Richard Cromwell 1626 – 1712

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Richard Cromwell

 

Father – Oliver Cromwell
Mother – Elizabeth Bourchier
Spouse – Dorothy Maijor
Children – Elizabeth, Anne, Mary, Oliver, Dorothy, Anna, Dorothy, Edith
Lord Protector of England and Scotland – 1658 – 1660
Predecessor – Interregnum – Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector
Successor – Charles II

 

1626 (4th October)
Richard Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth Bourchier at Huntingdon. He was the couple’s fourth child.
1628 (20th January)
Richard’s brother, Henry, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1628 (early)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell became Member of Parliament for Huntingdon.
1629 (2nd July)
Richard’s sister, Elizabeth, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1631 (during)
Richard and his family moved from Huntingdon to St Ives.
1632 (around)
Richard began his education. He attended Felsted School, Essex.
1632 (during)
Richard’s brother James, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth. He died in infancy.
1636 (during)
Richard and his family moved to Ely after his father inherited control of properties in Ely as well as the job of tithe collector for Ely Cathedral. The property and collection of tithes vastly increased his income.
1637 (early)
Richard’s sister, Mary, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1638 (during)
Richard’s sister, Frances, was born to Oliver and Elizabeth.
1639 (during)
Richard’s elder brother, Robert, died.
1640 (13th April)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell became Member of Parliament for Cambridge.
1642 (22nd August)
King Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham beginning a civil war between his supporters, known as Royalists, and Parliament.
1642 (August)
After the outbreak of civil war, Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell became a captain in the Parliamentarian army.
1644 (during)
Richard’s brother, Oliver died.
1644 (Spring)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell, was now Lieutenant General of the Earl of Manchester’s army.
1645 (6th January)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell, became second in command of the New Model Army.
1646 (during)
Richard and his family moved to London.
1646 (during)
Richard’s sister, Bridget, married Henry Ireton, a senior Parliamentarian officer.
1646 (during)
Richard’s sister, Elizabeth married John Claypole
1646 (5th May)
King Charles I surrendered to the Scots.
1646 (June)
The Royalists formally surrendered to Fairfax and Cromwell at Oxford. This ended the civil war.
1647 (early)
Richard became a member of Lincoln’s Inn, one of the four Inns of court to which barristers belong.
1648 (February)
Second Civil War
War broke out again when John Poyer, former parliamentary soldier and Governor of Pembroke Castle refused to hand over his command to Fairfax. Like many others, he was dissatisfied with the disorder and lack of stability over the last two years.
1649 (during)
Richard married Dorothy Maijor, daughter of a country gentleman. They made their home at Hursley, Hampshire.
1649 (20th January)
King Charles was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice specially set up for the trial. Many members of parliament secretly objected to the trial and stayed away.
1649 (26th January)
The court found Charles guilty of using his power for personal interest rather than the good of the country and sentenced him to death.
1649 (30th January)
King Charles I was beheaded in front of the Palace of Whitehall.
1650 (during)
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell.
1651 (during)
A daughter, Anne, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell.
1652 (during)
Richard’s daughter, Anne, died.
1653 (16th December)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell, was appointed Lord Protector of England for life. The title gave him full control over government and the judiciary.
1654 (during)
A daughter, Mary, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell. She died the same year
1654 (3rd September)
Parliament met for the first time since Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector. Richard was elected as MP for Huntingdon.
1655 (around)
Richard became a Justice of the Peace for Hampshire.
1656 (during)
A son, Oliver, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell.
1656 (17th September)
Parliament was recalled and Richard was elected as member for Cambridge University.
1657 (during)
A daughter, Dorothy, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell.
1657 (26th June)
Richard was present when his father was reinstalled as Lord Protector.
1657 (July)
Richard was appointed Chancellor of Oxford University.
1657 (December)
Richard was made a member of the Council of State (a forerunner of the Privy Council).
1658 (during)
Richard’s sister, Elizabeth, died.
1658 (during)
Richard’s daughter, Dorothy died.
1658 (3rd September)
Richard’s father, Oliver Cromwell died in the Palace of Whitehall from a fever.
1658 (3rd September)
Richard succeeded his father as Lord Protector.
1658 (29th November)
Richard called Parliament as his father had left the country with a debt of around £2 million.
1659 (during)
A daughter, Anna, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell.
1659 (6th April)
The military were unhappy that Richard Cromwell was Lord Protector since he had no military experience and had not played a part in removing the monarchy. They were further concerned that this new Parliament would cut the military in order to save money. They listed their grievances and also demanded higher taxation for funding in a petition that was presented to Cromwell.
1659 (8th April)
Parliament decided to take no action regarding the petition from the military.
1659 (18th April)
Parliament passed a resolution that stated that army officers were not allowed to hold meetings without the permission of the Lord Protector and Parliament.
1659 (20th April)
The military demanded that Cromwell dissolve parliament but he refused. Determined not to lose power the army posted troops outside St James’s Palace.
1659 (22nd April)
Richard gave in to the demands of the army and dissolved Parliament.
1659 (6th May)
Richard was removed from power by the army who reinstalled the Rump Parliament (the parliament that had tried King Charles I for treason).
1659 (May)
Richard refused an offer of military assistance from Louis XIV of France.
1659 (25th May)
Richard accepted an offer from the Rump Parliament of the payment of his debts plus a pension for life in return for his resignation.
1659 (July)
Richard and his family were told to leave the Palace of Whitehall.
1660 (during)
A daughter, Dorothy, was born to Richard and Dorothy Cromwell. A daughter, Edith was born the same year. They may have been twins.
1660 (29th May)
Following negotiations with Parliament, King Charles I’s son, Charles, returned to England as King Charles II.
1660 (July 1660)
Richard had not received any of the money promised to him from Parliament and with the Restoration of the monarchy it was unlikely to be paid. He therefore decided to leave England.This may have been to escape his creditors for he went alone and left his family behind. He went first to France then travelled around Europe. Nothing is known of him during this time.
1675 (5th January)
Richard’s wife, Dorothy, died.
1680 (around)
Richard returned to England where he stayed with Thomas Pengelly in Cheshunt.
1712 (12th July)
Richard died at Cheshunt.

 

 

Published Set 12, 2018 @ 11:50 am – Updated – Sep 20, 2018 @ 2:26 pm

 

Harvard Reference for this page::

Heather Y Wheeler. (2018). Richard Cromwell 1626 – 1712. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/richard-cromwell-1626-1712. Last accessed November 8th, 2018

 

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