22nd August 1485
defeated Richard III
at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was proclaimed King on the same day, beginning the dynasty of the Tudors.
30th October 1485
16th December 1485
18th January 1486
19th or 20th September 1486
A son, Arthur Tudor
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at St Swithun’s Priory.
25th November 1485
Elizabeth of York was crowned Queen of England.
16th June 1487
27th March 1489
Treaty of Medina el Campo
This treaty was an agreement between England and Spain that would be sealed with the marriage of Catherine of Aragon
, Princess of Spain, and Prince Arthur, heir to the Tudor crown. Henry hoped that this alliance with Spain would enhance the status of the Tudors.
28th November 1489
A daughter, Margaret Tudor
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Westminster Palace.
28th June 1491
A second son, Henry Tudor
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Greenwich Palace,London
5th March 1496
18th March 1496
A second daughter, Mary Tudor
, was born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Richmond Palace, London.
4th October 1497
The pretender to the throne, Perkin Warbeck
was captured and imprisoned. Warbeck had claimed to be Richard Duke of York
, son of King Edward IV, brother to Henry VII’s wife, Elizabeth of York.
An outbreak of plague
killed around 30,000 people.
23rd November 1499
The pretender Perkin Warbeck was executed at Tyburn.
14th November 1501
Prince Arthur married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain at St Paul’s Cathedral.
24th January 1502
Treaty of Perpetual Peace
This treaty between England and Scotland provided that each King would put an end to the border disputes and would not make war on each other or assist each other’s enemies. A Perpetual peace was to last for the lifetime of each king and their legitimate heirs and successors. The allies of each country were to be given the opportunity to be included in the treaty. The treaty would be sealed with the marriage of Princess Margaret
to King James IV
2nd April 1502
Prince Arthur, heir to the throne, died of an unknown illness at Ludlow Castle.
23rd June 1503
Prince Henry, now heir to the throne, was betrothed to his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon.
8th August 1503
Henry VII’s daughter, Margaret Tudor, married King James IV of Scotland at Holyrood Abbey.
27th June 1505
Henry VII made his son, Prince Henry, publicly repudiate his betrothal to Catherine of Aragon. Henry wanted his son free to enable him to make alternative marriage negotiations that would be more beneficial for England and the Tudors.
There was an outbreak of sweating sickness in England.
1508 or 1509
21st April 1509
Henry VII died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. He was succeeded by his son, Henry who took the throne as King Henry VIII
11th June 1509
Henry VIII married his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon at the Church of Observant Friars.
24th June 1509
King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were crowned King and Queen of England.
1st January 1511
A son, Henry, was born to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon at Richmond Palace.
22nd February 1511
Henry VIII’s son, Henry died.
11th April 1512
A son, James
, was born to Margaret Tudor and James IV of Scotland.
30th June 1513
Henry VIII invaded France at the head of his army.
9th September 1513
Battle of Flodden Field
The English defeated the Scots army that had invaded England. King James IV of Scotland was killed.
21st September 1513
9th October 1514
1515 (1st January)
King Louis of France died leaving Henry’s sister, Mary, a widow.
1515 (3rd March)
Mary Tudor secretly married Charles Brandon
at the chapel in the Palais de Cluny, Paris. The new King of France, Francis I, witnessed the marriage.
1515 (early May)
Although he was furious that Mary and Brandon had married without permission, Henry VIII agreed that they could return to England providing that they repay the cost of Mary’s marriage to the French King.
22nd September 1515
24th December 1515
18th February 1516
A daughter, Mary
, was born to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon at Greenwich Palace.
1517 (31st October)
In Germany, Martin Luther
sent a letter to Archbishop Albert of Mainz, requesting that the sale of indulgences stop. He included a copy of his work ‘Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences’ also known as the ’95 Theses’. The story is traditionally told that Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg but this is now disputed as being symbolic rather than an actual act. Nevertheless, this marks the beginning of the Reformation.
The Treaty of London
This treaty of mutual support was signed by representatives of Burgundy, France, England, the Netherlands, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and the Papal States. The treaty agreed that if any one country was attacked the others would come to their aid.
15th June 1519
8th – 26th June 1520
15th August 1521
The Treaty of Bruges
This treaty was signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Henry VIII. The secret treaty agreed a joint invasion of France within the next two years.
11th October 1521
Henry VIII was given the title Defender of the Faith by the Pope after he wrote the book Fidei Defensor which denounced Protestantism.
Anne Boleyn joined the court of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
18th June 1525
Henry’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, was created Duke of Richmond.
Henry VIII began to pursue Anne Boleyn as a love interest.
The Treaty of Westminster
This treaty united France and England against the Holy Roman Empire and was signed by Henry VIII and Francis I of France..
Henry began to have serious doubts about the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon sparking what became known as the Divorce Crisis.
17th and 31st May 1527
An ecclesiastical court was convened at Westminster to hear Henry VIII’s concerns regarding his marriage and to consider whether it should be annulled. The court concluded that they were not qualified to judge the case and that it should be referred to Rome.
22nd June 1527
Henry VIII separated from Catherine of Aragon.
Henry VIII wrote to the Pope requesting an annulment of his marriage. The Pope sent Cardinal Campeggio
to hear the case.
An outbreak of sweating sickness killed 100,000 people across Europe.
31st May 1529
Cardinal Campeggio opened his legatine court at Black Friars in London.
21st June 1529
Henry and Catherine of Aragon appeared before Campeggio’s legatine court.
17th October 1529
Henry VIII removed Cardinal Wolsey from the post of Chancellor due to his failure to secure his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
26th October 1529
reluctantly accepted the post of Lord Chancellor of England.
29th November 1530
Thomas Wolsey died en route to London to be tried for treason.
Members of the King’s council unsuccessfully tried to persuade Catherine of Aragon to enter a convent. This was desired since it would leave Henry free to re-marry and have a son and heir to continue the Tudors.
14th July 1531
Henry sent Catherine of Aragon away from court. He also refused her permission to see her daughter, Mary.
1532 (18th March)
Supplication Against Ordinaries
This was a list of grievances against the Church and included questions regarding the right of the Church to make its own laws and the legality of ecclesiastical courts. Henry VIII was proclaimed Head of the Church in England.
15th May 1532
and Bishop Fisher
refused to sign the Submission of the Clergy which made Henry head of the Church in England.
16th May 1532
Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England.
15th November 1532
Pope Clement VII told Henry VIII that unless he returned to his lawful wife he would be excommunicated.
25th January 1533
Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn in the private chapel in Whitehall Palace.
30th March 1533
1st June 1533
Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England.
25th June 1533
Henry VIII’s sister, Mary Tudor
, died at Westhorpe, Suffolk.
11th July 1533
Pope Clement VII excommunicated Henry and his council.
7th September 1533
25th November 1533
The Act of Annates was passed. The act determined that bishops in England would be chosen by the King.
23rd March 1534
The Act of Succession settled the succession on the children of Henry and Anne Boleyn. There was also a requirement for all of the king’s subjects to swear an oath to uphold the act.
17th April 1534
Thomas More was imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing to swear the Oath of Succession.
Anne Boleyn was delivered of a stillborn baby.
3rd November 1534
The Act of Supremacy declared that Henry VIII was Head of the Church in England. The reigning monarch has held the title ever since.
22nd June 1535
Bishop John Fisher was beheaded on Tower Hill for refusing to sign the Act of Succession and accept Henry VIII as Supreme Head of the Church in England.
Anne Boleyn suffered a miscarriage.
6th July 1535
Sir Thomas More was executed by beheading for refusing to sign the Act of Succession and accept Henry VIII as the Supreme Head of the Church in England.
Henry VIII began pursuing Jane Seymour as a love interest.
An Act of Union joined England and Wales and made Henry VIII King of both.
7th January 1536
Catherine of Aragon died.
24th January 1536
King Henry VIII suffered a fall during a joust that left him unconscious for two hours.
2nd May 1536
19th May 1536
Anne Boleyn was executed by beheading for treason on Tower Green.
30th May 1536
Henry VIII married Jane Seymour at Whitehall Palace, London.
This new act settled the succession of the Tudors on the children of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. Like her half-sister, Mary, Princess Elizabeth was now declared illegitimate and given the title Lady Elizabeth.
8th June 1536
Dissolution of the monasteries began. Over the course of three years more than 500 monasteries were closed.
22nd July 1536
Henry’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, died of tuberculosis.
13th October 1536
The Pilgrimage of Grace
began. It was a rebellion against the English Reformation and the closure of the monasteries led by Robert Aske.
12th October 1537
A son, Edward
, was born to Henry VIII and Jane Seymour at Hampton Court Palace. Henry was overjoyed that he had a son to continue the dynasty of the Tudors.
24th October 1537
Jane Seymour died from puerperal fever.
16th May 1539
Statute of Six Articles
This statute was forced through a reluctant parliament and listed six cardinal doctrines of Catholic belief which Henry wished to preserve in the English church:
1. Transubstantiation was not to be denied
2. There was to be communion of one kind for the laity
3. Members of the clergy were to remain celibate
4. Religious vows were to be permanent
5. Private masses were to be made available
6. Auricular confession was to be used
Those refusing to comply with the new doctrine would face loss of property and liberty for a first offence and death for a second.
The passing of the Six Articles was a triumph for the Conservative faction and a blow for those who had hoped to see more radical church reform.
4th October 1539
6th January 1540
Despite the fact that he did not like his bride, Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves at Greenwich Palace.
Henry VIII began pursuing Kathryn Howard as a love interest.
10th June 1540
9th July 1540
The marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves was annulled. As a gift for agreeing to the annulment of the marriage, Anne was given Hever Castle, the childhood home of Anne Boleyn, a pension for life and was made an honorary sister to the King.
28th July 1540
Henry VIII married Kathryn Howard at Oatlands Palace.
27th August 1541
Kathryn Howard appointed her former lover Francis Dereham
as her private secretary.
18th October 1541
Henry VIII’s sister Margaret
died in Scotland.
12th November 1541
Kathryn Howard was arrested and charged with treason for committing adultery.
The Crown of Ireland Act declared that Henry and descendant kings of England would also be King of Ireland .
13th February 1542
Kathryn Howard was executed by beheading for treason.
24th November 1542
Battle of Solway Moss
This battle between the English and the Scots was a resounding victory for the English army.
8th December 1542
14th December 1542
James V of Scotland died. His infant daughter, Mary
became Queen of Scotland.
12th July 1543
Henry VIII married Katherine Parr at Hampton Court Palace.
9th September 1543
James V’s daughter Mary, aged 9 months, was crowned Queen of Scots.
7th February 1544
A new Succession Act settled the succession on the children of Henry VIII – Edward, Mary and Elizabeth.
Thomas Wriothesley became Lord Chancellor.
Henry VIII led an army into France.
14th September 1544
Henry VIII took Boulogne for England.
19th July 1545
Henry VIII’s Tudor warship the Mary Rose sank in the Solent.
24th April 1546
Henry VIII established the English navy.
28th January 1547
1547 (4th February)
gained approval of the majority of the council for him to have the title “Protector of all the realms and dominions of the King’s Majesty”.
4th May 1547
5th September 1548
Katherine Parr died 6 days after giving birth to a daughter, Mary Seymour.
15th January 1549
The Act of Uniformity introduced the Protestant Book of Common Prayer. All other prayer books were forbidden as was the Catholic mass.
16th January 1549
Thomas Seymour was arrested and charged with treason for plotting to marry Lady Elizabeth and to abduct King Edward.
1549 (20th March)
Thomas Seymour was executed by beheading.
There were protests in the West of England against the Book of Common Prayer and the very pro Protestant policy of the King.
1550 (2nd February)
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick
became leader of the Council. His most pressing concern was the economic situation of the country. England was virtually bankrupt, having borrowed large sums of money.
Edward VI contracted smallpox. The illness left him physically weak.
21st June 1553
Devise for the Succession
Edward VI nominated Lady Jane Grey
, granddaughter of Henry VIII’s sister Mary, to be his successor. This move was to continue the Protestant reformation of the Tudors, rather than allow Catholic Mary to become queen.
10th July 1553
Edward VI died. As directed by Edward, Lady Jane Grey became Queen. She reigned for nine days, the shortest reign of the Tudors and all Kings and Queens to date.
19th July 1553
Henry VIII’s daughter Mary became Queen Mary I of England, Wales and Ireland. She vowed to restore Catholicism to Britain. Jane Grey was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
23rd August 1553
Bishop Stephen Gardiner was released from imprisonment and was created Lord Chancellor of England
1st October 1553
Mary, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was crowned Queen Mary I
12th January 1554
Lady Jane Grey was executed by beheading on Tower Green, London.
Thomas Wyatt led a rebellion against Mary I and her pro-Catholic policies.
18th March 1554
Princess Elizabeth was arrested and taken to the Tower of London. Mary was worried that Protestant factions would try to put Elizabeth on the throne in her stead.
19th May 1554
Princess Elizabeth was moved from the Tower of London and placed under house arrest at Woodstock.
25th July 1554
The Second Act of Repeal made null and void all religious laws passed since 1529.
4th February 1555
The public burning of Protestants began. John Rogers was the first of 284 people, including Bishops Ridley, Latimer and Gardiner as well as Thomas Cranmer, to be burned at the stake.
Catholic Cardinal Reginald Pole was made Archbishop of Canterbury.
7th June 1557
England declared war on France.
17th July 1557
Anne of Cleves died at Chelsea Old Palace, London.
7th January 1558
The French took Calais which had been in English hands for two centuries.
24th April 1558
Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin of France, Francis, at Notre Dame Cathedral.
17th November 1558
Mary I died, disappointed that she had not had a child to keep the reign of the Tudors Catholic. She was succeeded by her sister, Elizabeth, who became Queen Elizabeth I of England, Ireland and Wales.
15th January 1559
Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth I at Westminster Abbey.
8th May 1559
The Act of Uniformity made Protestantism the official faith of England. The Act of Supremacy made Elizabeth Supreme Head of the Church in England.
5th December 1560
Mary Queen of Scots’ husband, Francis II of France, died.
John Hawkins began English involvement in the slave trade.
26th April 1564
29th July 1565
19th June 1566
A son, James, was born to Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley at Edinburgh Castle.
19th June 1567
Mary Queen of Scots was implicated in the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley.
24th July 1567
Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate the throne in favour of her infant son who became James VI of Scotland.
Mary Queen of Scots fled to England and sought the protection of Elizabeth I.
A number of northern Catholic nobles mounted a rebellion against the rule of Elizabeth I. They wanted to replace her with Mary Queen of Scots.
27th April 1570
Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I.
Francis Drake returned to England having circumnavigated the World.
4th April 1581
Francis Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.
4th June 1584
Sir Walter Raleigh established a colony on Roanoke Island which he named Virginia after the Virgin Queen Elizabeth.
The Babington Plot was uncovered. Anthony Babington had sent secret coded letters to Mary Queen of Scots organising her escape from imprisonment and her overthrow of Elizabeth as Queen.
8th February 1587
Mary Queen of Scots was executed at Fotheringhay Castle.
The Spanish Armada
that invaded English waters was defeated by the English navy.
6th April 1590
Elizabeth’s councillor, Francis Walsingham, died.
22nd December 1590
James VI of Scotland married Anne of Denmark.
William Shakespeare wrote his first play, Henry VI part 1.
4th August 1598
Elizabeth’s councillor, Sir William Cecil, died.
31st December 1600
The East India Company was founded.
17th December 1601
The Poor Law was introduced. This law distinguished between deserving and undeserving poor.
24th March 1603
Elizabeth I died. The reign of the Tudors ended as the next in line to the throne was James Stuart, King of Scotland
. James became King James I of England, Ireland and Wales and James VI of Scotland. He declared himself King of Great Britain.