Robert’s brother, Richard was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert’s sister, Cecilia, was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert’s sister, Adeliza, was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert’s brother, William
was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert’s sister, Constance was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert’s sister, Adela, was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders.
Robert was betrothed to Margaret, heir to Maine. He was created Count of Maine following the betrothal ceremony.
Robert’s betrothed, Margaret of Maine, died.
Robert’s sister, Agatha was born to William Duke of Normandy and Matilda of Flanders
1066 (18th June)
Robert’s sister, Cecilia entered the abbey of the Holy Trinity in Caen as a novice
Robert’s father, William of Normandy, assembled a fleet of ships to carry his army across the Channel to England to take the throne of England from Harold Godwinson
1066 (28th September)
William of Normandy, sailed for England. He left his wife, Matilda as regent of Normandy in his absence. Robert helped his mother with administrative tasks.
1066 (14th October)
Battle of Hastings
Robert’s father, William fought the English King Harold Godwinson and the Saxon army. Harold was killed during the battle which was a decisive victory for William.
1066 (25th December)
Having secured the south of England, Robert’s father was crowned King William I
of England in Westminster Abbey.
With much of England now secure, Robert’s mother Matilda went to England to join her husband. Robert was left in charge of Normandy.
1068 (11th May)
Matilda was crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey. She was the first Queen of England to be formally crowned.
Robert’s brother, Henry
, was born in Selby, Yorkshire. He was the first of William’s children to be born in England.
The county of Maine revolted against Robert’s leadership and invited Hugh, son of Azzo d’Este, to take his place as Count of Maine.
Robert’s brother, Richard, died while hunting in the New Forest.
Robert was livid when his younger brothers William and Henry
, emptied a chamber pot over his head and a fight broke out between the three young men. Robert was further angered when his father, William I, failed to take action against his brothers.
Robert and his supporters decided to take action against his father. He decided to mount a revolt to take Rouen from his father. The revolt failed and Robert was forced to flee to Gerberoi in Flanders to avoid arrest.
Robert’s forces invaded the Vexin which was held by his father. William raised his own force to deal with his rebellious son.
The conflict with his father dragged on. During a battle, Robert managed to knock his father off his horse. He recognised his father’s voice and avoided killing him.
Robert’s mother intervened and managed to get Robert and his father to settle their differences.
Robert was sent on a campaign against the Scots. He succeeded in raiding as far north as Lothian and built a castle at Newcastle on his return to England.
1083 (2nd November)
Robert’s mother, Matilda of Flanders, died.
Following the death of his mother, Robert embarked on a period of travelling around Europe. In Italy he tried to win the hand of Matilda of Tuscany but failed..
1087 (9th September)
Robert’s father, William I, died in Normandy from an injury he received in July 1087. Robert inherited Normandy, his brother William
inherited the English throne as King William II and his brother Henry inherited a sum of money.
Robert, as the eldest son, felt that he should be King of England and planned an invasion to take the crown from his brother, William. He asked his younger brother, Henry, to loan him some money to finance the venture. Henry initially refused but then came to an arrangement whereby Henry purchased lands in the Cotentin for a sum of money. Henry was given the title Count of Cotentin.
Robert’s uncle, Odo of Bayeux
, led a rebellion of a large number of barons against William II. Like Robert, they believed that William’s eldest son should have inherited both England and Normandy. The rebels made their base at Pevensey Castle
but William II successfully lay siege to the castle and the rebellion was put down. Odo was banished to Normandy.
Robert seized his brother Henry when he returned to Normandy. Robert’s uncle, Odo of Bayeux, had convinced Robert that Henry was conspiring against him. Robert confiscated Henry’s title and lands in Cotentin.
Relations between Robert and William II of England continued to be strained.
1091 (2nd February)
William II invaded Normandy at the head of a large army. Robert and William agreed a treaty of mutual assistance which excluded their younger brother Henry from the succession.
Robert and William lay siege to their brother, Henry’s forces at Mont St Michel. Henry fled to France.
of Scotland invaded England in support of Robert’s claim to be the rightful King of England.
Treaty of Caen
This treaty secured a peace between Robert and his brother William II. They agreed they would be each others’ heirs.
1094 (19th March)
William II of England invaded Normandy but was defeated by Robert’s forces.
1095 (27th November)
Pope Urban II called a First Crusade “to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquests of the Levant.” Robert decided to join the Crusade. To raise money for the venture he leased his lands to his brother William II.
Robert married Sybilla de Conversana, daughter of Geoffrey of Brindisi.
1100 (2nd August)
King William II was killed by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest. However, as Robert was still returning from the Crusade he was unaware of the death. Robert’s younger brother, Henry, knew Robert was away and had taken the throne of England as King Henry I.
Robert arrived back in Normandy and learned that his brother had seized the English throne. He believed that the throne should have been his and planned an invasion.
1101 (20th July)
Robert landed at Portsmouth to lay claim to the English throne. Many influential barons led by Robert of Belleme flocked to his side, believing him to be the true King of England. However, the former court of William II, led by Robert of Meulan and the English church remained loyal to Henry. Conflict was avoided when both sides agreed to negotiate.
Treaty of Alton
After extensive negotiations, a peace treaty was signed that agreed that Henry should keep England but pay Robert a pension of 2,000 marks per year.
1102 (25th October)
A son, William Clito, was born to Robert Curthose and his wife Sybilla of Conversano.
1103 (18th March)
Robert’s wife, Sybilla died at Rouen. She was buried in Rouen Catheral.
Robert Fitzhamon, working for Henry I, entered Normandy. Robert ordered his capture and imprisonment at Bayeux. Henry I then invaded Normandy in protest at Fitzhamon’s imprisonment and placed Bayeux under siege. Bayeux was burned after refusing to surrender. Having seen the fate of Bayeux the town of Caen surrendered to Henry. A new peace treaty between Henry and Robert Curthose failed and sporadic fighting dragged on throughout the year.
1106 (28th September)
Battle of Tinchebrai
This decisive battle between Robert and Henry saw Robert’s smaller army defeated. Robert was captured and sentenced to indefinite imprisonment.
Robert was imprisoned in Devises Castle.
Robert’s young son, William Clito was put forward as rightful Duke of Normandy. His claim was backed by Louis VI of France and Count Fulk V of Anjou. Henry was forced to return to Normandy where he successfully defended his claim to be Duke of Normandy.
Henry attempted to capture Robert’s son, William Clito but the young Duke’s protectors learned of the scheme and moved him to Flanders.
Robert was moved from Devises Castle to Cardiff Castle.
1134 (3rd February)
Robert died in Cardiff Castle. He was buried in the church of St Peter in Gloucester.