Wars, 11th – 14th Century

wars 11th - 14th centuriesThis timeline details all main wars, 11th – 14th Centuries

780 to 1180
Byzantine-Arab Wars
Fought between: Byzantine Empire against Arabs
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Crete, Egypt, Levant (Syria), North Africa, Sicily, Southern Italy
Result: The Arabs made land gains
September 1066 to 1072
Fought between: Normans, Bretons, Flemings against Anglo Saxons
Location: England
Result: Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson was killed at the Battle of Hastings, William of Normandy took the country and was crowned King on 25th December 1066.
15th August 1096 to August 1099
First Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims against
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Levant (Syria)
Result: Victory for the Crusaders which included the capture of Jerusalem.
March 1147 to April 1149
Second Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims against
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Iberia (Spain), Levant (Syria)
Result: Moors expelled from Lisbon, Iberia captured by the Crusaders, Crusaders defeated in Anatolia and the Levant.
Autumn 1180 to April 1185
Gempei War
Fought between: Minamoto Clan against Taira Clan
Location: Japan
Result: Minamoto Clan victory, Kamakura Shogunate established.
May 1189 to 9th October 1192
Third Crusade/Kings’ Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between Muslims led by Saladin against Christians led by Frederick I, Richard I, Philip II
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Levant (Syria)
Result: Treaty of Jaffa – a negotiated peace treaty which allowed both Christians and Muslims access to Jerusalem.
1207 to 1279
Mongol Conquest of China (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Western Xia, Jin dynasty, Song dynasty
Location: China, Mongolia
Result: Decisive Mongol victory, establishment of the Yuan dynasty.
October 1202 to 13th April 1204
Fourth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), The Balkans
Result: Partition of the Byzantine Empire into the Latin Empire and the Nicene Empire
June 1215 to 11th September 1217
First Barons’ War
Fought between: English Barons led by Robert Fitzwalter, supported by France and Scotland against King John of England
Location: England
Result: Royal victory and the removal of the French from England.
1216 to 1221
Mongol Conquest of Central Asia (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Khwarazmian dynasty
Location: Central Asia
Result: Mongol victory and conquest of the region
October 1217 to July 1221
Fifth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians against Muslims
Location: Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Muslim victory and eight-year truce agreed.
Autumn 1220 to 1264
Mongol Conquest of Georgia and Armenia (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Georgia, Khwarazmian dynasty
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan)
Result: Mongol victory and conquest of Georgia and Armenia.
Spring 1221 to 1320
Mongol Invasion of India (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Punjab, Sindh, Kerman, Kashmir, Delhi Sultanate, Khwarazmian dynasty
Location: India
Result: Mongols gained some territory in India.
1228 to 17th March 1229
Sixth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Christians led by Frederick II against Muslims
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Crusader victory – Christians gained control of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Jaffa and Sidon
1231 to 1257
Mongol Invasion of Korea (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Korea
Location Korean Peninsula
Result: Mongol victory, Goryeo became a vassal of the Yuan dynasty.
1236 to 1242
Mongol Invasion of Europe (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan against Russia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Polish States
Location: Eastern Europe
parts of Eastern Europe became vassal states of the Mongols
Summer 1248 to March 1254
Seventh Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians led by King Louis IX of France
Location: Egypt
Result: Muslim victory
Spring 1264 to 16th September 1265
The Second Barons’ War
Fought between: English Barons led by Simon de Montfort against Henry III, King of England
Location: England
Result: Barons had some early victories but were eventually defeated by the Crown forces.
July 1270 to 30th October 1270
Siege of Tunis/Eighth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians led by King Louis IX of France
Location: Ifriqiya (Tunisia)
Result: Death of Louis IX, removal of Crusaders from Ifriqiya, opening of trade with Ifriqiya
May 1271 to December 1272
Prince Edward’s Crusade/Ninth Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians led by Prince Edward of England
Location: Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Levant (Syria)
Result: Neither side victorious, Muslims retained control of Jerusalem, ten-year truce agreed.
November 1274
First Mongol Invasion of Japan (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Kublai Khan against Japan
Location: Northern Kyūshū
Result: Japanese victory.
June 1281 to August 1281
Second Mongol Invasion of Japan (Part of the Mongol Conquests)
Fought between: Mongol Empire and Kublai Khan against Japan
Location: Nagato, Hakata Bay, Tsushima, Iki
Result: Japanese victory
4th April 1291 to 18th May 1291
Fall of Acre/Last Crusade (Part of The Crusades)
Fought between: Muslims against Christians
Location: Acre
Result: Muslims captured Acre, Crusaders driven out
March 1296 to 1st May 1328
First War of Scottish Independence
Fought between: Scotland against England
Location: Scotland, Ireland, Northern England
Result: Scotland maintained independence, English were victorious in Ireland
April 1333 to 3rd October 1357
Second War of Scottish Independence
Fought between: Scotland against England
Location: Scotland and England
Result: Scottish victory
10th November 1337 17th July 1453
Hundred Years’ War
Fought between: England and Burgundy against France and Scotland
Location: England, Flanders, France, Spain
Result: England lost all possessions in France apart from Calais.
1380s to 17th February 1405
Conquests of Timur (Tamerlane)
Fought between: Timur (Turk-Mongol Conqueror) against the remaining Mongol Empire states
Location: Afghanistan, Iran, North India, South Russia, Uzbekistan
Result: founding of the Timurid Empire

 

First published 2016; updated and re-published Dec 13 2021 @ 6:02 pm – Updated – Dec 13, 2021 @ 6:06 pm

Harvard Reference for this page:

Heather Y Wheeler. (2016 – 2021). Wars, 11th – 14th Century. Available: https://www.totallytimelines.com/wars-11th-14th-century. Last accessed January 15th, 2022