James was better out of England until the furore regarding the Popish Plot had blown over. Anne’s friend, Sarah and her husband John Churchill went with James.
1679 (15th May)
Exclusion Crisis
A group of MPs introduced an Exclusion Bill into parliament in a bid to exclude Mary’s father, James, from the succession. Some supporters of the bill felt that Charles’s eldest illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, should succeed to the throne. Rather than allowing the bill to pass, King Charles dissolved parliament.
1679 (Summer)
Exclusion Crisis
Parliament, when recalled, continued to be divided over the succession of Mary’s father. Those that supported the Exclusion Bill were known as Petitioners (later to become the Whigs) while those that opposed the bill were called Abhorrers (later to become the Tories).
1679 (August)
Anne visited her father and step-mother in Brussels. She was also re-acquainted with her friend, Sarah Churchill.
1679 (October)
Anne returned to England.
1680 (December)
Anne’s cousin, George of Hanover, visited London and there were rumours of a forthcoming engagement.
1681 (March)
Parliament met at Oxford. Once again the question of succession and the Exclusion Bill was brought up. King Charles learned of this and dissolved parliament.
1683 (28th July)
Anne married Prince George of Denmark at the Chapel Royal in St James’s Palace, London. After the marriage they made their home in the Palace of Whitehall.
1684 (during)
Anne’s father, James, returned to England and became a member of the Privy Council. Anne’s friend Sarah and her husband also returned and Anne created Sarah Lady of the Bedchamber.
1684 (12th May)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn daughter.
1684 (late May)
Anne went to the spa town of Tunbridge Wells to recover from her stillbirth.
1685 (6th February)
King Charles II died and Anne’s father became King James II of England, Ireland and Wales and James VII of Scotland. Anne’s sister Mary became heir to the throne.
1685 (23rd April)
Anne’s father, James, and his wife, Mary of Modena, were crowned King and Queen at Westminster Abbey.
1685 (May)
The Monmouth Rebellion
James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II, who was resident at the court of William and Mary, planned a rebellion against the rule of King James II. When he learned of the plot, Mary’s husband, William sent a message to his father-in-law warning him of the plot. Monmouth’s Rebellion was put down and Monmouth was executed.
1685 (2nd June)
A daughter Mary was born to Anne and George at Whitehall Palace London.
1685 (late)
Anne’s father, King James decided to enlarge his standing army to give himself increased protection. He alarmed Parliament by allowing Catholics to command regiments blatantly flouting the Test Act and Parliament protested to the King. In response he prorogued Parliament.
1686 (during)
Anne’s father, King James, appointed Catholics to many of the highest roles in the Scotland and England, a move that upset many of his Anglican supporters.
1686 (12th May)
A daughter Anne Sophia was born to Anne and George at Windsor Castle London.
1687 (early)
Anne’s husband, George was taken ill with smallpox.
1687 (21st January)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn child.
1687 (2nd February)
Anne’s daughter Anne Sophia died of smallpox Windsor Castle.
1687 (8th February)
Anne’s daughter Mary died at Windsor Castle of smallpox.
1687 (Autumn)
Having put in place measures to give more freedom to Catholics, Anne’s father was determined to gain a repeal of the Test Act. He decided to place his supporters in positions of power and in parliament. Where those in office opposed him he removed them and appointed favourable replacements.
1687 (22nd October)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn son.
1688 (16th April)
Anne suffered a miscarriage. She went to the spa town of Bath to recover.
1688 (10th June)
A healthy son, James Francis Edward, was born to Kig James and Mary of Modena at St James’s Palace, London.
1688 (mid June)
The birth of King James’s son secured the succession but also meant that there was a very strong likelihood that Catholicism would return to Britain.
1688 (30th June)
Glorious Revolution
Seven Protestant nobles, Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Devonshire, Earl of Danby, Viscount Lumley, Bishop of London, Edward Russell and Henry Sydney, wrote to Mary’s husband, William III, and asked him to join them in making Mary heir to the throne in place of the newborn prince. William was told that if he landed in England with a small army he would find that he had much support.
1688 (5th November)
Glorious Revolution
William of Orange, landed at Brixham in Devon. After the army and navy defected to William, King James decided not to march to meet him and attempted to leave the country but was captured.
1688 (18th November)
Anne declared that she approved of William’s invasion.
1688 (25th November)
King James II ordered that Anne and Sarah Churchill be placed under house arrest for supporting William’s invasion. However they managed to escape to Nottingham.
1688 (late)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn child.
1688 (12th December)
Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, summoned a provisional government.
1688 (19th December)
Anne and her husband returned to London.
1688 (23rd December)
William of Orange allowed James to escape to France. He went to the court of Louis XIV where he was given a palace and a pension.
1689 (6th April)
John Churchill was created Earl of Marlborough for his support of William’s invasion. Anne’s husband, Prince George was created Duke of Cumberland.
1689 (during)
There was tension between Anne and her sister, Queen Mary, after William and Mary refused to allow Anne to live at Richmond Palace and also attempted to block Anne receiving an allowance from Parliament.
1689 (22nd January)
Parliament met to discuss the constitutional situation. Most Tories wanted either James II restored or James’s eldest daughter, Mary to be crowned Queen. While most Whigs wanted a limited Protestant monarchy.
1689 (February)
Anne’s sister Mary returned to England.
1689 (13th February)
Parliament agreed that since James had fled abroad he was deemed to have abdicated. Both Anne and Mary refused to rule over Mary’s husband William so it was agreed that William and Mary should jointly take the throne as William III and Mary II.
1689 (March)
Anne’s father, James, landed in Ireland at the head of a French force determined to regain the crown. The Irish government declared that James remained King. James’s supporters were known as Jacobites.
1689 (11th April)
Mary and her husband William of Orange were jointly crowned Queen Mary II and King William III at Westminster Abbey.
1689 (12th April)
Mary and William of Orange were proclaimed King and Queen of Scotland.
1689 (Spring)
Although Mary and William had been proclaimed Queen and King of Scotland, there were many Scots, especially those in the Highlands, that believed that James was still the rightful King. Viscount Dundee, a Jacobite, raised an army against the new monarchs.
1689 (11th May)
Mary and William took the Scottish coronation oath in London.
1689 (18th May)
In Scotland, Viscount Dundee marched to try to engage King William’s commander, Hugh Mackay. He was unable to provoke a battle and many of his men went home.
1689 (14th June)
Edinburgh Castle surrendered to William’s forces.
1689 (July)
Jacobite reinforcements arrived in Scotland. On hearing this Hugh Mackay marched to meet them.
1689 (24th July)
A son, William Henry was born to Anne and George at Hampton Court Palace. He was styled Duke of Gloucester. He suffered convulsions soon after birth but survived. He also suffered from hydroencephalus which was an incurable condition.
1689 (27th July)
Battle of Killiecrankie
This battle, between the Jacobites and Scottish government army. Although Dundee was killed and Jacobite losses were large, the Jacobites won the battle. However, those that survived were unable to mount further resistance to the rule of William and Mary.
1689 (16th December)
Bill of Rights
The English parliament drew up this bill which stated basic civil rights and settled the succession. It also stated that no Roman Catholic could take the throne nor could an English monarch marry a Roman Catholic. It also confirmed the succession on firstly the surviving monarch, then any children of William and Mary followed by Anne and her descendants.
1690 (Spring)
William III went to Ireland to put down the Jacobite rebellion there. While he was absent, Mary took over the reins of government.
1690 (1st July)
Battle of the Boyne
The forces of William III secured a decisive victory over those of James II. James managed to escape the battlefield and fled to France.
1690 (late Summer)
In France, James took up residence in the chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with his wife and some of his loyal supporters.
1690 (14th October)
A daughter Mary was born to Anne and George at St James’s Palace, London. She died later the same day.
1692 (January)
Anne was annoyed when Mary dismissed John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough on suspicion of plotting with the Jacobites. Anne refused to dismiss Churchill’s wife, Sarah from her household. Sarah was then removed from Anne’s household by force causing a greater rift between the sisters.
1692 (17th April)
A son, George, was born to Anne and George at Syon House, Brentford, Middlesex. He died later the same day.
1692 (late)
Anne and George moved to Berkeley House in Piccadily.
1693 (23rd March)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn daughter at Berkely House, St James’s Street, London.
1694 (21st January)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn child.
1694 (28th December)
Anne’s sister, Mary II, died of smallpox. Her husband William succeeded as sole monarch of Britain and Anne became heir to the throne.
1695 (early)
Anne and George moved to St James’s Palace, London.
1695 (18th February)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn daughter.
1695 (Spring)
King William allowed John Churchill to return to court.
1696 (during)
King William survived an assassination attempt by the Jacobites led by John Fenwick.
1696 (25th March)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn son.
1697 (25th March)
Anne was delivered of stillborn twins.
1697 (early December)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn son.
1698 (around)
Anne’s health began to deteriorate and she suffered from gout and pains in her arms, legs and stomach.
1698 (15th September)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn son.
1700 (25th January)
Anne was delivered of a stillborn son.
1700 (30th July)
Anne’s son, William Duke of Gloucester, died of hydroencephalus.
1701 (12th June)
Act of Settlement
This act stated that the succession would pass to the heirs of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, Protestant granddaughter of James I if Anne died without an heir.
1701 (16th September)
Anne’s father, James II, died in exile at the Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.
1702 (21st February)
King William fell from his horse after it stumbled on a molehill. He suffered a broken collar bone and his health deteriorated.
1702 (8th March)
King William died from pneumonia. Anne became Queen.
1702 (11th March)
Queen Anne spoke to parliament and reinforced the fact that she was an English Queen. She also called for England and Scotland to be unified.
1702 (Spring)
Queen Anne appointed her husband, Prince George as Lord High Admiral. John Churchill, was made Captain-General of the army and created Duke of Marlborough. Anne’s friend, Sarah Churchill was created Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse.
1702 (23rd April)
Anne was crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey. She was suffering from gout so was carried to the Abbey in a sedan chair.
1702 (4th May)
War of the Spanish Succession
England declared war on France, allying with Austria and the Dutch Republic in the war to determine who would succeed to the Spanish throne.
1704 (during)
Act of Security
This act, passed by Scotland, allowed the Scots to choose their own successor following Anne’s death.
1704 (13th August)
War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Blenheim
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, secured an allied victory over France.
1705 (around)
Anne began to fall out with Sarah Churchill after Churchill tried to persuade Anne to appoint more Whigs to parliament and reduce the power of the Tories.
1705 (during)
Alien Act
This act, in response to Scotland’s Act of Security, stated that all Scots in England would be consider aliens and their properties may not be able to be inherited. The act included a clause that stopped Scottish imports to England and its colonies. The Scots were told that if they would enter negotiations for an Act of Union the Alien Act would be suspended.
1705 (during)
Queen Anne knighted the scientist Isaac Newton for his services to science.
1706 (around)
As Sarah Churchill and her husband continued to press for Whigs to be appointed to prominent positions, Anne became more friendly with Abigail Hill, Woman of the Bedchamber.
1707 (1st May)
Act of Union
This act formally united England and Scotland as Great Britain to be governed by one parliament.
1708 (during)
Anne’s half-brother, James Francis Edward, supported by the French, assembled an invasionary fleet at Dunkirk in France. However, the invasion was cancelled when James Francis Edward was taken ill with measles. The threat of invasion reduced support for the Tories and forced a General Election that returned a Whig government led by Lord Somers.
1708 (11th July)
War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Oudenarde
This battle was a decisive victory for the Grand Alliance over France.
1708 (late July)
Anne attended a thanksgiving ceremony at St Paul’s Cathedral for the victory at Oudenarde. Prior to the ceremony Anne had an argument with Sarah Churchill who told Anne to be quiet. Anne was furious and tried to distance herself from Sarah.
1708 (28th October)
Anne’s husband, George of Denmark, was taken ill and died.
1710 (during
The Whigs had fallen from power and a General Election returned a Tory government led by Robert Harley.
1710 (6th April)
Sarah Churchill had continued to complain to Anne about her friendship with Abigail Hill. When Anne and Sarah met, Anne told her that their friendship was over and for her to refrain from any form of communication.
1711 (January)
Anne forced Sarah Churchill to resign her positions at court..
1711 (March)
Robert Harley, leader of the Tory government, was stabbed by a French refugee. He survived but was incapacitated for some time.
1711 (October)
War of the Spanish Succession
Britain and France agreed terms of peace and ceased fighting.
1711 (25th December)
The rebuild of St Paul’s Cathedral which had been badly damaged in the Great Fire of London was declared completed. The new Cathedral had been designed by Christopher Wren.
1713 (January)
Anne was no longer able to walk and had to be carried in a sedan chair or litter.
1713 (11th April)
War of the Spanish Succession – Peace of Utrecht
This treaty ended the war. However, in order to get it to pass, Anne had been forced to create twelve new Tory peers.
1713 (December)
Anne became very ill and was unable to leave her bed for a while but she did recover.
1714 (March)
Anne became ill again ill and was unconscious for a time. However, she recovered.
1714 (27th July)
Anne dismissed Robert Harley from government. She attended a meeting to try to determine his successor but no successor was agreed.
1714 (30th July)
Anne suffered a stroke which left her unable to speak.
1714 (1st August)
Anne died at Kensington Palace, London. Her death ended the Stuart dynasty. As per the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701, George, Elector of Hanover became King of Great Britain.
1714 (24th August)
Anne was buried beside her husband in the Henry VII chapel in Westminster Abbey.

 

 

Published Nov 18, 2018 @ 2:25 pm – Updated – Dec 12, 2018 @ 1:54 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Queen Anne of Great Britain 1665 – 1714. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/queen-anne-of-great-britain-1665-1714. Last accessed December 12th, 2018

 

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