1157 (8th September)
King Richard I was born the third son of Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
. The couple’s second son, William had died in 1156 but their first son, Henry, born in 1155 survived. Richard also had an elder sister, Matilda.
1158 (23rd September)
Richard’s brother, Geoffrey was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1162 (13th October)
Richard’s sister, Eleanor, was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine at Domfront Castle, Normandy.
Richard was taken on a visit to Normandy.
Richard’s sister, Joan was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine at Angers Castle, Anjou.
1166 (24th December)
Richard’s brother John
was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Richard was betrothed to Alys, daughter of Louis VII of France.
Richard was given control of Aquitaine. His father, Henry II had become ill and had decided to give his sons their inheritance so that they would be established in their lands before he died. Richard’s three brothers were also given land – Henry gained England and Normandy and Geoffrey gained Brittany. John who was four years old was not given any land.
Richard was formally given the title Duke of Aquitaine.
Richard had become a great military tactician and had control of his own army which he used to put down rebellions in the French provinces granted to him by his father.
In the Summer of 1173 Richard joined forces with his brothers and King Louis VII of France in rebellion against his father.
1174 (8th September)
Louis VII made peace with Henry II. Richard was excluded from the terms of the treaty which left him in a position of isolation.
1174 (23rd September)
Richard and his brothers made peace with their father Henry II.
Richard’s father, Henry II of England, had an affair with Richard’s betrothed, Alys of France.
Richard and his brothers rebelled against their father because they did not agree with his plans for their inheritance.
1183 (11th June)
Richard’s elder brother, Henry was killed in the fighting against their father. Richard was now heir to the English throne.
Richard broke his betrothal to Alys of France on the grounds that she had become his father’s mistress. He then became betrothed to Berengaria of Navarre
Richard allied himself with King Philip II of France against his father.
1189 (6th July)
King Henry II died and Richard became King Richard I of England.
1189 (20th July)
Richard became Duke of Normandy.
1189 (After July)
Richard was determined to go on crusade to Jerusalem and began using treasury money to finance this venture.
1189 (3rd September)
Richard was crowned King of England.
Richard sent his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, to escort his betrothed, Berengaria of Navarre, to Messina, Sicily where they would be married.
1190 (4th July)
Richard and Phillip II of France embarked on the Third Crusade to the Holy land.
Richard and Phillip II reached Sicily.
Berengaria and Eleanor of Aquitaine joined Richard in Messina, Sicily. However, when they arrived it was Lent and the marriage could not be celebrated.
Richard sent Berengaria, accompanied by his sister Joan, on a ship to the Holy Land. Unfortunately, the ship was caught in a storm and landed in Cyprus.
1191 (early May)
Richard and Phillip II conquered Cyprus and rescued Berengaria and Joan.
1191 (12th May)
Richard married Berengaria of Navarre in St George’s chapel, Limassol, Cyprus.
Richard and the Third Crusade reached Acre
1191 (11th July)
Acre fell to Richard.
Phillip had disagreed with Richard over spoils of war and abandoned the Crusade and returned to France.
Richard agreed terms with Saladin. The deal included an exchange of prisoners but Richard mistrusted Saladin and ordered the massacre of all Muslim prisoners.
1191 (7th September)
Battle of Arsuf
Richard defeated Saladin at this battle.
Richard took control of Jaffa.
Richard reached the outskirts of Jerusalem but by this point his army was depleted and in need of reinforcements and supplies.
Richard was unable to take Jerusalem and so he negotiated a three-year truce with Saladin that stipulated that Christians should be granted access to the Holy City at all times.
Having heard the news that his brother John, who had been left in control of England, was plotting to take the throne from him Richard decided to return home.
Richard was captured by Duke Leopold V of Austria and held to ransom.
The ransom of 150,000 marks was paid and Richard returned home to England.
Richard left England for Normandy to defend it from attacks by Phillip II.
Richard finally defeated Phillip II.
Richard went to Limoges to suppress a riot
1199 (26th March)
Richard was shot by a crossbowman While walking round the castle of Chalus. Although the bolt was removed it was not cleanly done and the wound quickly festered.
1199 (6th April)
Richard died. He was succeeded by his younger brother, John