The Holocaust 1933 – 1946

The HolocaustThis timeline details the main events of the Holocaust that happened between 1933 and 1946 in German occupied European countries.

1933 (30th January )
Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, was elected Chancellor of Germany.
1933 (22nd March)
The first concentration camp was opened at Dachau in Germany.
1933 (24th March)
The Enabling Act was passed. The terms of this act allowed Hitler to become dictator of Germany.
1933 (1st April)
German people were told not to buy from Jewish shops or businesses.
1933 (11th April)
The Nazis announced that anyone who had non-Aryan parents or grandparents was also determined to be non-Aryan.
1933 (26th April)
The Nazi secret police, the Gestapo, was created by Hermann Goring. 
1933 (10th May)
Books that did not support the Nazi ideals were publicly burnt.
1933 (14th July)
A law was passed that imposed forced sterilisation on people with genetic defects.
1933 (14th July)
The Nazi Party was declared the only legal party in Germany.
1933 (29th September)
Jews were no longer allowed to own land.
1933 (24th November)
Homeless, alcoholic and unemployed people were sent to concentration camps.
1934 (4th April)
Heinrich Himmler was appointed assistant chief of the Gestapo.
1934 (17th May)
An order was issued which prohibited Jewish people from having health insurance.
1934 (30th June)
Night of the Long Knives
150 leaders of the SA (Stormtroopers) including Ernst Rohm were executed after it became clear that they wanted greater power.
1934 (22nd July
Jews were prevented from gaining legal qualifications.
1934 (2nd August)
President Paul Hindenburg died. Hitler decided that the post of President and Chancellor should be combined and he gave himself the title Fuhrer.
1935 (1st May)
The Nazi government banned the Jehovah’s Witness organisation.
1935 (21st May)
Jews were banned from serving in the armed forces.
1935 (15th September )
Nuremberg Laws
The Nuremberg Laws were introduced. These laws were designed to take away Jewish rights of citizenship and included orders that:
Jews were no longer allowed to be German citizens 
Jews were not allowed to marry non-Jews 
Jews were forbidden from having sexual relations with non-Jews
1936 (during)
Sachsenhausen concentration camp was opened.
1936 (March)
A special section of the Nazi security services, known as the SS, was created to guard concentration camps.
1937 (January)
Jews were banned from being teachers, accountants or dentists.
1937 (July)
Buchenwald concentration camp was opened
1937 (8th November)
The Nazi propaganda exhibition ‘The Eternal Jew’ opened in Munich. The exhibition showed images and text explaining typical features of Jews.
1938 (12th March)
Anschluss with Austria
Germany and Austria were joined uniting the German speaking people.
1938 (13th March)
After Anschluss, Jews in Austria were persecuted and victimised. The Mauthausen concentration camp was opened to deal with Austrian Jews.
1938 (26th April)
Jews were told they had to register the property they owned and also how much money they had.
1938 (8th July)
The Jewish synagogue in Munich was destroyed.
1938 (23rd July)
All Jews over the age of 15 years had to apply for an identity card.
1938 (25th July)
Jewish doctors were no longer allowed to practice medicine.
1938 (11th August)
The synagogue in Nuremberg was destroyed.
1938 (17th August)
The Nazi government passed a law stating that all Jewish men were to use the middle name Israel and Jewish women the middle name Sara.
1938 (5th October)
The passports of all Austrian and German Jews had to be stamped with a large red letter ‘J’.
1938 (10th October)
The Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia was annexed by Nazi Germany in accordance with the terms of the Munich Agreement.
1938 (28th October)
Polish Jews living in Germany were arrested and sent back to Poland. Poland refused them entry and they were stranded on the border.
1938 (7th November)
Herschel Grynszpan, the son of one of the Polish Jews expelled from Germany, killed Ernst vom Rath, German Ambassador to France.
1938 (9th November)
Kristallnacht
Prompted by the murder of Ernst Vom Rath, this was a night of extreme violence where approximately 100 Jews were murdered, 20,000 German and Austrian Jews arrested and sent to camps, hundreds of synagogues burned and the windows of Jewish shops all over Germany and Austria smashed.
1938 (12th November)
Jews were made to pay one billion marks for the damage caused by Kristallnacht.
1938 (15th November)
An order was issued that stated that Jewish children should not be allowed to attend non-Jewish German schools.
1939 (24th January)
Hermann Goring ordered the leader of the SS, Reinhard Heydrich, to expel the Jews faster.
1939 (after January)
The Einsatzgruppen, mobile death squads that rounded up and shot large numbers of Jewish people and others deemed undesirable in Nazi Germany, were created.
1939 (21st February)
Jews were forced to hand all gold and silver items to the state.
1939 (15th March)
Nazi troops invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia in contravention to the Munich Agreement.
1939 (May)
Ravensbruck concentration camp for women was opened.
1939 (4th July)
German Jews were no longer allowed to hold government jobs.
1939 (1st September)
A curfew was imposed for Jews in Germany – they were to be indoors by 8pm in the Summer and 9pm in the Winter.
1939 (1st September)
Nazi Germany invaded Poland using Blitzkrieg (lightning war) tactics. Although the Poles fought back they were quickly defeated and Poland was occupied.
1939 (3rd September)
Britain and France declared war on Nazi Germany marking the beginning of World War Two.
1939 (21st September)
The SS Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) were instructed to move Jews in Poland to ghettos.
1939 (23rd September)
German Jews were no longer allowed to own wireless sets.
1939 (12th October)
Jews living in Austria and Czechoslovakia were sent to Poland.
1939 (26th October)
Polish Jews aged between 14 and 60 were to be put to forced labour.
1939 (23rd November)
Jews in Poland were forced to sew a yellow star onto their clothes so that they could be easily identified.
1940 (early)
Jews in German occupied countries were persecuted by the Nazis and many were sent to concentration camps.
1940 (25th January)
Work began on a new concentration camp at Auschwitz near Krakow in Poland.
1940 (9th April)
Denmark and Norway were invaded and occupied by the Nazis.
1940 (30th April)
The Lodz Ghetto in Poland was sealed with around 230,000 Jews inside.
1940 (1st May)
Rudolf Höss was appointed Kommandant of the new camp at Auschwitz.
1940 (10th May)
Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France were invaded and occupied by the Nazis.
1940 (20th May)
Auschwitz concentration camp opened.
1940 (November)
The Krakow Ghetto was sealed with around 70,000 Jews inside.
1940 (15th November)
The Warsaw Ghetto was sealed off. There were around 400,000 Jewish people inside.
1941 (January)
Around 2,000 Jews in Romania were killed.
1941 (1st March)
Plans were made to expand Auschwitz by building a new compound at Birkenau, to enable it to hold 100,000 people at a time.
1941 (14th May)
3,600 Jews were arrested in Paris.
1941 (22nd June)
Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
1941 (July)
The Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) began rounding up and murdering Jews in Russia. 33,000 Jews were murdered in two days at Babi Yar near Kiev.
1941 (July)
Jewish ghettos were set up in Russian areas held by the Nazis.
1941 (21st July)
Majdanek concentration was opened in Poland.
1941 (25th and 26th July)
3,800 Jews were killed in Lithuania.
1941 (31st July)
Final Solution
Reinhard Heydrich was chosen to implement a ‘Final Solution’ – a genocide against Jewish people.
1941 (1st September)
German Jews were ordered to sew yellow stars onto their clothing.
1941 (3rd September)
Zyklon B gas was used at Auschwitz for the first time.
1941 (29th and 30th September)
23,000 Jews were killed at Babi Yar in Ukraine.
1941 (23rd October)
Jews were forbidden to leave Germany.
1941 (24th November)
Theresienstadt ghetto was established in Czechoslovakia.
1941 (8th December)
The first ‘Death Camp’ was opened at Chelmno.
1942 (January)
Mass-gassing of Jews began at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
1942 (20th January)
Wannsee Conference
Nazi delegates agreed to implement a ‘Final Solution’ which would see the eradication of Jews in Europe.
1942 (17th March)
Polish Jews from Lublin were sent to Belzec extermination camp.
1942 (24th March)
Slovak Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1942 (27th March)
French Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1942 (20th April)
German Jews were no longer allowed to use public transport.
1942 (May)
Sobibor extermination camp opened in Poland.
1942 (27th May)
Reinhard Heydrich was assasinated by the Czech resistance.
1942 (1st June)
Jews in German occupied countries were told to wear yellow stars.
1942 (10th June)
The Czech village of Lidice was razed to the ground and all men killed in retaliation for the assassination of Heydrich.
1942 (2nd July)
Berlin Jews were sent to Theresienstadt.
1942 (14th July
Dutch Jews from the Westerbork camp were sent to Auschwitz.
1942 (22nd July)
Belgian Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1942 (23rd July)
A new extermination camp was opened at Treblinka in Poland. The Germans began deporting Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the camp.
1942 (5th October)
An order was issued for all Jews in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.
1942 (25th October)
Norwegian Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1942 (December)
The camp at Belzec was destroyed.
1943 (29th January )
An order was issued for gypsies to be sent to concentration camps.
1943 (February)
Jews in Greece were put into ghettos.
1943 (March)
The Greek Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
1943 (14th March)
The Krakow ghetto was liquidated and inhabitants were sent to the Plaszow camp if they were fit to work or to Auschwitz.
1943 (19th April – 16th May)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
An order was issued to empty the Warsaw Ghetto and deport the inmates to Treblinka. Following the deportation of some Warsaw Jews, news leaked back to those remaining in the Ghetto of mass killings.
A group of about 750 mainly young people decided that they had nothing to lose by resisting deportation. Using weapons smuggled into the Ghetto they fired on German troops who tried to round up inmates for deportation.
They held out for nearly a month before they were taken by the Nazis and shot or sent to death camps.
1943 (11th June)
Himmler ordered that all ghettos in Poland should be liquidated.
1943 (25th June)
A fourth gas chamber was opened at Auschwitz.
1943 (August)
With the Russians advancing from the East, the Germans were keen to destroy evidence of the death camps. Treblinka ceased operation.
1943 (11th September)
Jews were sent from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz.
1943 (14th October)
A large number of Jews escaped from Sobibor camp. The Germans made the decision to close the camp and destroy evidence of its existence.
1944 (April)
Two Jews, Alfred Wetzler and Rudolf Vrba, escaped from Auschwitz and reached Czechoslovakia where they reported what was happening at Auschwitz.
1944 (14th April)
Jews from Athens were transported to Auschwitz.
1944 (14th May – 8th July)
440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to Auschwitz.
1944 (24th July)
Russian troops liberated Majdanek.
1944 (4th August)
The Anne Frank and her family were discovered hiding in Amsterdam. They were sent to Auschwitz.
1944 (6th August)
The Lodz ghetto in Poland was liquidated. Inhabitants were sent to Auschwitz.
1944 (30th October)
The gas chambers at Auschwitz were used for the last time.
1944 (8th November)
25,000 Hungarian Jews were force marched to Austria.
1944 (late)
Oskar Schindler saved 1200 Jews from Plaszow labour camp in Poland.
1945 (18th January)
66,000 Jews were taken from Auschwitz and force-marched to camps in central Germany.
1945 (27th January)
Russian troops liberated Auschwitz.
1945 (10th April)
Allied troops liberated Buchenwald.
1945 (15th April)
British troops liberated Bergen Belsen.
1945 (29th April)
US troops liberated Dachau.
1945 (30th April)
Hitler committed suicide in Berlin.
1945 (7th May)
Germany surrendered and the war in Europe was over.
1945 (20th November)
Nuremberg War Trial
Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial at Nuremberg.
1946 (16th April)
Rudolph Hoss was hanged at Auschwitz.

 

First published 2016; updated and re-published Jan 25 2021 @ 1:53 pm – Updated – Jul 25, 2021 @ 12:18 am

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2016 – 2021). The Holocaust 1933 – 1946. Available: http://www.totallytimelines.com/holocaust-1933-1946. Last accessed July 28th, 2021